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Full text of "Chronicle of the Museum for the Arts of Decoration of the Cooper Union"

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CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 



INDEX 



VOL • 2 1949-1958 



Alciati, Andrea (1492-1550) 

Book Illustration. Illus. [164] 
Allen, James E. 

Etching, The Sky Man. Illus. [6] 
An Album of Chinnery Drawings. 

Edna B. Donnell [14] -22 
An Introduction to the Collection of Drawings. 

Calvin S. Hathaway. 95-122 
Architectural Decoration 
Illustrations 

See: Fiore, Salagnad 
Architectural Design 
Illustrations 

Academie d'Architecture, Paris, Collection 
cles Prix: Coenotaphe en I'honneiir des 
navigateurs. [172] 
Ideenmagazin fur Liebhaber von Garten 
. . .: Escarpolette . . . de style chinois. 
[174] 
See also: Buchman and Kahn, Giiimard, 
Redkovsky, Valadier, Warren 

B 

Bach, Richard F. 

Six Decades. 284-287 
Bakst, Leon (1868-1924) 

Design for costumes of Brigands. Illus. [120] 
Beardsley, Aubrey Vincent (1872-1898) 

Drawing, The Dancer with the Domino. 
Illus. [188] 
Beer, Alice Baldwin 

Why Textiles? 203-234 
Belanger, Fran(:ois- Joseph (1744-1818) 

Designs for wall light and andirons. Illus. 112 
Bloch, E. Maurice 

The Gift of Leo Wallerstein. 65-66 
Blumenau, Lili 

Some Japanese Textile-Printing Blocks. 9-13 
Bonnet and a Pair of Mitts from Ch'ang-sha, A. 
Jean E. Mailey and Calvin S. Hathaway. 
[314] -346 
Book Illustration 
Illustrations 

Belidor, Bernard Forest De, Architecture 
Hyclraulique: Machine a creuser les 
Ports. 169. 
Cook, James, A Voyage to the Pacific 
Ocean . . .: Young Woman of Otaheite, 
Dancing. [170] 
de Thurah, Den Danske Vitruvius: Prospect 

af Kongens Torv. [168] 
Illustrirte Zeitschrift: von der Weltausstel- 

lung in Philadelphia 1876. 178 
Knorr, George Wolfgang, Les Delices des 
Yeux . . . ou. Collection des Coquillages: 
11. Partie, Title-page. [172] 



Le Hay, Recueil . . . representant differ- 
entes Nations du. Levant: Tschinguis ou 
Danseuse Turque. [170] 
My Father. A Poem. 176 
See also: Alciati 
Boulle, Charles Andre (1642-1732) , attributed 
to 
Drawings of animals. Illus. [100] 
Buchman and Kahn, architects 

Perspective study for a skyscraper. Illus. [122] 
Burdell, Echvin S. 

The Wonder of Work. 5-7 
BuRNAciNi, Ludovico, (1636-1707) 
Stage design for // Porno d'Oro. 166 



Calligraphy 
Illustrations 

Page of a writing book, Netherlands, 1616 
[187] 
Ceraisiics 
Illustration 
See: Kandler 
China 

Outline Map. Illus. [313] 
Chinnery, George (1774-1852) 

An Albiuii of Chinnery Drau'ings. Edna B. 

Donnell. [14] -22 
Drawing, A Chinese Lady. Illus. [14] 
Sketches. Illus. [16] 
Chippendale, Thomas (1718-1779) 

Project for a library bookcase. Illus. 106 
Cooper Union, The 
Illustration 

Project for a "Museum of history, art and 
science." Proposed as top story of The 
Cooper Union, about 1854. [93] 
Cooper Union Museum 

Development of the Museum, 1937-1957. Cal- 
vin S. Hathaway. 299-304 
The Function of Museums in Improving 
Man's Environment. Arthur A. Houghton, 
Jr. 295-298 
The Museum and the Community. August 

Heckscher. 288-294 
Recent Additions to the Museum Collections. 

180-193 
Six Decades. Richard F. Bach. 284-287 
Cooper Union Museum Library 

A designer's library. Gerd Muehsam [164]- 
179 
Costume 
Illustration 
See: Bakst 
Costume Accessories 

A Bonnet and a Pair of Mitts from Ch'ang- 
sha. Jean E. Mailey and Calvin S. Hatha- 
way. [314] -346 



Ilhisliiilioiis 

Detail from bronze /;//. 322 

Men's silk caps, France or Itah, ISih cen- 
tury. 224 

Palm face of one of two mitts, China, prob- 
ably 3rd century B.C. [316] 

Right side and back of model of bonnet. 
323 

Satin sashes, France, end 18th centiny. 
[228] 

Silk bonnet, China, probably 3rd centiuy 
B.C. [314] 

D 

Dauber, Mrs. Kathryn 

Drawing of design of warp-patterned silk in 

portion of mitts. Illus. 328 
Dra\ving of design of ^varp-patterned silk in 

portion of mitts. Illus. 330 
Drawing of design of \\'arp-patterned silk of 

bonnet. Illus. [355] 
Drawing of map of China. Illus. [313] 
Dra^ving of diagram of weft treatment in 
warp-patterned palm silk of Cooper Union 
Museum mitts. Illus. [332] 
Decloux, Leon 

35, 46, n.7, 109-112, 121, n.3. 
Delafosse, Jean Charles (1734-1789) . 40 

Dra'iving, Fantastic masquerade. Illirs. Ill 
Designs for Printed Cottons in the Museinn's 

Collection. 269-273 
Designer's Library, A. 

Gerd Muehsam. [164f-179 
Development of the Museum, 1937-1957. 

Calvin S. Hathaway. 299-304 
Deveria, Achille (1800-1857) 

Dra^ving, The Proposal. Illus. 115 
DoNNELL, Edna B. 

An Album of Chinnery Dra^vings. [14] -22 
Donors of Equipment and Services. 

1946, 1947, 1948, 25; 1949, 57; 1950, 88; 1951, 
123-124; 1952, 154; 1953, 195; 1954, 236; 
1955, 275; 1956, 306; 1957, 348 
Donors to the Museum Library 

1946, 25-26; 1947, 26; 1948, 26-27; 1949, 57; 
1950,88; 1951,124; 1952,154; 1953, 195-196; 
1954, 236; 1955, 274-275; 1956, 307; 1957, 
348-349 
Donors of Works of Art 

1946, 1947, 23; 1948, 24; 1949, 56; 1950, 87; 
1951, 123; 1952, 153; 1953, 194-195; 1954, 
235; 1955, 273-274; 1956, 305; 1957, 347-348 
Dunn, Gano. 131 
Du Pont, Mrs. Henry B. 131 
DiJRER, Albrecht (1471-1528) 

Engraving, The Great Horse. Illus. [64] 
Woodcut, The Rhinoceros. Illus. [186] 



Embler, Weller and Kingman N. Grover 

Engineering Students in the Museum. 132-133 
Emery, Irene 

Reconstruction in string of double twining of 
bonnet ties. Illus. 325 
Engineering Students in the Museum 

\Veller Embler and Kingman N. Grover. 132- 
133 
Erskine, Miss Alice S. 

Design of warp-patterned silk in portion of 

mitts. Illus. 328 
Design of warp-patterned silk in portion of 

mitts. Illus. 330 
Design of ^varp-patterned silk of bonnet. Illus. 
[355] 
Etching, Engraving and Lithography 

The Wonder of Work. Edwin S. Burdell. 5-7 
Illustrations 

See: Allen, Drirer, Foster, Fraisse, Goya, 
Nolde, Pennell, Pillement, Schongauer, 
Stalker and Parker, Wood 



Fiore, Nicola (active 1775) 

Project for decoration, Palace of Caserta. 
Illus. 104 
Fontana, Francesco (1668-1708) 

Study, Moving the Column of Antoninus Pius. 
Illus. 103 
Foster, J. S. 5 

Etching, Hoover Dam Spilhvay. Illus. [4] 
Fraisse, Jean Antoine (active 1733-1740) 

Engraving, Oriental view. Illus. 73 
Friends of the Museum, The 

1946-1948, 27-30; 1949-1950, 57-59; 1950-1951, 
88-90; 1951-1952, 125-127; 1952-1953, 155- 
157; 1953-1954, 196-199; 1954-1955, 237-239; 
1955-1956,276-279; 1956-1957,308-310; 1957- 
1958,350-352 
Function of Museums in Improving Man's En- 
vironment, The 
Arthur A. Houghton, Jr. 295-2D8 
Furniture 
Illustrations 

Casket with decoration of mythological 
scenes. Northern Italy, late 15th century. 
[161] 
Journal fiir Mobelschreiner und Tapezirer: 

Bett-Sessel. Stehepult. 173 
See also: Chippendale 



Galle, Emile (1846-1904) 

Vase, cased glass, France, 1890-1900. Illus. 
[191] 



Gentili, Antonio (1531-1609) 

Sketch for the foot of a crucifix in St. Peter's, 
Rome. [97] 
GiANi, Felice (about 1760-1823) 

Project for a mural painting: The Chariot of 
Apollo. Illus. 114 
Gift of Leo Wallerstein, The 

E. Maurice Bloch. 65-66 
Glass 

Illustrations 

See: Galle, Hald 
GouTHiERE, Pierre (1740-1806) 41,45,47 

Gilt bronze frieze, about 1780, attributed to 

Gouthiere. Illus. 47 
Gilt bronze key plate, about 1780, attriljuted 
to Gouthiere. Illus. 46 
GozzoLi, Benozzo (1420-1497) 

Silverpoint drawing. Torso of marble statue. 
Illus. [96] 
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco Jose (1746-1828) 
Aquatint, Other Laws for the People. Illus. 
[187] 
Graphic Arts 

An Album of Chinnery Drawings. Edna B. 

Donnell. [14] -22 
An Introduction to the Collection of Draw- 
ings. Calvin S. Hathaway. 95-122 
Illustrations 

Design for decoration of porcelain tureen, 

Sevres, about 1775. [110] 
Drawing, Cabinetmaker's Shop; study for 
illustration to Diderot's Encyclopedie. 
Illus. 107 
Drawing for Cooper Union Museum Sketch 

Book. [18] 
Perspective rendering, crossing. Cathedral 
of St. John the Divine, New York. Illus. 
[122] 
Portrait of a man, Italy, about 1510. [93] 
Project for a buffet. [101] 
Sketch for an overdoor. 108 
Study of a greyhound, Italy, 1550-1600. 

Illus. 98 
The Nativity. Illus. 109 
See also: Beardsley, Boulle, Chinnery, Dela- 
fosse, Deveria, Fontana, Giani, Gozzoli, 
Guys, Homer, Jacovleff, Lajoue, Lalonde, 
Moran, Oudry, Peterson, Puget, Spadaro, 
Straet, van der. 
Grover, Kingman N. and Weller Embler 

Engineering Students in the Museum. 132- 
133 
Guimard, Hector (1867-1942) 

Design for a villa, France, about 1900. Illus. 

[188] 
Embroidered panel from wedding dress. Illus. 
[185] 



Front elevation, Le Castel d'Orgeval. Illus. 
119 
Guvs, Constantin (1805-1892) 

DraAving, At the Theatre. Illus. 116 

H 

Hald, Edward (1883- ) 

Vase, glass Avith encased decoration, Sweden, 
about 1950. Illus. [191] 
Hatha-\vay, Calvin S. 

An Introduction to the Collection of Draw- 
ings. 95-122 
Development of the Museum, 1937-1957. 299- 

304 
joint author. A Bonnet and a Pair of Mitts 
from Ch'ang-sha. [314] -346 
Havnes, Elizabeth, Death. 3 

Purchased in memory of. Panel from em- 
broidered altar frontal, Germany. 14th cen- 
tury. Illus. [1] 
Silk embroidered border, Spain, 15lh-16th 
century. Illus. [182] 
Heckscher, August 

The Museum and the Community. 288-294 
Homer, Winslow (1836-1910) 

Drawing, Mountain lake. Illus. [118] 
Houghton, Arthur A., Jr. 

The Function of Museums in Improving 
Man's Environment. 295-298 

I 

Indian Textiles in the Museum's Collection. 
Jean E. Mailey. [134] -151 



Jacovleff, Alexandre (1887-1938) 
Drawing, Lama. Illus. [189] 

K 

Kandler, Johann Joachim (1706-1775) 

Porcelain plate from the Swan Service, Meis- 
sen, 1737 1741. Illus. [190] 



Lace 

Illustrations 

Detail from border of an apron. Needle- 
point lace, "punto in aria", Italy, second 
half 16th century. 219 
Section of lace flounce, Point de France. 
France, late 17th century. [185] 
Lacquer 
Illustrations 

Lacquer box said to have been found at 
Ch'ang-sha. 318 



L\|()i K, JiRciucs de (16(S(>-1761) 

Drauiii;^, Illus. [128] 
Lalonde, Richard de (active, latter half 18th 
ccntiir\) Drawing, Ilhis. 42 

LlGHriNG 

llliislicitions 

One of a pair ot cjiiill-work wall sconces, 
Boston. al)out 1720. [190] 

M 

Mailkv, Jean E. 

Indian Textiles in the Mnseimi's Collection. 

134-151 
joint author. A Bonnet and a Pair of Mitts 
from Ch'ang-sha. [314] -346 

MeTALWORIv 

Selected bibliography of references [to gilt 

bronze fnrnitiire mounts] found in the 

Museinn Library and Print Collection. 55 

Short list of references [to tole] in the Cooper 

Union Museum Library. 86 
Some French and English Tole in the Cooper 

Union Museum. James I. Rambo. 67-85 
Some Gilt Bronze Furnitiue Mounts in the 
Cooper Lhiion Museinn. James J. Rambo. 
36-54 
Illustrations 

Blackened bronze applicjue, about 1815. 55 
Chaser's shop from ihe Recueil de Planches. 

43 
Detail, probably by Thomas Barker. [80] 
Door hard^vare from salon of Chateau 

d'Issy, about 1780. 5_0_ 
Dra^vings for key plates, by Richard de 

Lalonde. 42 
Gilder's shop from the Recueil de Planches. 

44 
Gilt bronze appliciue, possibly English, 

about 1810. 55 
Gilt Ijronze applique representing Train of 

Bacchus, about 1805. 53 
Gilt bronze door lock, about 1750. 51 
Gilt bronze door lock from the Chapelle, 

Chateau de \'ersailles, about 1710. 52 
Gilt Ijronze handle of locking laar. AboiU 

1780. 39 
Gilt bronze medallion, about 1785. 48 
Gilt bronze medallion intended for front of 

cabinet. About 1785. [33] 
Goldsmith's design for a candlestick. [100] 
Model for handle of locking bar. About 

1780. 38 
Mounts, probably by Thomire. 36 
One of a pair of tole chestnut jars, Eng- 
land, about 1800. [82] 
Pair of tole cache-pots, France, aboiU 1780. 

77 



Project for a siher centerpiece, Germany, 

about 1480. [97] 
Tole cdclu'-pot with gilt bronze mounts, 

France, about 1750. 78 
Tole coffee urn, England, about 1800. [80] 
Tole plate, England, about 1840 [82] 
Tole tray, England, about 1770. 74 
Tole tray, England, aboiU 1800. 68 
Tole tray, England, al:)out 1810. 69 
Tole tray, England, about 1860. 84 
Tole tray, France, about 1830. 85 
Tole vase, France, about 1815. [61 ] 
Tole xierriere, France, about 1765. 76 
Two trophies, designs by Jean Charles 

Delafosse. 41 
See also: Belanger, Gentili, Gouthiere 
MoRAN, Thomas (1837-1926) 

Drawing, Meadow Creek, Utah, Illus. [118] 
MuEHSAM, Gerd 

A Designer's Library. [164] -179 
Museum, and the Community, The. August 
Heckscher. 288-294 



N 

Needlework and Embroidery 
Illustrations 

Censing angel, Germany, 15th centurv. 216 
Detail from embroidered apron, England, 

first half 18th century. 220 
Detail of chainstitch-eml^roidered coverlet, 

India, for European market, 17th century. 

[184] 
Detail of eml^roidered Ijorder showing 

David before Said, Italy, late 16th-early 

I7th century. 181 
Detail of panel made up from embroidered 

bed-fittings, England, I7th century. [184] 
Embroidered valance, England, late 17th- 

early 18th century. 221 
Panel from embroidered altar frontal; Ger- 
many, 14th century. [1] 
Project for a brocaded or embroidered 

dress border, France, about 1790. [258] 
Project for left lajael of man's veste, France, 

about 1785. [246] 
Project for left lower corner of man's I'este, 

France, about 1785. 248 
Project for left lower corner of man's veste, 

France, about 1785. 249 
Project for left lower part of overskirt, 

France, about 1785. [250] 
Project for left louver part of overskirt, 

France, about 1785. [252] 
Project for left side of man's gilet, France, 

about 1785. [244] 
Section of coverlet, India, 18lh centurv. 149 



Section of embroidered cape, India, 17th 

century. [134] 
Silk embroidered border, Spain, Hispano- 
Moresque style, 15th-16th century. [182) 
Wreathed head; embroidery in colored 
^vool on linen, Egypt, 4th centiny [201] 
See also: Guimard 
NoLDE, Emil (1867-1956) 

Woodcut, The Singer. Illus. [189] 



O 

OuDRY, Jean Baptiste (1686-1755) 

Drawing, Still life of fish with jiarrot. Illus. 
105 



Parker, George and John Stalker 

Engraving, Plate 1 from A Treatise of Japan- 
ing and J'arnishing. Illus. [70] 
Pennell, Joseph (1860-1926) 

Lithograph, Guard Gate, Gatiui Lock. Illus. 

[6] 
Peterson, Frederick A. 

Drawing, jDroject for a "Museum of history, 
art and science". Illus. [93] 
PiLLEMENT, Jean (1728-1808) 

Engraving, Groui^ of flo^\'er and fruit sub- 
jects. Illus. 72 
Two engravings of Chinoiseries. Illus. [70] 
PuGET, Pierre (1622-1694) 

Project for the decoration of a royal barge. 
Illus. 102 
Purchases from Funds 

1954, 236; 1955, 274; 1956, 306; 1957, 348 
Purchases in Memoriam 

1946, 24; 1947, 24-25; 1948, 25; 1949, 56; 1950, 
87; 1951, 124; 1952, 154; 1953, 195; 1954, 
236; 1955, 274; 1956, 306; 1957, 348 

R 

Rambo, James I. 

Some French and English Tole in the Cooper 

Union Museum. 67-85 
Some Gilt Bronze Furniture Mounts in the 
Cooper Union Museum. 36-54 
Recent Additions to the Museum Collections. 

180-193 
Redkovsky, a. 

Salon interior, Russia, 1858. Illus. [186] 



Salagnad, Charles 

Project for the decoration of a staircase in 
Newport, R. I. Illus. 117 
Schongauer, Martin (1420-1491) 



Engraving, Christ Before Pilate. Illus. [64] 
Six Decades. Richard F. Bach. 284-287 
Some French and English Tole in the Cooper 

Union Museum. James L. Rambo. 67-85 
Some Gilt Bronze Furniture Mounts in the 

Cooper Union Museum. James I. Rambo. 

36-54 
Some Japanese Textile-Printing Blocks. Lili 

Blumenau. 9-13 
Some Observations on Textile Designs in the 

Cooper Union Museum. Richard Paul 

Wunder. 243-269 
Spadaro, Micco (1612-1679) 

Sheet from a drawing-book: Soldiers resting. 

Illus. [101] 
Straet, Jan van der (I523-I605) 

Drawing, Elephants attacked by the Troglo- 
dytes. Illus". 99 
Stage Design 
Illustration 

See: Burnacini 
Stalker^ John and George Parker 

Engraving, Plate I from A Treatise of Japan- 

ing and Varnishing. Illus. [70] 
Stradanus. See: Straet, van der 



Textile Arts 

A Bonnet and a Pair of Mitts from Ch'ang- 
sha. Jean E. Mailey and Calvin S. Hatha- 
way. [314] -346 
Designs for Printed Cottons in the Museum's 

Collection. 259-273 
Indian Textiles in the Museum's Collection. 

Jean E. Mailey. I34-I5I 
Later Indian textiles: selected references. 152 
Some Japanese Textile-Printing Blocks. Lili 

Blumenau. 9-13 
Some Observations on Textile Designs in the 
Cooper Union Museum. Richard Paul 
Wunder. 243-269 
Why Textiles? Alice Baldwin Beer. 203-234 
Illustrations 

Black cut and uncut velvet on satin, Spain, 

late I8th-early 19th century. 226 
Block for printing textiles; Japan, 19th 

century. [8] 
Blue linen printed in silver, Germany, 

12th-13th century. [208] 
Blue silk cut velvet, Persia, 16th century. 

[218] 
Bodice-front, India, I8th century. [144] 
Border fragment, Hispano-Moresque, 1 3th 

century. 207 
Brown cotton, Peru, 900-1400 A.D. 214 
Cartoon for a ^voven carpet, France, 1848. 



[262] 



Cartoon lor printed cotton, Lcs Fables de 

La Fontaine, France, about 1820. [270] 
Cock in eight-pointed star, Byzantine, 8th- 

9th century. [206] 
Cotton, l)lock -printed in colors, Chinoiserie 

design. France, 18th century. [223] 
Coverlet or hanging, India, Madras, second 

half 18th century. [140] 
Crane among clouds, China, Ming Dynasty, 

15th century. 213 
Crocus and Daffodils, Fngland, about 1890. 

230 
Curtain of painted and dyed cotton, India, 

17th century. [222] 
Dandelions, United States, 1951. 232 
Dark blue silk with design in gold and 

light lilue. Italy or Spain, 14th century. 

[212] 
Design of ^varp-patterned silk in portion of 

mitts. 328 
Design of ^varp-patterned silk in portion of 

mitts. 330 
Design of Avarp-patterned silk of bonnet. 

[355] 
Design for \voven ^vall-covering, France, 

about 1780. [241] 
Detail from a mantle, Peru, 16th-17th cen- 
tury. 215 
Detail of border of panel. 143 
Detail of coverlet or hanging, India, second 

half 18th century. [129] 
Diagram of ^veft treatment in Avarp-pat- 

terned palm silk of Cooper Union Mu- 
seum mitts. [332] - 
Face of printing block. [8] 
Reverse of printing block. [8] 
Fancy satin, Italy (?) , early 18th century. 

[222] 
Hunters and Hunted, Italy, Lucca, 14th 

century. [210] 
Miniatine painting, Abhisarika na)aka. 

[148] 
Mise-en-carte for a ^voven silk, France, 

third quarter 18th century. 225 
Mise-en-carte for brocaded silk, France, 

about 1780. [256] 
Page from a ■(veaver's "thesis", France, 

about 1860. 259 
Page from printer's sample book dated 

1829. [228] 
Page from sample-book showing painted 

and dved cottons, 17th-19th century. 

[146] 
Page from same sample-book shelving 

painted and dyed cottons, Japanese silks, 

17th-19th century. [146] 
Painted and dyed cotton with details in 

gold leaf, India, 18th century. [144] 



Panel of cut velvet on satin ground, late 
16th-early 17th century. [180] 

Panel, probably from inner tent wall, In- 
dia, Golconda, second half 17th centurv. 
[138] 

Details of panel. [138] 

Project for a brocaded silk, France, about 
1750. 254 

Project for motif in a printed or woven 
shawl, France, about 1850-1860. 267 

Project for pile carpet, France, about 1805- 
1810. 261 

Project for a woven shawl, Scotland, al^out 
1840. 264 

Project for woven silk furniture covering, 
France, about 1805. [260] 

Rampant lion, Sjaain, 16th-17th century. 
[212] 

Reconstruction in string of "double twin- 
ing" of bonnet ties. 325 

Resist-printed cotton, United States (?) , 
first half 18th century. [223] 

Reversible silk fabric, Italy, 14th century. 
[208] 

Sample made in Cooper Union Museum 
from ^vood-block. 12 

Section of coverlet, India, second half 18th 
century. [142] 

Sheer cotton decorated with colored en- 
amels, India, 18th century. [148] 

Silk twill depicting men gathering grapes. 
Probably Egypt, Antinoe, 5th century. 
[183] 

Silk vehet, Spain, 15th-early 16th century. 
[218] 

Tapestry bands, dark blue wool on linen, 
Egypt, 4th-5th century. 204 

"The Swimming S^s-an of Lucca", Italy, 
Lucca, 14th century. [210] 

Warp-patterned silk with birds and dra- 
gons, from Tun-Huang. 338 

Warp-patterned silk with cocks and zig- 
zag-lozenge fragments, from Noin-ula. 
336 

Watson, J. Forbes, Collection of Specimens 
of the Textile Manufactures of India: 
Kincob, from Benares. [174] 

Winged Monster, Byzantine, 7th-10th cen- 
tury. [206] 

Wood-block for textile printing. 10 

Printing block on cloth, reverse. 10 

See also: Costume Accessories, Illustrations 
Thoimire, Pierre Philippe (1751-1843) . 41 



\'ALADiER, Giuseppe (1762-1839) 
Project for a cafe. Illus. 113 



\v 

Wallerstf.in, Leo 

The Gilt oC. E. Maurice Bloch, 65-66 

WALLI'AI'FR 

III list rutions 

\Vallpaper from Schloss AVeikersheini, Eng- 
land, about 1765. [192] 
Wallpaper o\erdoor motif from the Joseph 
Bonaparte House, Philadelphia, France, 
1815-1830. [193] 
Warren, Whitney (1864-1943) 



Sketch for facade of Grand Central Ter- 
minal. Illus. [120] 
Why Textiles? 

Alice Baldwin Beer. 203-234 
AVoNDER of Work, The 

Edwin S. Burdell. 5-7 
Wood, William W. 20-21 

Lithograph, frontispiece. Illus. [18] 
AV'uNDER, Richard Paul 

Some Observations on Textile Designs in the 
Cooper Union Museum. 243-269 



ERRATUM 

p. [134], caption of illustration. Figure 1: 

for, "Purchased, Au Panier Fleuri Fund" 
read, "Purchased in Memory of Elizal^eth Haynes by her Friends' 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 




Christ on the Cross 

panel from an embroidered altar frontal worked on linen in colored silks 

germany, lower saxony, fourteenth century 

Purchased in Memory of Elizabeth Haynes by her Friends 



VOL • 2 • NO • 1 



OCTOBER • 1949 



THE COOPER UNION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE AND ART 

TRUSTEES 
Gano Dunn 
Elihu Root^ Jr. 
Walter S. Gifford 
Barklie Henry 
Irving S. Olds 

OFFICERS 

Gano Dunn, President 

Edwin S. Burdell, Director 

Barklie Henry, Secretary 

Sheridan A. Logan, Treasurer 

Elizabeth J. Carbon, Assistant Secretary and Business Officer 



Albert S. Wright, Counsel 

David D. Thompson, Superintendent of Buildings 



MUSEUM FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

ADVISORY COUNCIL 

Elisha Dyer, Chairman 

Mrs. Neville J. Booker, Secretary 

Henry F. du Pont 

Miss Marian Hague 

Mrs. Charles H. Marshall 

Mrs. Benjamin Moore 

John Goldsmith Phillips 

Mrs. Grafton H. Pyne 

Mrs. Howard J. Sachs 

STAFF 

Calvin S. Hathaway, Curator 
E. Maurice Bloch, Keeper of Drawings and Prints 
Alice Baldwin Beer, Keeper of Needlework 
LiLi Blumenau, Assistant Keeper of Textiles 



Mary S. M. Gibson, Curator Emeritus 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 

VOL • 2 • NO . 1 OCTOBER • 1949 



THIS ISSUE of the Clironicle, the first to be publislied since December, 
1945, begins the second volume. Within the small amount of space 
a\'ailable in these occasional issues the Museum has managed to record 
its gratitude to those who have helped its development, through their 
gifts of money or of service, and through their generous enrichment of 
the collections. Previous issues of the Chronicle have also published 
articles on various aspects of the Museum's work that have not been 
generally known, and on certain of the Museum's holdings that have 
seemed worthy of mention. 

The present issue continues in the way of its predecessors, reporting 
also, as they did, some of the changes in personnel that have occurred 
since the time of last publication. In the past three and one-half years 
there have been several changes in the composition of the Advisory 
Council. Mrs. Crafton H. Pyne served as Chairman from the time 
^vhen Mr. Elisha Dyer resigned in October, 1946, because of absence 
from the country, until April, 1949, when Mr. Dyer was again appointed 
Chairman by the Trustees of The Cooper Union. Mrs. Werner Abegg, 
Secretary of the Advisory Council, resigned in July, 1946, being suc- 
ceeded by Mr. John D. Gordan, who resigned in June 1948 and was 
followed in this office by Mrs. Neville J. Booker. Four members of the 
Advisory Council, Mrs. Werner Abegg, Mrs. Reginald P. Rose, Mr. 
John D. Gordan and Mr. Walter Knight Sturges, who had served terms 
of various lengths, resigned during this period, and one ne^v member, 
Mrs. Charles H. Marshall, has been appointed. 

In June, 1948, the Museum suffered sudden and great loss in the 
death of one of its senior staff members. Miss Elizabeth Haynes, who 
had joined the Museum staff in 1937. Her interests were many and 
keen, her work for the Museum of superlative quality; and she has 
been greatly missed by her colleagues in the Museum and her friends 
among the Museum's public. A gift to the Museum, in memory of Miss 
Haynes, is illustrated on the cover. 




K -S 



S o 



THE WONDER OF WORK 



Corridors of engineering schools throughout America are customarily 
hung with bulletin boards, faded photographs of forgotten construction 
projects, or garish lithographs of modern engineering equipment. The alter- 
native appears to be unadorned brick or plaster walls harmonized to the 
austere surroundings by such harsh shades of paint as may sometimes referred 
to as "elephant's breath." Therefore, it is really news if an engineering 
school hangs in its corridors and conference rooms a handsome set of Pennell 
lithographs of the construction of the Panama Canal and the works of such 
contemporary etchers as James E. Allen. 

When Civil Engineerings the journal of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers, commented favorably on this innovation in its August 1948 issue, 
professional notice became nation-wide. 

We are indebted to Mr. James Hazen Hyde for a liberal gift with which 
we acquired ten lithographs and two etchings by Pennell and four etchings 
by Allen. We feel that this collection quite aside from its artistic inerit has 
a peculiar appeal to students of engineering. Pennell, who said that 
Whistler was the first to prove that chimneys are as fine as church towers, 
wrote, "I went to the Panama Canal because I believed that at the Canal I 
should see the Wonder of Work, the Picturesqueness of Labour, realized on 
the grandest scale." 

The article in the Civil Engineering journal has brought many favorable 
comments to the institution and has even stimulated visits of engineers who 
shared his view. One reader, J. S. Eoster, a construction engineer himself 
and an amateur etcher, was so interested in reading about our project that 
he made us a gift of three of his own etchings of the construction of the 
Hoover Dam. 

The hanging of these prints, of course, is not an isolated effort on our 
part to develop in our engineering students an interest in the arts. Actually, 
the improvement of the corridors is only part of the academic setting against 
which intensive courses in the humanistic-social studies are carried on 
simultaneously with their science and engineering training. Our aim is 
twofold: to help the student achieve the social intelligence demanded 
increasingly of engineers; and to open cultural paths which may be pursued 
by the student later in life. Our School of Engineering accepts the respon- 
sibility for creating in our students fuller, richer personalities, so that they 
may contribute more to society than professional competence, and that they 
may enjoy for themselves a wider range of cultural experiences. 






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Tlie Museum lias been a sympathetic participant in the edncational pro- 
gram of our School oF Engineering and Art School. Over the past ten years 
its staff has arranged special exhibitions, secured additional materials, 
through inter-museimi loans, and encoinaged bro^vsing on the part of our 
imdergraduates. 

Our attempt to cultivate the student's historical imagination may be 
illustrated by the exhibition on "The China Trade and Its Influence on the 
Western Arts from 1700 to the Opening of the Suez Canal in 1869" which 
was arranged by the Museimi in 1944 to supplement the studies in literature 
and iiistory then being pursued by our engineering and art students. In the 
history classes, the students were giving seminar attention to the eighteenth- 
century novels. The Museum exhibition demonstrated among other things 
the impact of the development of fast-sailing vessels and later of steam on 
the opening of the Far East, showing the commercial, political, and artistic 
repercussions of these technological developments. The integration of the 
various studies through the Museum exhibition was a happy one for both 
instructors and students; moreover, the exhibition attracted very favorable 
comment in art and commercial circles. 

We feel that the stimulating influence of the Museum can be gauged 
somewhat ^vhen a freshman engineering student returns shortly after a toiu' 
of the collections under the guidance of his instructor and asks the Keeper 
of Prints for information as to where to purchase etchings, prints, and 
lithographs because his parents have promised him a Christmas present of 
his own choosing. 

Edwin S. Burdell 



FIGURE 1. PRINTING BLOCK FOR TEXTILES; JAPAN, NINETEENTH CENTURY. 




FIGURE 2. FACE OF PRINTING BLOCK FOR TEXTILES; JAPAN, NINETEENTH CENTURY. 




FIGURE 3. REVERSE OF PRINTING BLOCK ILLUSTRATED IN FIGURE 2, SHOWING FUNNEL-SHAPED HOLES. 



SOME JAPANESE TEXTILE PRINTING BLOCKS 



Textile ornamentation may be divided into two main groups. In the 
first the design is actually Avoven into the cloth on the loom; in the second 
it is applied after the cloth has been woven. Besides the needle and the 
paint brush, man has invented many methods of achieving this surface textile 
decoration. The best known are block printing, printing from engTaved 
metal plates and from engraved metal rollers.^ 

There are many ways in which the color can be applied to the fabric with 
the help of the block or the roller; those most often employed are the direct 
method, the discharge and the resist. In the direct style, as the name implies, 
the color is applied directly to the fabric by printing from the block, of 
which the design areas have been charged with color. Discharge printing 
consists of printing patterns on a solid-color piece-dyed ground, the chemi- 
cals used for the printing being able to remove the dyestuff in those places 
where a white design against a dark background is required. The principle 
of resist dyeing is the opposite of discharge printing: a resist is used for 
printing the design, instead of a color; the fabric is then put into a dye 
bath which leaves the resist-printed areas untouched by the coloring matter. 
Both batik- and tie-dyeing^ belong to the resist type. But since this article 
deals only with block printing, it is unnecessary to go into further detail 
here about the various means of using resist. 

The Cooper Union Museum recently acquired several Japanese print- 
ing blocks, a most valuable addition to the Museum's collection of textile- 
producing implements, and apparently unique in the museums of this 
country. They differ from blocks used in the Avestern Avorld, and have 
provided an interesting problem for study. 

The art of dyeing and printing textiles by various means has long been 
knoAvn in Japan, Avhere the Japanese, ahvays interested in technical skills, 
have invented and experimented Avith many unusual methods. It reached 
its height in the Nara period (645-781), and a great part of the textile 

1 Textile printing is really a form of dyeing, but differs in that the cloth instead of being uni- 
formly colored throughout by immersion in a solution of the dyestuff, has one or more thickened 
colors or mordants applied to certain parts of the cloth, the color being developed by steaming 
or dyeing. The close relationship existing between the two is emphasized by the fact that 
although it is quite possible to print on cloth almost any pigment capable of being converted into 
viscous fluid, as for example paint, colored wax, and the like, yet generally speaking the coloring 
matters employed in the one process are identical with those employed in the other. 

2 Melted wax is used in this process to make the proposed design. The cloth is then dyed and 
the waxed areas will not take the dye. 

3 AVaxed threads are used and tied around certain areas of the cloth, preventing the dye from 
reaching the tied parts. 

9 




1 



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.-■•>®- 



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FIGURE 4. REVERSE OF FIGURE 5, SHOWING THE PLACING OF PRINTING BLOCK ON CLOTH, WHICH 
LIES ON THE SECOND BLOCK BELOW. 




FIGURF J. WOOD-BLOCK FOR TEXTILE PRINTING, MADE BY MRS. ANNA C. MAUTNER, AFTER A 
JAPANESE PRINTING BLOCK IN THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM. 



remnants of that time are preserved in the Shoso-in (the Imperial Treasure 
House at Nara). These specimens are from ceremonial robes, Buddhist 
banners and household furnishings. Besides the beauty of design and color- 
ing which characterizes them, they display an extraordinary variety of dye- 
ing and printing methods. There are rokechi (batik), some of which are 
produced by tying and dyeing [koketsu or shibori) and others by the wax 
and resist method (rdketsu); and there are kyokechi (dyed with the silk 
clasped between two pattern-pierced boards). The more customary methods 
of printing, painting and stenciling are also represented; but the kyokechi 
would appear most closely related to the Museum's newly-acquired blocks. 



10 



In \vestern textile-printing ot the present time the ordinary woodblock 
is conij^osed oi three thicknesses of wood glued together, the height varying 
Ironi t^vo and one-halt to three inches. The design traced on the block is 
left in relief by cutting away to a considerable depth the surface of the 
block aroimd the figure. The Japanese blocks or boards are cut in relief in 
the same way, but are only about one-eighth of an inch thick (Fig. i); and 
are pierced with many small holes that run into depressed channels incised 
on the reverse. 

The larger of the blocks illustrated (Fig. 2) has a plain and not unusual 
design consisting of long, narrow, scalloped leaves, with the background 
filled A\ ith numerous minute rings similar to those of a tied-and-dyed fabric. 
The smaller and more fragmentary block (Fig. 1) depicts a composition of 
squares formed by large and small circular floral motifs, with several butter- 
flies, suggesting again the imitation of the tie-and-dye printing method. 
The carving seems to have been done by a skilled craftsman, though the 
designs themselves are rather conventional. Judging from the ornamenta- 
tion, the blocks are not much earlier than the nineteenth century. The 
\vidth of both blocks is eighteen and one-half inches, the ^vidth of cloth most 
commonly used in Japan for textile printing. 

As already stated, the design on the usual Western woodblock is left in 
high relief by cutting away to a considerable depth the surface around the 
figures; the patterns in relief are then charged with color and the block 
applied Avith pressure to the cloth. The Japanese carver begins his work 
in a similar manner. A block of Avood of the size necessary for the complete 
design is chosen and the pattern drawn or transferred onto its smooth and 
perfectly flat smface. The carver then cuts away deeply the ground arotuid 
the pattern, keeping the edges of the part left in relief sharp and clean and 
leaving the depressed portions perfectly smooth. When all this has been 
done to his satisfaction, he then performs a further operation unknown to 
western practice. He bores holes from the depressed section through to the 
other side of the block, forming them into funnel-shaped openings from 
that side (Fig. 3); and, finally varnishing the whole block to resist the action 
of Avater, he gives the block over to the printer. 

Except in the matter of the funnel-shaped holes the block is precisely 
similar to the ones used by the old calico-printers of the Avest; but, as Avill be 
observed noAv, the manner of manipulation is very different. Along Avith 
the carved block the printer receives from the carver another piece of avoocI 
of somcAvhat larger size, perfectly flat and smoothly planed on one face. 
The printer takes a piece of cloth and stretches it tightly on the smooth 
surface of the plain block, places the figured block face doAvn (Fig. 4) and 
clamps the tAvo pieces of Avood together tightly so as to imbed the raised 

11 




FIGURE 6. SAMPLE MADE IN THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM FROM \VOOD-BI.OCK ILLUSTRATED IN 
FIGURE K. 



design Avell into the cloth. The dyestuff is then applied through the holes 
until all the depressions are filled. The dye or stain immediately saturates 
the exposed portions o£ the cloth but does not touch the parts which are 
tightly squeezed between the raised design and the flat surface of the plain 
block underneath. After sufficient drainage has taken place the blocks are 
disconnected and the fabric removed to be dried and fixed. In some cases 
the block can also be used for the positive process, the relief portions being 
charged with color and pressed against the cloth in the same manner as 
textile printing is usually done. In other words, the Japanese printer can 
get tAvo different effects with the same block: his blocks can produce a white 
pattern on a colored ground or a colored design on a white ground. 

It is difficult to believe, on first thought, that the pressure could have 
been sufficient to prevent the running of the dye under the raised areas of 
the block. If, for instance, a very thick coloring matter was used by the 
Japanese printer it would have been practically impossible to pour such a 
compound through the holes, Avhereas any liquid dye would have pene- 
trated into the fibre and spread within the cloth no matter how tightly the 



12 



fabric was clamped between the boards. Experiments with a block cut in 
the same manner as the newly-acquired boards were therefore undertaken to 
determine how textiles were actually printed with such boards. 

Profiting by the generous cooperation of Mrs. Anna C. Mautner, who has 
had extensive experience in the practice of old techniques of textile- 
jirinting, such experiments were conducted at the Museum. A new block 
was made (Fig. 4, 5), and when its raised portions had been treated with a 
resist it was put face down on the cloth to be printed, which was stretched 
on a board exactly as in the Japanese method. Then the dyestuff was poured 
through the holes with a dropper. All the raised areas which were covered 
with the resist remained white and the depressed parts were filled with the 
dye. The result (Fig. 6), while lacking the sharp outlines of a Japanese 
printed textile, suggests that the experimentation had in fact followed the 
procedure for ^vhich the Museum's textile-printing blocks were designed. 

One may well wonder why the Japanese should have developed such an 
indirect means of resist dyeing, even though the use of such boards as these 
\vould yield a clearlv defined pattern on both sides of the textile, which is 
not the case in ordinary printing processes. It seems safe to assume that 
tiie boards now in the Museum's collection represent a relatively unusual 
and almost experimental undertaking by one of a small number of textile 
printers of a century ago, perhaps in emidation of the Japanese printers of 
a far earlier time. 

LiLi Blumenau 



13 




FIGURE 1. DRAWING BY CHINNERY OF A CHINESE LADY, AND BELOW^ A SAMPAN GIRL. 



AN ALBUM OF CHINNERY DRAWINGS 



The Museum recently received as a gift' an album of drawings by George 
C^iinnery. This gift is especially important because until now the Cooper 
Union collection has had no examples of tiie work of Chinnery or any of his 
circle. 

Chinnery interests us because he Avas the artist who transferred to canvas 
the American and Chinese merchants who were carrying on the China trade 
in the first half of the nineteenth century. He gave us, besides, charming 
and intimate representations of the ordinary life of the Chinese, which 
had received little attention from the Europeans who had been trying since 
the sixteenth century to open China to the West. The publications of the 
earlier Jesuit missionaries and of the successive embassies seeking trade con- 
cessions ^vere alike concerned primarily with the life and customs of the 
cointly and official classes in China, although both Montanus- and Nieuhof'* 
included several plates of working people. In Ogilby's English translation 
of Nieuhof appear, for example, illustrations of such working people as 
"A Woman of Northern Tartary" and "A Rustick sowing," while Montanus 
gives an illustration of a "Gardener." 

The few publications in the eighteenth century on China and the East, 
both in text and illustrations, dealt with the Emperor and his court. Among 
these are the engravings by various Frenchmen reworked by Cochin.^ These 
plates are on a grand scale and depict the various battles of the Emperor 
of China, at whose command the plates were in fact published. Then there 
are the t^vo sets of plates engraved by Helman"' giving more intimate close- 
ups of court life. Not until about 1800 do we find books with illustrations 
devoted to the life and occupations of the lower and middle-class Chinese. 

The ne^vly-acquired album covers the very early period of Chinnery's 
life in China, and is a brilliant example of ^vork done under the first impact 
of a fresh and stimulating experience. It is bound in a beautiful nineteenth- 
century Chinese brocade, geometric in design and variegated in color. The 

1 C.iven by James Hazen Hyde; Museum accession numbers, 1947-117-1 to -11. 

2 Montanus, Arnolclus. Atlas Chinensis . . . Etiglish'd . . . by John Ogilby. London, 1671. 

3 Nieuhof, Jan. An Embassy from the East-India Company of the United Provinces to the Grand 
Tartar Cham Emperonr of China . . . ivith an appe7idi\ of several remarks taken out of Father A. 
Kircher; English'd . . . by John Ogilby. London, i66(). 

4 Victoires et conqiictes de I'empereur de la Chine, representees en 16 pi. grav. a Paris, de j6/8-/^, 
sous la direction de Cochin . . . d'aprcs les dessins executes a Pekin, par ordre de I'enipereur 
Kien-Long. 

5 Helman, Isidore Stanislas. Fails meinorables des empoeurs de la Chine, tires des annales 
chinoises. Paris, 1788. 

15 




FIGURE 2. PAGE OF SKETCHES BY CHINNERY SHOWING THE CHINESE BARBER AND THE RAREE- 
SHOVVMAN WITH HIS PEEP-SHOW. 



title-page is drawn in pencil on a leaf of the album itself. The drawings, 
however, are on separate sheets of Whatman paper, watermarked 1821, 
moinited in the album and framed with bright blue bands of Chinese satin. 
These drawings are dated 1826, the year after Chinnery arrived in China. 
Similar in technique, subject-matter and inscriptions to other accepted 
Chinnery drawings, they antedate by t^vo years the large collection now in 
tiie Peabody Museum in Salem. Oin- album has come to us with no par- 
ticulars as to its earlier history. 

Oiu' dra^vino■s include t^vo scenes of Macao, one showing the Franciscan 
Monastery and the other, the Collegiate Churcli of St. Paul. Another 
drawing is a charming portrait of a Chinese lady with her fan and her little 
bound feet. (Fig. 1). In tlie corner is a Chinese girl poling her sampan. 
These sampans (the Avord means "three planks" in Chinese), were the only 
method of coming inshore from larger ships at anchor. Another sketch 
shows a Flong merchant carrying a fan in one hand and holding his hookah 
in the other, and is inscribed "Canton 1826." There are a number of 
sketches of a Chinese barber at work. In one he is hurrying up the street, 
on his shoulders a pole from which hang his barber's bench and hot-water 
equipment. Another sketch sliows the barber shaving a somewhat appre- 
hensive-looking; customer. In a third dra^ving he is braiding the customer's 
pigtail; again, with a caption in obsolete shorthand, he is seen squatting 
on the barber's bench, patiently awaiting the next customer. 

In the second quarter of the nineteenth century, there was a tremendous 
interest in the life and customs of the lower and middle-class Chinese. 
Travellers to this exotic country kept diaries and wrote vokmiinous letters 
home. Among these, the Rev. G. N. Wright*"' wrote a book that was pub- 
lished in London in 1843. ^^ devotes a Avhole page to the Chinese barber 
and explains the importance of this individual in the life of a Chinaman. 
Every Chinaman must be clean-shaven until he is forty. As Wright de- 
scribed it: "No Beards being allowed to grow, no moustache permitted to 
remain . . . , nor a single hair suffered to wander over any part of the face, 
the attendance of a barber is lastingly requisite." Consequently, Wright 
reports: "In Canton, alone, upwards of 7,000 barbers are. constantly per- 
ambulating the public streets, indicating their locus and their leisure by 
twanging a pair of long iron tweezers."" 

At the bottom of the sheet of sketches showing barbers is a delightful 
street-corner scene. The Chinese raree-showman has set up his peep-show 
box under an improvised umbrella, and a half-grown boy has his eyes glued 

6 Wright, George Ne^vnhain. China; in a series of i/ieivs, draiun from original and authentic 
sketches by Thomas Allom, Esq., with historical and descriptive notices by the Rev. G. N. Wright, 
Al.A. London, 1843. 

7 Ibid., vol. Ill, p. 52. 

17 



^.■ 




^^. 



\\^--~~, i: 



FIGURE 3. TITLE-PAGE DRAWING FOR THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM SKETCH BOOK. COMPARE 
SHADING AND LETTERING WITH THOSE IN FIGURE 4. 




FIGURE 4. FRON ITSPIECE OF Sketches of China 

IJV W. W. WOOD. LITHOGRAPH AFTER 
A DRAWING BV W. W. WOOD. 



to the peep holes. This amusement was to the poorer classes in the Orient 
^vhat the street theatre was to the Italians and the Punch and Judy show to 
the French (Fig. 2). 

The Museum's drawings and other intimate domestic scenes are typical 
of the sketches made by Chinnery in the black crayon to which his friends 
ahvays referred as "positive black butter," many of which were done to be 
sent to America along with tiie portraits in oil which the merchants in 
Macao had had painted for their devoted families at home. Chinnery spent 
tAventy-five years in China, after a somewhat unsettled career in other parts 
of the East. He was born in London, and exhibited portraits at the Royal 
Academy 'when only seventeen. In 1795, at the age of twenty-one, he went 
to Dublin where in 1799 he married his landlady's daughter. In 1802 he 
left his family and went to India, living successively in Madras, Bengal and 
Calcutta. In 1825 he again fled from his nagging wife and creditors to 
China, and took up his residence in the Portuguese settlement of Macao. 
Here he remained until his death in 1852. 

Much of our information about Chinnery and life in Macao comes from 
the diary of Harriet Low.*^ This Salem girl had gone out to China with her 
atnit and her uncle, head of the Canton office of Russell Sc Co. They left 
Brooklyn in May and arrived in Macao September 30, 1829. She was a 
charming American girl, tAventy years old, the only unmarried woman in 
the small Anglo-American colony. She had many beaux, and an interest in 
dra^ving unsupported by any great talent. She took drawing lessons from 
Chinnery and her diary gives this account of him: "This morning called on 
Caroline, and then went to that amusing man, Chinnery, and stayed until 
after tAvo sketching. There is a good deal to be gathered from his conversa- 
tion, and some of his similes are most amusing. He has been a great observer 
of human nature, for which he has had every opportimity, his profession 
having brought him in contact Avith people of high and low degree. . . . He 
has excellent sense, and plumes himself upon being 'though not handsome, 
excessively genteel;' his personal appearance, I think, ho^vever, is rather 
against him, for he is what I call fascinatingly ugly, and what with a habit 
he has of distorting his features in a most un-Christian manner, and with 
taking snuiT, smoking, and snorting, I think, were he not so agreeable, he 
would be intolerable. But, to give him his due, he is really polite, and 
speaks Avell of everyone. Being one of his special favorites, I must say some- 
tiiing for him; to use his own expression, he 'buckles' to me."^ 

Life in Macao went on as usual with its parties and its afternoon calls, 
and Harriet Low faithfully records them all. But about two years after 

8 Hillard, Katherine. My Mother's Journal, a yoinig lady's diary of fwe years spent in Manila, 
Macao, and the Cape of Good Hope, from 1829-1834, edited by Katherine Hillard. Boston, 1900. 

9 Ibid., p. 193. 

^9 



her arrival in China, this paragraph appears in her diary: "Nothing par- 
ticular has happened, except that I have been introduced to another Ameri- 
can gentleman, who came out in the 'Fanny' from Philadelphia, a very 
clever and pleasing young man. He was introduced by Mr. B.^*^ on Sunday 
morning, being too diffident, he says, to come alone. He managed, however, 
after the first time to come again to walk with us, and to stay to tea. He is 
an immense talker, but always talks well — wise, witty or grave as suits his 
hearers. He is not handsome but has a most intellectual face. He draws 
very well, and immediately took me under his protection and became my 
teacher. "^^ 

Some time later this entry appears in the diary: "This morning I studied 
a little, then went to Chinnery's room. There is a great attraction there 
now, a picture of my friend, which I was strongly tempted to pocket. It is 
a perfect likeness. I shall probably never see it again, as it is going to 
America. Well, I do not know why I should wish to, he is nothing to me."^- 

This friend, referred to throughout the diary as Mr. W., was indeed some- 
thing to her. There are long and mysterious references to him and to the 
letters she wrote and received, and several months later she writes: "Went 
to Chinnery's with Uncle, as he was to have his last sitting. Drew a little, 
but I do not take the same interest in the amusement as I did last year, the 
change of masters makes a great difference, I find."^^ 

The drawings moimted in the recently acquired album are unquestion- 
ably the work of Chinnery. The title-page drawing (Fig. 3), however, is by 
a different hand. It seems safe to assume, from the fact that the album was 
prepared in China, that the drawing was probably the work of someone 
wlio was in Macao during the period of Chinnery's residence there. But 
who could the artist have been? 

Harriet Low assuredly could not have drawn the title-page. Despite her 
drawing lessons and her assiduity in copying Chinnery's sketches, tliis page 
is far more competently executed than are her drawings now in the Peabody 
Museum in Salem, or the sketches on the margins of her diary. ^^ The 
enormous collection of Chinese views formed by Sir C. P. Chater^^' shows 
nothing that relates to the drawing in question. But a book by William 
Wood^** published in 1830 in Philadelphia solves the problem. It has litho- 

10 I.e., Mr. Blight. 12 Ibid., p. 166. 

11 Hillard, p. 87. 13 Ibid., p. 203. 

14 MS. in the Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 

15 Orange, James. The Chafer Collection, Pictures relating to China, Hongkong, Macao, i66yi86o; 
u'ith Historical and Descriptive Letterpress by James Orange. London, 1924. (Sir Catchick Paul 
Chater, Kt., C.M.G., etc. [1846-1926], was a member of the Executive Council of Hong Kong.) 

16 Wood, William W. Sketches of China: with iUastrations from original draiuings by W. W. 
Wood. Philadelphia, 1830. This book was brought to my attention by Dr. Arthur Hummel, Chief 
of the Asiatic Division of the Library of Congress. 

20 



grapiicd title-page (Fig. 4) and illustrations and bears a similar title, 
Sketc/ii's of China. The Miiseiiin's drawing and this lithographed title-page 
present conclusive similarities in style of lettering as well as in composition 
and in crayon technique. 

In his introduction Mr. Wood modestly says: "The illustrations are 
from original sketches from my own pencil, and have nothing but their 
fidelity to recommend them."^" "A residence of more than common leisure 
in China, enabled me to devote much time to the collection of notes and 
memoranda, which I no^v present to the curious nearly in their original 
form, ^vritten at the moment of the occurrences which they describe. "^*^ 

Mr. Wood Avas none other than Harriet Low's friend, "Mr. W.," who 
seems not to have been mentioned by name until after his book had reached 
Macao. By July she had read it and is quoting it to her family in her 
joiunal. 

"We had a most delightful party of about a dozen. . . . We anchored for 
tea, and with a delightfid breeze reached Macao about 1 A.M. ... By the 
bye, we came on shore in a sampan rowed by two Chinese girls. As Wood 
says in his Sketches of China, 'These boats are manned by a brace of Chinese 
ladies.' "^" Carrying on Wood's remark, of which the journal gives only 
this brief excerpt, we quote in turn: "... a brace of Chinese ladies, who are 
quite dexterous in managing them. In addition to a fee of a dollar to these 
sun-burnt viragos, for rowing you perhaps 20 yards, a further extortion of 
a dollar as a landing fee is suffered from the Mandarins."-^ 

The affair between Harriet Low and Mr. Wood, which seemed so promis- 
ing, evidently did not meet Avith her family's approval. By the time she 
describes the end in her journal she has reconciled herself to it and her 
attitude toAvard him is quite harsh; "Uncle came home about five o'clock 
this morning. Brought me a long letter from my friend in Canton, himibly 
apologizing for all that has passed, expressing his regret, and lamenting the 
dreary prospect before him, etc. Having lost the powerful motive that has 
hitherto actuated him, he dares not hope that any of his good resolutions 
may be kept, — a Avhole sheet full of this, but I dare say 'it is all in my eye' 
as the boys say. I feel my heart groAvs harder every day, my dear, and I am 
perfectly astonished Avhen I think hoAv differently I vicAv all that has passed 
froin Avhat I did a fcAV months since, and Avonder Avhat has produced this 
change."-^ 

James Orange, Avho collected and studied Chinnery and his contem- 
poraries, and Avho prepared the catalogue of the Chater collection—, appar- 

1" Ibid., p. \ii. 20 AVood. p. 6. 

IS Ibid., p. i\. 21 Hillard. p. 217. 

19Hillaid, p. loi. 22 See n. 15. 

21 



ently never identified Wood. Perhaps he had never run across this Uttle 
American book, because he wrote in The Studio in 1927: "Among the 
drawings in the possession of the writer are several vignette compositions, 
evidently done with the idea of being reproduced in book or pamphlet 
form, but only some sheets of very feebly executed lithographs have been 
noted. The writer would be glad to know if any lithogTaph books of 
drawings by Chinnery were ever published."--^ The answer to the late Mr. 
Orange's question is undoubtedly Sketches of China by W. W. Wood. 

The Cooper Union Museum is verv fortunate in owning this album of 
drawings which ties together two of that small and intimate group of Ameri- 
cans which revolved about the charming and talented Chinnery. Out of it 
came two books, one by Wood describing the life and times in general; and 
the chatty and very personal diary of the young lady from puritanical Salem, 
who was so shocked at people making calls on Sunday that she religiously 
read one of the Buckminster^^ sermons each Sunday morning to counteract 
this wicked influence. It would be nice to believe that our scrapbook was 
made up by Wood and Chinnery and given them as a parting gift to the 
young lady from Salem. 

Edna B. Donnell 

23 Orange, James. George Chinnery: Pictures of Macao and Canton. In Tiie Studio, London, 1927, 
vol. XLIV, p. 239. 

24 Buckminster, Joseph Stephens (1784-1812), Unitarian clergyman. His collected sermons were 
published in 1814. 



22 



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24 



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1948 
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27 



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Printed by The John B. Watkins Company, New York 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 




LARGE GILT BRONZE MEDALLION INTENDED FOR THE FRONT OF 
A CABINET. ABOUT 1785. 



VOL . 2 • NO • 2 



JUNE • 1950 



THE COOPER UNION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE AND ART 

TRUSTEES 

Gano Dunn 
Elihu Root, Jr. 
Walter S. Gifford 
Barklie Henry 
Irving S. Olds 

OFFICERS 

Gano Dunn, President 

Edwin S. Burdell, Director 

Barklie Henry, Secretary 

Sheridan A. Logan, Treasurer 

Elizabeth J. Carbon, Assistant Secretary and Business Officer 



Albert S. Wright, Counsel 

David D. Thompson, Superintendejit of Buildings 

MUSEUM FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

ADVISORY COUNCIL 

Elisha Dyer, Chairman 

Mrs. Neville J. Booker, Secretary 

Henry F. du Pont 

Miss Marian Hague 

Mrs. Charles H. Marshall 

Mrs. Benjamin Moore 

John Goldsmith Phillips 

Mrs. Grafton H. Pyne 

Mrs. Howard J. Sachs 

STAFF 

Calvin S. Hathaway, Curator 

James I. Rambo, Keeper of Decorative Arts 

E. Maurice Bloch, Keeper of Drawings and Prints 

Alice Baldwin Beer, Keeper of Needlework 

LiLi Blumenau, Assistant Keeper of Textiles 



Mary S. M. Gibson, Curator Emeritus 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 

VOL • 2 • NO • 2 JUNE • 195a 



IN THIS ISSUE of the Chronicle is published an ac- 
count of one more portion of the Museum's col- 
lections: the rich assembly of gilt bronze mounts for 
furniture and for architectural elements that ^vas 
acquired forty years ago. The direct applicability of 
this material to the decorative needs of the present 
moment may not be as great as it was at the time the 
collection was formed by M. Leon Decloux, of Sevres; 
but these small objects none the less offer a contribu- 
tion to the study of design and craftsmanship that 
cannot be ignored. It may be hoped that the article 
in the following pages will serve as an effective re- 
minder of the value of this remarkable accoinplish- 
ment of skilled metal-^v^orkers. 



35 



-i.ty^/- ' 




FiGURK 1. Secretaire by kiksknkr, vviih moums i'robably by thomire^, in 

THE WALLACE COLLECTION AT HERTFORD HOUSE, LONDON. ILLUS- 
TRATED FROM The Wallace Collection, volume ii. 



36 



SOME GILT BRONZE FURNITURE MOUNTS 
IN THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM 



Though style changes, and fashion demands a new face for its furniture, 
the function of furniture pieces themselves remains fairly constant; and those 
indi\'idual elements ^vhich assist and simplify this function, even while mov- 
ing ^vith style, never lose their essential identities because furniture really 
could not exist -^vithout them. Even today when contemporary furniture 
proclaims itself refined to the very id, its subconscious musings on the 
primary truths of its refinement are occasionally disturbed by the creak of 
a hinge or the rattle of a knob, voices of a dark ancestry it can never quite 
escape. 

There are a number of reasons for supplying furniture with metal mounts 
of \arious sorts. Any piece that boasts doors or a lid must surely be fitted 
with hinges and a lock at least. Drawers must bear pulls so that they may be 
dra\vn out easily. It is often found advisable to add metal corners, feet, or 
mouldings to a piece in order that these portions of its anatomy so fitted may 
be protected from wear. Occasionally metal mounts may form a vital part 
of the actual construction of a cabinet or table; stretchers, corner braces, and 
the like fall under this heading. And then mounts may successfully be used 
purely for the purposes of decorative embellishment. 

Even the earliest, crudest pieces of furniture are found to be fitted ^vith 
metal elements. The simplest chest of the thirteenth century has a set of 
hinges of some sort, and often a hasp and a staple plate. More elaborate 
mediaeval chests and cupboards are strengthened by a binding of iron straps 
which incorporate hinges. Late thirteenth-century pieces bore at times the 
most elaborate wrought iron scroll work, a large part of whose purpose would 
appear to be purely decorative. 

Chests were made portable by the addition of rings and end handles by 
-which they could easily be mo\'ed about. Style varies greatly in the fifteenth, 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; some pieces have very little visible hard- 
WRie at all. But in England, in Spain, and else^vhere, remarkably decorative 
hinges, lock-plates, studs, and applied ornament were used to very great 
decorative advantage. The unusually intricate fittings of the Spanish var- 
gueno and the involved harpsichord hinge of the latter half of the seven- 
teenth century are cited merely as isolated examples. The nature of furniture 
mounts under-went considerable change late in the seventeenth and early in 
the eighteenth centuries. Drop handles came into extended vogue; finely- 
wrought keyhole plates ^vere furnished ^vith locks. 

37 



An extremely important development occurred early in the eighteenth 
century; this was the appearance of the loop handle in which the pins run- 
ning through the drawer front and often through a finger plate received 
the ends of the loop or bail. These were, of course, subject to continuing 
elaboration and development and many forms were devised which were 
peculiar to their unique purposes and their regional and period styles. 




FIGURE 2. \VOOD MODEL FOR THE HANDLE OF A LOCKING BAR. ABOUT 1780. 



In no place did decorative moimts achieve such singular beauty and 
importance as in eighteenth-century France. The quality of design, of execu- 
tion, and of application noted in French examples is without equal. Thomas 
Sheraton remarked that the French "excel us, and by this they set off cabinet 
work, without which it would not bear a comparison with ours."^ Though 
a few may quarrel with the latter part of this assertion, no one would deny 
the truth of the first. English mounts were almost invariably of inferior 
workmanship, and even those designed by Robert Adam for use at Harewood 
are certainly not distinguished by their execution. Yet England may well 
have a place even in an account of French fittings, especially those of the late 
eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, for contemporary pattern books 
indicate that some part of the metal work appearing on French pieces was 
at least cast in England and sent then to France for the high finish demanded 
there. And before this, sometime after 1759, Matthew Boulton counted 

1 Quoted in Jouixhiin, M.; English decoration and furniture of the later XVIIIth century, p. 251. 
38 



among his ^vide acti\'ities in the metal trades in Soho tlie production of 
finniture moinits.- 

\V'ith the excellence ot French ^vork before lis, it is not surprising that ^ve 
associate the name of Andre Charles Boulle (1(342-1732) ^vith the appearance 
of a fully-developed and remarkably achieved style of embellishment. As 
ebeniste, or cabinet-maker, to Louis XIV, he had certainly every available 
facility at his command. But it ^vas his o^vn imaginative genius which pro- 
duced the astonishino series of achievements in decorative treatment ^vhich 
his name alone symbolizes for us today. Those parts of his ^vorks ^\ hich are 
in gilt bronze, ^vhile perhaps lacking the fineness of finish seemingly peculiar 
to decades later in the century, have a broadness and firmness of design, a 
dash of execution that impel admiration and even wonder. 




FIGURE 3. GILT BRONZE HANDLE OF A LOCKING BAR. ABOUT 1 780. COMPARE WITH FIGURE 



Boulle foresliado^vs that period ^vhich Avill be of special interest to us. 
Even he ^vas dependent to a considerable extent on metal ^vorking ^vhich 
had preceded him. But it ^vould be an unfortunate error indeed to think, 
not only of Boulle but of the masters to come later, that their labors in the 
embellishment of furniture ^vith metal mounts are the outcome solely of a 
continuino tradition in the mounting of furniture ^vith metal. Painted and 

2 It is an interesting note that Abram S. Hewitt's father, John Hewitt, came to America in 1796 
direct from Boiilton's Soho works, where training in draughting and machine design had been 
added to his pre\ioiislv acquired skill as apprentice cabinet-maker. 

39 



carved ornament from preceding centnries contributed a great deal. And 
of course the draftsman of almost every period and in every medium took 
inspiration from ornament evolving originally from the antique. 

The Cooper Union Museum is fortunate in possessing an extensive collec- 
tion of these metal mounts for- furniture pieces. Most notable among the 
large numbers of objects comprising the displays are the groups of gilt bronze 
French mounts of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries though on 
view as well are fine examples of English, American, and even oriental 
fittings. The special richness of the French ormolu group directs the bulk 
of these notes to it. 

Ormolu (or moulu), literally, ground gold, may be described very simply 
as gilt bronze. Bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, lends itself admirably to 
the requirements of casting as well as to later refinement of its surface by 
chasing. One of its principal defects, the comparative ease with which oxides 
form on and impair its surface, is overcome very effectively by gilding it. As 
gold is relatively inert and will not form the oxides that appear so rapidly 
on many other metals, the original beauty and crispness of a gilt metal is 
maintained for great lengths of time without the need for much of any care 
except dusting. It is for this reason that ormolu mounts of the eighteenth 
century often appear as though they had just come from the metalworker's 
shop and so reveal with surprising exactness as do so few objects of their 
period their original nature, even to the most minute subtleties of crafts- 
manship. 

An extremely interesting and very illuminating series of objects are the 
carved wooden luodel for a handle of a locking bar and the pair of gilt 
bronze handles-^ (Figs. 2 and 3) ^vhich are the satisfying outcome of such 
painstaking preliminary work. The model speaks most eloquently of the 
great care lavished even in the early stages of the manufacture of these gilt 
bronze objects. It is observed that the differences between the model and the 
finished products are slight and of snrall importance to the total effect; one 
has the crispness and vitality of the other and Ave can only think that the 
patron for whom these handles were made must have been well satisfied with 
the final execution from the original design. 

The quality of the designs speaks for itself and proclaims that they come 
frequently from the hands of noted ornamentalists. The collection of prints 
and draAvings of the Museum includes a number of examples of projects for 
actual mounts and ornament from which such objects could easily be 
adapted. Jean Charles Delafosse (1734-1789) and Richard de Lalonde (active 
latter half of the eighteenth century), to name but two almost at random, 
are represented by a number of instructive and germane examples (Figs. 4 
3 1909-25-53,54,55. 
40 








FIGURE 4. TWO TROPHIES FROM THE ^6 Reccuil (Ic VOeui've clc Dehifossp, PARIS, 1770. 



and 5) and reveal at once that happy combination o£ delicacy and strength 
which so characterizes the nature of these mounts. An important medallion 
in the collection may well be after a design of Jean Baptiste Huet (1755- 
1811). and exhibits all the sureness and accomplished excellence one ^vould 
expect from such a source. 

Important to the success of a furniture piece as a ^vhole was the very close 
interaction of the ebeniste and the ciseleur, or chaser. To the name of Jean 
Francois Riesener (1735-1806) one immediately links those of Pierre 
Gouthiere (1740-1806) and Pierre Philippe Thomire (1751-1843) who exe- 
cuted many of the superlative mounts which enriched his pieces. It is useless 
to pause over the question as to whether such elaboration is really suited to 
furniture; the beauty of the whole, so admirably supported by the exuber- 
ance and grace of the part, is reason enough for the production of such 
things. Isolated from their original settings as these pieces no^v are, seen as 
members captured from a familiar though departed milieu, it is improper 
now to judge tliem as tables and cabinets. They become more than ever 
ohjets de gout and almost this alone; they serve as brilliant comments on 



41 



their time and their creators, on the imagination and the dash of eighteenth- 
century display (Fig. i). 

Underlying the eventual appearance of an ormolu mount is an intricate 
series of varying though closely related processes. Design is little without 
execution and to the men responsible for this, the caster, the chaser, the 
gilder, we owe our attention. The construction of such a thing as our 
wooden model requires the greatest patience and skill; the accomplishment 
of a finished object requires even more. 




J 




FIGURE 5. TWO DRAWINGS FOR KEY PLATES, BY RICHARD DE LALONDE. 



Bronze is highly suitable for casting because it will assume Avith great 
accuracy the shape of its mould, no matter how delicate and how intricate 
the original pattern may be. But the work of the fondeur is by no means 
simple and requires gieat knowledge and skill. In its natural state bronze 
is a golden-brown alloy of considerable beauty and hardness. Its surface can 
be tooled with great precision; this is the work of the ciseleur. A plate from 
the great Diderot encyclopaedia^ shows the interior of the shop of an eight- 
eenth century ciseleur in a most fascinating manner (Fig, 6); we see the 
workmen engaged in the various steps of their craft surrounded by their tools 

4 Encyclopedie, ou Dictionnairc raisonne des Sciences . . . Recueil de planches, vol. Ill; Ciseleur, 
pi. I. 



42 




FiGL'RE 6. chaser's SHOP FROM THE Recueil cle Planches 
Encyclopedie. 



. , VOLUME HI, Ciseleur, of the 



and groups of objects in various states of completion. The gilder, who often 
was the ciseleur as well (Andre Charles Boulle is entered in a contemporary 
account not only as a cabinet-maker but also as a chaser and gilder), brings 
the surface to its final form. Mercury or "fire" gilding was the common 
practice. This is done by first obtaining an amalgam of mercury and gold. 
The amalgam is brushed with wire brushes onto the surface, which has been 
cleaned as perfectly as possible. The piece, because of the color of the 
mercury, now looks as though it had been silvered. When the mount is 
heated to the correct temperature, the mercury passes off as a gas (and can 
be re-collected), leaving a thin deposit of metallic gold on the surface. This 
film is cleaned and worked by burnishing or other means to the desired 
quality and brilliance. It has already been observed that this gilt surface is 
strikingly permanent, as peculiarly stable as gold itself. A second plate from 
the Encyclopedie illustrates the shop of a gilder^ (Fig. 7). This process of 
mercury gilding was almost as dangerous as it was effective; the greatest care 
had to be exercised to prevent the workmen from inhaling any of the vapor- 
ized metal, for mercury poisoning produces some of the most unpleasant 
effects imaginable. 

Perhaps even these brief notes will give some idea of the tremendous 
amount of effort involved in taking an ormolu mount from the first con- 
ception of its design through the making of the model, the process of sand 

5 op. cit., vol. Ill; Doreiir, pi. I. 

43 










^.iisf 






^ '2^"=^ 



?4^ 



-5|ESI 



FIGURE 7. gilder's SHOP FROM THE Recueil cle Planches . . . , volume hi, Doreur, of the Encxclopedie. 



casting, of chasing, and of gilding. One has only to look at the great num- 
bers of these objects still preserved to realize the high degree of excellence 
and organization in the mechanics of their production which were required 
to make possible not only the quality but also the astonishingly prolific 
output of the eighteenth-century French shops. 

We have already twice come upon the name of Andre Charles Boulle and 
his work for Louis XIV. After such an auspicious introduction we are not 
surprised at the supreme achievements of those to follow. During the reign 
of Louis XV the Caffieri (Jacques Caffieri, 1678-1755; Philippe Caffieri, 
1714-1774) stood almost alone in their works which may be noted on furni- 
ture in the Wallace Collection and on pieces now in the Louvre. The 
delightful masks and busts adorning a number of these pieces reach almost 
the importance of major art; notable at once for firmness, for grace, and 
superlative finish, they reflect the demands of the patron and the skill of 
the men who met thein. The accusations of femininity leveled against the 
productions of this time lose a great deal of their force when set against 
these actual objects. Of their grace and their almost purely ornamental 
function there can be little doubt. Fashion demanded this nature in things; 
genius and industry supplied it. Whether at last we do or do not wholly 
approve the face of the age, the Caffieri and those only slightly less skilled 
who accompanied them and their scarcely less skilled contemporaries. 



44 



The mounts produced during tlie reign of Louis XVI, which claim here 
our special notice, (piickly re\eal the discipline ot the antique reflected in 
the integrity ol the artists Avho designed and made them. For the most part 
physically smaller than those of the preceding reign, more self-contained, of 
course much more symmetrical, and, if possible, even more highly finished, 
they ornamented pieces of ordered rectangular vohmie, straight line, flat or 
simply cmved plane, and most frequently less extensive size. As a matter 
of simple observation, the furniture was not less ornate but only more highly 
ordered in its organization and more simply profiled. 

Though it is not our purpose to examine the eheniste as such, the im- 
portant relationship of the ciseleur to the cabinet-maker mentioned above 
demands that ^ve note at least one such association. That of Riesener with 
Gouthiere is of such importance that it must not be overlooked. Here the 
quality of the cabinet is matched by that of the moimt. The finely conceived 
and finished masses of the one are complemented and enhanced by the intri- 
cate brilliance of the other. Also linked with the name of Riesener is that 
of Thomire, who is responsible for many of the moimts appearing on the 
furniture of the former. It is a little sad that Thomire's talents should have 
been squandered by the taste of his later patrons; his nineteenth-century 
work when compared with his finest achievements is heavy and spiritless 
and unworthy, lacking almost entirely the charm and vivacity of his best 
things. 

But by far the greatest number of ormolu mounts now conserved apart 
from their parent pieces bear an anonymity ill-deserved by their quality. We 
wonder at their authorship as we wonder at their number; they exist in 
hundreds as did their makers. The really astonishing thing is the consist- 
ency of their merit, and, in turn, the consistency of the taste and time which 
expected it. We are fortunate that accumulations of mounts from the shops 
of cabinet-makers and bronze workers, left over when these men ended their 
careers, have come to us at times in practically mint state.*^ 

When we turn directly to the mounts in the collection itself, going from 
one drawer to the next, finding in each a new pleasure, a different flavor, a 
delightful feeling in the tinn of the chisel first of this master, then of that, 
the variety of such expression within the framework of a few great styles 
becomes increasingly impressive. This is not, as it might easily have been, 
ornamentation by rote or by convention, but the catching of individual ex- 
citement and delight in creation. The pieces as things in themselves never 
step beyond the limits of their styles, but within such gentle stringencies 
move about ^vith freshness and freedom which give ample opportunity for 

6 In this way a group of mounts in the Museum come from the cabinet-making shop of John 
Hewitt. 

45 




FIGURES. GILT BRONZE KEY PLATE, ABOUT 1780, ATTRIBLILU lo GOUTHIERE. 



the exercise of individual talent and tastefulness. 

A frieze^ from a Louis XVI commode establishes at once in its repeated 
scrolls a firm rhythm reiterated more softly in its gracefully disposed floral 
elements, the movement of the whole emphasized by variations in the quality 
of surface. The margins of the scrollwork are, with parts of the floriation, 
burnished to a special brilliance; other portions of the design are worked all 
over with an even stippling which lends depth and decision to the entire 
conception. These surface variations, brought about by burnishing, hatch- 
ing, stippling, and other treatments, are most important to the total effect 
of an ormolu mount. Throughout the collection such techniques serve vari- 
ously to emphasize, to play down, to soften, to make crisp, to lighten, to lend 
weisfht to a marginal band, a stem, a leaf, or mask, serve, in short, almost 
as much as the design itself to express the talent and individuality of the 
ciseleur. Such technical facility is not, alas, the guarantee of an excellent 
mount, and becomes finally, in the early nineteenth century, almost a chill 
wind which dispels what little warmth one might expect to find in the un- 
reason and artificiality of that form of neoclassicism in vogue. 

7 1908-26-63A to G. This piece, along with the majority of others of its period in the Museum, 
came from the collection of M. Leon Decloux, a French architect and collector whose father was 
Serrurier to the Court of Louis-Philippe. 

46 



But such inijiersoiiality does not exist wliere tlie finish one finds on the 
cliarniing key plate*^ (Fig- '^)' executed very probably by the celebrated 
Ciouthiere, is a fine example of the expressive possibilities inherent in tech- 
nical skills. The leaves and flowers lend delicacy, the eagles' heads strength, 
and the larger foliations body, ^vhile the underlying organization of all 
elements imposes a firm unity on the complete thing. Here are the crispness 
and perfection we would expect from Gouthiere, the curious and happy 
mixture of dash and restraint and technical perfection existing not for itself 
but for the ease and completion it gives the ornament. 

Again, in another mount, this time a frieze'* (Fig. 9), the hand of the same 




FIGURE 9. GILT BRONZE FRIEZE, ABOUT I780, ALSO ATTRIBUTED TO GOUTHIERE. THIS AND FIGURE 8 SERVE 
TO ILLUSTRATE THE EXTREME FINENESS OF THIS MASTER'S WORK. 



man may well be seen. Composed ot bow and arrows, quiver, flambeau, and 
a garland and sprays of leaves and flowers, this object is in itself almost the 
essence of small Louis XVI design. Here again crispness, balance, and elan 
combine in a work which for all its small size could characterize the work of 
Gouthiere and typify the sort of thing to which his fellows strove. The 
almost languorous form of the laurel leaf, the masculinity of the oak, the 
freshness of the rose blossoms are bound together with equally effective 
repiesentations of implements of the hunt. Delicate, romantic, and oddly 
powerful, such objects speak forcefully of the taste and skill of their era. 

In a pair of small pendants^** we find, caught together with leaves and 
fruits, a favorite flower of the ornamentalist of this period, the lily of the 
valley. Engaging little sprays of this blossom adorn many of the mounts in 
the collection, lending their special grace to numbers of ormolu fittings. 
Laurel leaves are another favorite motif, along with oak leaves, pomegran- 
ates, roses, cornflowers, and more severe classicistic foliations. Ribbons are 

8 1909-25-14. 

9 1910-30-16. 

10 1910-30-21A and B. 

47 




y? 



X 



rt V _ Yv ' ST'*'"* ■*■* jr"^^*^ 




lO. GILT BRONZE MEDALLION. ABOUT 1785. COMPARE WITH FIGURE 1. 



48 



used to bind together many compositions, bows are very often met along 
with swags and knots of varicms sorts. Cornucopias, generally in pairs, the 
heads of eagles, trophies, and palms are other favorite devices. Much orna- 
ment reminiscent of the antique is encountered including masks, vintage 
elements, vessels, mouldings, and the like, while rayed ornament is not rare. 

Two oval medallions of rather large size attract our attention. The first^^ 
(see cover), which we have suggested as being after the style of Huet, is es- 
pecially notable for its fine execiuion. All that we have observed of the 
highest class of Avork holds good here. Among many of the motifs we have 
mentioned, two doves, chiselled with great skill to an almost deceptive soft- 
ness, display themselves in attitudes which one might suppose only a third 
dove could fully appreciate. Here especially we can enjoy the effects of 
several treatments of surface; the interplay of mat with burnished elements, 
the textures of flowers, of feathers, leaves, and clouds compared and opposed 
make the enjoyment of this work a really pleasant as well as instructive 
experience. 

The second medallion^- (Fig. lo) bears a rather more strictly classicistic 
composition relatively unrelieved by the conceits we have noted above. The 
figures, and indeed all the parts of the composition, are very well drawn; 
and merely as a point of technique, relief modelling is here brought to a 
high degree of excellence though the surface is not perhaps of such fine 
quality as that of the first. Other examples of both these medallions are 
mounted on furniture pieces, at Hertford House, by Riesener (Fig. i), 
where they appear to great advantage. ^^ 

The origins of several pieces in the Museum's collections can be stated 
with fair certainty. One double pendant of flowers held by ribbons^^ (not 
gilt but very finely chased on every surface), originally from the collection of 
M. Dupont d'Auberville, was one of the fittings of the Chateau de Saint- 
Cloud. A rather large group of gilt bronze objects^"" is from two salons of 
the Chateau d'Issy; among these are locks, key plates, rosettes, portions 
of espagnolettes, and small fittings of various sorts. A group of such objects 
known to have been originally associated together is of great interest (Fig. 1 1). 

Door hard^vare is well represented among the objects displayed. Of special 
interest is a large door lock of the period of the Regency.^*' Against a very 
characteristic finely diapered groimd, strictly symmetrical scrollwork con- 

11 1910-30-10. 

12 1931-83-x. 

13 Molinier (Molinier, £niile: The WalUuc Collection, vol. Ill) is inclined lo attribute both these 
medallions to Thomire. Rol:)iqiiet (Robiquet, Jacques; Gouthiere, pp. 166, 167; pi. XI\', XVI) 
lists them as being the ^\•ork of Gouthiere. 

14 1909-25-12. 

15 1909-25-30 to 35. 

16 1909-25-47A. 

49 




Flt.liKK, 11. Ut>OR HARDW ARK 1 Rt)M A SALOiN t)F IHh Cluite/lll (/Vs.sy. ABOUl l-jSo. 



fines the openings for the keys and the door handle. The whole is a fitting 
of great magnificence though surely no richer than a similar piece^^ (Fig- 1 2) 
of the period of Louis XV. This is adorned, above its somewhat abstract 
scrolled decoration, with a sphinx which with admirable discretion controls 
the lock mechanism. A second Regency lock^^ (Fig. 13), apparently from the 
door of a royal chapel, bears among its other decoration a device composed 
of a baton terminating with the hand of justice, another terminating in a 
fleur de lis, the two crossed through a crown of thorns, and the whole resting 
on a tasseled cushion. For this early period, the workmanship is of especially 
fine quality. 

Mounts for both clocks and vases are also included in the displays along 
with decorations for furniture too numerous to describe. The whole group 

17 1909-25-13A. 

18 1909-25-80. 



50 




FIf:URE 12. r.ILT BRONZE DOOR LOCK. ABOUT 1 75O. 



comprises, especially in its later phases, an excellent sampling of small 
eighteenth-century work in gilt bronze. 

The whole character of Empire ormolu is different from that of the pre- 
ceding periods. Here the return to antique example is much more literal, 
more exact, even somewhat cold-blooded. The finish of the best examples is 
certainly inferior to none; the execution is almost without fault. Yet the 
whole aspect is cold, austere, much as we would expect in such reaction and 
after such upheaval. Here the figures do not move in the atmosphere we 
felt about the delightful blossoms and ribbons of the eighteenth century. 
These designs make no effort to extend themselves beyond their physical 
limits, but present themselves with truly metallic finality to the gaze of the 
observer. It is a sort of classic art which possesses none of the impetus of 
the original, none of the spark, but exhibits itself, beautiful in death, without 
life and asking none. Witli these things before us, possibly ^ve may not enter 
into such active admiration as we have with earlier pieces; yet in so far as 



51 



mere technical achievement may excite us and virtual perfection of its own 
sort compel our admiration, we must give attention to the works of this 
strange and artificial period. 

Of particularly high quality is an applique representing the train of 
Bacchus in which the god's feminine companions appear in a chariot drawn 




FIGURE 13. GILT BRONZE DOOR LOCK FROM A ROYAL CHAPEL. ABOUT 1715-20. 



by lions surrounded by their folio wers^^ (^ig- 14)- This is a fine bronze to 
look at from every aspect of technique and composition. The drawing of the 
animals and the figures is superb; the quality of the chasing and the gilding 
is of the highest with the hides of the animals, the skins of the revellers, the 
chariot, and the foliations worked out in variations of surface that astonish 
us with their facility. The suggested accusation of coldness, however, can be 
applied even to this lively scene for it is a loveliness of execution rather than 
of conception which intrigues us. It is an aspect of antique art translated 
19 1925-1-31. 



ri2 




FIGURE 14. GILT BRONZE APPLIQUE REPRESENTING THE TRAIN OF BACCHUS. ABOUT 1805. 



into a late idiom, and ^ve find oiuselves captivated by the act of translation 
rather than its residt. 

Also in the groups of nineteenth-century mounts are a number of black- 
ened bronze figures"-" ^vhich must have been strikingly effective against a 
background of highly polished honey-colored wood. The little putti astride 
sea monsters (Fig. 15) are particularly fascinating as they might have been 
taken directly from an ebony frieze adorning a French cabinet of about 1620, 
an apparent stylistic debt ^\hich leads us to an interesting and somewhat 
obvious conclusion. Just how genuine this debt may be is hard to say; but 
other instances support the thought and no immediate contradiction is at 
hand. 

Another group of mounts to ^vhich we may turn is that composed of a 
series of rather heavy ring handles in the form of garlands of fruits and 
flowers,-^ a number of exceptionally assertive knobs and appliques,-- and 
several cornucopias and other containers bursting with the goodness of the 
beneficent seasons.-'^ In that they typify generally the work of their period 
they interest us; but what poverty of imagination they display when con- 
fronted ^\ ith a really good Louis XVI mount from Avhich, in many instances, 

20 \904-l -20 etseq. 

21 1904-20-464. etc. 

22 1904-20-316, etc. 

23 1904-20-36, etc. 



53 





-^m 




llGLKi: 15. liLACKEMI) liRON/E AlTLK^Ut. AlSOLl 1815. 



they take inspiration. Then there are groups of friezes and galleries of 
satisfactory workmanship and good color,-^ acrothemia and palmettes in 
great number^^ (Fig. 16), many of a striking fleshiness, and mounts of 
similar nature in great variety. Such a collection serves well to establish 
a key to the general requirements of this style and to provide a rich source 
at which to observe and understand this sort of ornament. The whole may 
function, in other words, as a source-book of design, and as such is of the very 
greatest value. 

The collection of furniture mounts in the Cooper Union Museum is ad- 
mirably arranged for purposes of study in an extensive series of shallow 
drawers which may be pulled out at the pleasure of the visitor. Each drawer 
is fully labelled. In effect one has available a library of actual objects organ- 
ized for convenience and presented in the most accessible way possible for 
study or pleasure. The student will find his work simplified and his patience 
spared by the present arrangement in the Museum. 

Also available conveniently are the collections of prints and drawings, in 
which much valuable material is to be found, the references housed in the 
Museum Library, and the large groups of photographs and other reproduc- 
tions collected together in the Picture Library. In all, the objects themselves 
and the related references found in the Cooper Union Museum offer a rare 
opportunity to the student or connoisseur for the study and enjoyment of 
this most engaging aspect of decoration in the eighteenth and other centuries. 



James I. Rambo 



24 1904-20-138, etc. 

25 1904-20-243, etc. 



54 



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF REFERENCES FOUND IN 
THE MUSEUM LIBRARY AND PRINT COLLECTION 

Berain, Jean. Oiiiemens iiiveiitez par Jean Berain. Paris, Thuret, n.d. 

Boiille, Andre Charles. Nouveaux dessins de meubles et ouvrages de bronze et de marqueterie. 

Paris, Mariette, n.d. 
Charpentier, Rene Jacques Le. Premier livre de differents trophees. Paris, n.d. 
Delafosse, Jean Charles, ge receuil de I'oeuvre de Delafosse. Paris, 1770. 
Dilke, Emilia Frances, Lady. French furniture and decoration in the XVIIIth century. London, 

1901. 
Encyclopedic, ou Dictionnaire raisonne des sciences, des arts, et des metiers. . . . Paris, 1751-65. 

Recueil de planches . . . , vol. IH, Ciseleur et damasquineur; Doreur. 
Guiffrey, Jules Marie Joseph. Les Caffieri. Paris, 1877. 
Havard, Henry. Les Boulle. Paris, 1893. 

Havard, Henry. Histoire de I'orfevrerie tran^aise. Paris, 1896. 
Jourdain, Margaret. English decoration and furniture of the later XVIIIth century. London, 

1922. chap. XV, Metalwork. 
Lalonde, Richard de. Meubles. Paris, n.d. 

Macquoid, Percy. The dictionary of English furniture. London, 1924-27. \'ol. II, Metal Mounts. 
Molinier. £mile. Le mobilier royal fran^ais aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siecle. Paris, 1902. 
Normand, Charles. Nouveau recueil en divers genres d'ornemens. Paris, Joubert, 1803. 
Peyrotte, Alexis. Divers ornemens. Paris, Huquier, n.d. 
Ranson, Pierre. Oeuvres. Paris, Esnauts et Rapilly, 1778. 
Robiquet, Jacques. Gouthiere. Paris, 1912. 
Saglio, Andre. French furniture. London, 1913. 
The Wallace collection (objets d'art) at Hertford House. Paris, 1903. vol. II. 



16. GUT BRONZE ATPLIQUE. POSSIBLY ENGLISH. 
ABOLT 1810. 




55 



DONORS OF WORKS OF ART, 1949 



Mrs. James A. Aborn 

Anonymous (2) 

George Arents 

Louis C. Baldwin 

Miss Augusta K. Bartholomew 

Miss Alice Bakhvin Beer 

Dr. Rudolph Berliner 

(in memory of Miss Elizabeth Haynes) 
Dr. Gertrude Bilhuber 
Jack Peter Blank 
E. Maurice Bloch 

(in memory of Mrs. Laura Barkus) 
Paul Bonhop Toys, Inc. 
Miss Matilda Brownell 
Miss Claire Butler 
Miss Mabel Choate 
Miss Louise Clemencon 
Miss Verner E. Clum 
Mrs. Arthur Costantino 
Lester C. Danielson 
Mr. and Mrs. Carl C. Dauterman 
The Marquise de Talleyrand 
Mrs. Alfred J. Dillon 
Miss Valerie Dreyfus 
Henry G. D wight 
W. E. Dwyer 
Elisha Dyer 
Merritt E. Farren 
George H. Fitch 
Harry Harkness Flagler 
The French Institute 
Jose Fiunero "^ 

Miss Mary S. M. Gibson 
Mr. and Mrs. G. Glen Gould 
Richard C. Greenleaf 
Mme. Hector Guimard 
Miss Marian Hague 



Mrs. Edward Haynes 

Clayton Hoagland 

Walter Hochstadter 

Mrs. F. Hay ward Hunter 

James Hazen Hyde 

James W. Jasper 

Miss Mary Rutherfurd Jay 

John Judkyn 

R. Keith Kane (from the Estate of 

Mrs. Robert B. Noyes) 
Katzenbach &; Warren, Inc. 
Hans Kuhn 
Mrs. Sidney Ladd 
Mrs. Bella C. Landauer 
Mrs. Roy C. B. Langenberg 
Gaston Litton 
Donald D. MacMillan 
Mrs. Elsie M. McDougall 
Edward F. McGuiness 
Miss G. N. McNeil 
Miss Frances Morris 
Richard C. Neville 
C. McKim Norton 
Mrs. Percy R. Pyne 
James I. Rambo 

Rhode Island School of Design, Museum of Art 
Max Safron 

Skaneateles Handicrafters 
L. V. Solon 
Mrs. Irving Trask 
Irwin Untermyer 
Leo Wallerstein 
Mrs. Thomas Dudley Webb 
Isidor Weinberg 
Lawrence Grant White 
Miss Esther Whited 
Mrs. Cora McDevitt Wilson 



PURCHASES IN MEMORIAM, 1949 



Miss Caroline F. Anderson 

Samuel P. Avery 

Dino Barozzi 

Mrs. Francke Huntington Bosworth 

Mrs. Samuel W. Bridgham 

Miss Mary T. Cockcroft 

Mrs. Cornelius C. Cuyler 

John Deion 

Mrs. William C. Durant 

Elizabeth Haynes 

Miss Eleanor Garnier Hewitt 

Erskine Hewitt 

Lucy Work Hewitt 

Peter Cooper Hewitt 

Miss Sarah Cooper Hewitt 

The Misses Hewitt 

Frederick Formes Horter 



Annah J. D. Lovering Howland 

Mrs. John Innes Kane 

Livingston Kean 

Mrs. Gustav E. Kissel 

Thomas Lam])ert 

Mrs. C. R. Lowell 

Mrs. Harry Markoe 

Mrs. Frank Tobin Maury 

Frederick Rathbone 

Jacob H. Schilf 

Mrs. John B. Trevor 

The Marquis Val Verde de la Sierra 

Robert W. Van Boskerck 

Katherine Strong Welman 

Mrs. T. M. Wheeler 

Miss Carolyn Wicker 

Mrs. A. Murray Young 



56 



DONORS OF SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT, 1949 



Charles B. Harris 
Charles R. Henschel 
Miss Alice Marriott 
Miss Serbclla Moores 
Miss Frances Morris 



Jean Louis Roehrich 
Mrs. John Ren ton 
S. M.'Sahler 
Sterling Films, Inc. 
Dr. Karl Vogel 



DONORS TO THE MUSEUM LIBRARY, 1949 



Mrs. .Anni Albers 

Mrs. Lillian Smith Albert 

Amsterdam. Rijksmiisenra 

Anonymous (3) 

Ardlee Associates 

Dr. P. M. Bardi 

Belgian Considate General 

Michel N. Benisovich 

Brookhn Institute of Arts and Sciences 

Museinn 
Miss Matilda Brownell 
Chicago. Art Institute 

Cooper Union. Dept. of Social Philosophy 
Copenhagen. Nationalmuseet 
Detroit Institute of Arts 
Miss Edna B. Donnell 
Doubleday and Company 
Elisha Dyer 
Edmond Fatio 
Fort ^Vorth Art Association 
The Frick Collection 
Mr. and Mrs. G. Glen Gould 
Max Gluckselig and Son 
Miss Marian Hague 
Calvin S. Hathaway 
Mrs. Ed^vard Haynes (in memory of 

Elizabeth Haynes) 



Walter Hochstadter 
Mrs. Sarah C. W. Hoppin 
Horace L. Hotchkiss, Jr. 
Henry E. Huntington Library 
Miss Mary Rutherfurd Jay 
John Herron Art Museimi 
Kende Galleries, Inc. 
Michael J. Kilmartin* 
Mrs. Edward C. Moen 
Richard E. Morse 
R. C. Neville 
Harold Norton 
Parke-Bernet Galleries, Inc. 
Peabody Museum 
Pierpont Morgan Library 
James I. Rambo 
Miss Anita Reinhard 
Rotterdam. Museum Boijmans 
Saginaw Museum 
San Francisco Museum of Art 
Estate of Belle Skinner 
Stockholm. National Museum 
Mrs. Mara Volkov 
Mrs. Leo Wallerstein 
Lucien T. Warner 



FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM, 1949-1950 



HONORARY BENEFACTORS 

Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 
Mrs. De Witt Clinton Cohen 
Miss Marian Hague 
Mrs. Montgomery Hare 
Miss Edith Wetmore 

BENEFACTORS 
Mrs. J. Insley Blair 
Archer M. Huntington 
Leo Wallerstein 

LIFE MEMBERS 
Mrs. Robert Woods Bliss 
Miss Adelaide Milton de Groot 
James Hazen Hyde 

* Deceased 



SUSTAINING MEMBERS 
Mrs. Neville J. Booker 
The Messrs. Samuels 
Andrew Varick Stout 

SUBSCRIBING MEMBERS 

Henry F. du Pont 

Elisha Dyer 

Harry Harkness Flagler 

Mr. and Mrs. John D. Gordan 

Local No. 142, I.L.G.W.U. 

Frederik Lunning 

The Parsons School of Design 

Mrs. Samuel A. Peck 

Pleaters, Stitchers & Embroiderers Association 

Mrs. Ho^vard J. Sachs 



57 



CONTRIBUTING MEMBERS 

Miss Amey Aldrich 

Miss Lucy T. Aldrich 

Mrs. Edward C. Anderson 

Anton Bailer 

Mrs. Henry J. Bernheim 

Mrs. J. Insley Blair 

Mrs. Albert Blum 

Mrs. Theodore Boettger 

Mrs. Adolphe Borie 

Mrs. Chauncey Borland 

Mrs. A. M. Brown 

Einar A. Buhl 

Mrs. Charles Burlingham 

Mrs. Clarence Chapman 

Mrs. Lincoln Cromwell 

John J. Cunningham 

Baron M. Voruz de Vaux 

Gano Dunn 

Mrs. Henry Belin du Pont 

Miss Florence S. Dustin 

Mr. and Mrs. Jackson Ellis 

Mrs. Max Farrand 

Miss Eunice Foster 

Ginsburg & Levy 

Miss Minnie Goodman 

Mrs. Pascal R. Harrower 

Mrs. Sarah C. W. Hoppin 

Mrs. O'Donnell Iselin 

Jones i Erwin, Incorporated 

John Judkyn 

H. Hoffman Kennedy 

Tom Lee 

Mrs. Dorothy Liebes 

Local No. 66, I.L.G.W.U. 

Mrs. Augustus P. Loring 

Mrs. William R. Mercer 

Mrs. Edward C. Moen 

Mrs. George P. Montgomery 

Mrs. Benjamin Moore 

Mrs. William H. Moore 

Joseph Moreng 

Mrs. A. V. Moschcowitz 

Joseph B. Piatt 

C. A. Pohlers 

Mrs. Percy R. Pyne 

Mrs. Henry C. Quinby 

Mrs. Henry S. Redmond 

Miss Gertrude Sampson 

Hardinge Scholle 

Miss Evelyn Scott 

Miss Edith Scoville 

Hans Stiebel 

Miss Helen S. Stone 

Mis. Herman F. Stone 

Stroheim & Romann 

Mrs. John B. Trevor 

Mrs. Ernest G. Vietor 

* Deceased 



Miss Susan B. Waring 

Mrs. Thomas Dudley Webb 

Mrs. Vanderbilt Webb 

Dr. and Mrs. Davenport West 

Monroe Wheeler 

Miss Gertrude Whiting 

Albert S. Wright 

George A. Zabriskie 

ANNUAL MEMBERS 

Mrs. Lillian Smith Albert 

Mrs. Stephen Bonsai 

Mrs. Peter Borie 

Carl Bussow 

Mrs. Frank Carrel 

Mrs. Vena Tompkins Carroll* 

Miss Emily Chaimcey 

Miss Jennie M. Clow 

Mrs. E. B. Cole 

Mrs. Frank E. Corbett 

Mrs. Jameson Cotting 

Mrs. J. S. Dal try 

George H. Danforth 

Georges de Batz & Company 

S. H. Dickson 

Mrs. Alfred J. Dillon 

Dikran Dingilian 

Miss Caroline King Duer 

Miss Beatrice Ecclesine 

Miss Helen C. Ellwanger 

Miss Alice S. Erskine 

Miss Henriette J. Fuchs 

Miss Sue Fuller 

The Rev. Mortimer P. Giffin 

Mrs. William Greenough 

Mrs. Marian Powys Grey 

Miss Vera P. Guild 

Miss Marian Hague 

Mrs. Sandor Harmati 

Mrs. Lathrop Colgate Harper 

Selby Haussermann 

Mrs. Edward Haynes 

Mrs. Francis Head 

William Heer 

George S. Hellman 

Mrs. Barklie Henry 

Mrs. Bayard Henry 

Mrs. John G. Hope 

Miss Josephine Howell 

Mrs. Theodore F. Humphrey 

Mrs. William A. Hutcheson 

Miss Mary Rutherfurd Jay 

Mrs. Robert I. Jenks 

Mrs. A. S. Johnston 

Mrs. G. M. W. Kobbe 

Mrs. Agnes Kremer 

Mrs. Anna H. Laessig 

L. Bancel La Farge 



58 



Mrs. Francis Lainont 

Mrs. Sidney Lanier 

Miss Doroth) A. Lardner 

Mrs. E. Lightboinn 

Raymond Loewy 

Miss Helen Lyall 

Lester Margon 

Mrs. Joseph M. May 

Mrs. Walter Scott McPherson 

Mrs. Phillip Ainsworth Means 

Mrs. Ira Nelson Morris 

Partens Printing Corporation 

Dr. Gifford B. Pinchot 

Mrs. A. Kingsley Porter 

E. Kendall Rogers 

Mrs. Charles H. Russell 

Mrs. Victor Salvatore 

Cv Seymour 

Mrs. Gino Speranza 



Maurice Sternberg 

Mrs. J. G. Phelps Stokes 

Raphael Stora 

Miss Helen H. Tanzer 

John Kent Tilton 

Mrs. Roy E. Tomlinson 

Miss Gertrude Townsend 

Harry S. Vosburgh 

Miss Eleanor B. Wallace 

Mrs. G. H. Warner 

Mr. and Mrs. J. B. Watkins 

Mrs. Clarence Webster 

Isidor Weinberg 

Paul Wescott 

Mrs. Nelson C. White 

Mrs. Harrison Williams 

Mrs. Arnold Wilson 

Herbert P. Weissberger 

Paul Zucker 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM 

The Advisory Council of the Museum established in 1937 the following classes 
of membership: 

Benefactors who contribute $1,000 or more 

Life Members who contribute $500 or more 

Sustaining Members who contribute |ioo annually 

Subscribing Members who contribute I50 annually 

Contributing Members .... who contribute $10 annually 

Annual Members who contribute $3 annually 

Checks should be drawn to The Cooper Union Museum Fund, and sent in 
care of The Business Officer, The Cooper Union, Cooper Square, New York 3, 
New York. 



59 



THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM 

COOPER SQUARE and SEVENTH STREET 

is served by these lines of transportation 

B-M. T. SUBWAY Broadway-Seventh Avenue Line — 8th Street Station 

I. R. T. SUBWAY Lexington-Fourth Avenue Line — Astor Place Station 
THIRD AVENUE ELEVATED 9th Street Station 

INDEPENDENT SUBWAY West 4th Street - Washington Square Station 
HUDSON-MANHATTAN 7 UBES 9th Street Station 

FIFTH AVENUE BUS Wanamaker Terminal, Route 5 

BROADWAY BUS, Route 6 THIRD AVENUE BUS 

LEXINGTON AVENUE BUS Route 4 

MADISON-FOURTH AVENUE BUS Routes 1 and 2 

EIGHTH-NINTH STREET CROSSTOWN BUS Route 13 



Printed by The John B. Watkins Company, New York o^^^23i 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 



^-e r~' 




Tole vase. France, about 1815. Painted representation oi: \'enus 
and Anchises on Moiuit Ida. 



VOL 



NO 



JUNE • 1951 



THE COOPER UNION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE AND ART 

TRUSTEES 
Gano Dunn 
Barklie Henry 
Irving S. Olds 
Hudson R. Searing 
Harrison Tweed 

OFFICERS 

Gano Dunn_, President 

Edwin S. Burdell^ Director 

Barklie Henry^ Secretary 

Sheridan A. Logan^ Treasurer 

Elizabeth J. Carbon^ Assistant Secretary and Business Officer 



Albert S. Wright^ Counsel 

David D. Thompson, Superintendent of Buildings 



MUSEUM FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

ADVISORY COUNCIL 

Elisha Dyer^ Chairmcin 

Mrs. Neville J. Booker^ Secretary 

Henry F. du Pont 

Miss Marian Hague 

Mrs. Benjamin Moore 

John Goldsmith Phillips 

Mrs. Grafton H. Pyne 

Mrs. Howard J. Sachs 

STAFF 

Calvin S. Hathaway^ Curator 

James I. Rambo^ Keeper of Decorative Arts 

E. Maurice Bloch^ Keeper of Drawijigs and Prints 

Alice Baldwin Beer^ Keeper of Needlework 

Jean E. Mailey, Assistant Keeper of Textiles 



Mary S. M. Gibson, Curator Emeritus 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 

VOL • 2 • NO • 3 JUNE • 1951 



IN THIS ISSUE of the Chronicle is presented a brief account of the 
remarkable addition made to the Museum's print collection by 
the generosity of Mr. Leo Wallerstein. In a series of gifts over the 
past t^vo years, chiefly of prints by the sixteenth century German 
masters and by Rembrandt, Mr. Wallerstein has greatly strength- 
ened the holdings of the Museum. It is especially heartening when 
a discriminating collector makes so freely available to the public 
the treasures that he has collected with knowledge and care; a show- 
ing of this magnificent gift in the autumn will reveal more fully 
these riches for which the Museum is so grateful. 

This issue contains also, like many of its predecessors, a study of 
a single category of the material included in the Museum's collec- 
tions. More clearly than many crafts the painting of tole illustrates 
the happy alliance of technique and design by which are produced 
objects of perennial appeal. Although tole has been of fairly 
constant use for the past tAvo centuries, and enjoys great favor at 
the present time, sources of information about its history are not 
easy to find; the article in the following pages, it is hoped, will fill 
this small and attractive corner of the bibliography of the decora- 
tive arts. 



63 




^ .s 



hi w 



■ h-1 




C o 



,^ o 



THE GIFT OF LEO WALLERSTEIN 



The Museum has been made the happy recipient of an extensive collection 
ot engravings, etchings, and woodcnts which has been presented by Mr. Leo 
\V^allerstein. 

In t^vehe gifts since December 1948 Mr. Wallerstein has selected 358 
prints from his collection. They consist principally of otitstanding examples 
by master print-makers of Germany in the sixteenth century and of the 
Netherlands in the seventeenth, with particular emphasis on the engravings 
and Avoodcuts of Albrecht Diirer, and the etched ^vork of Rembrandt. The 
George Campbell Cooper collection, received as a bequest by the Museum 
in 1896, ^vas a large and general collection of prints covering all schools from 
the fifteenth to the nineteenth century. Although serving as an ideal nucleus 
for the young museum, it necessarily left wide gaps within the narrower and 
special categories. Mr. Wallerstein's gifts now more than adequately fill a 
long-felt need in the sequence of development of print-making in Germany 
of the sixteenth century. 

The 107 Diirer engravings and woodcuts, supplemented by the holdings 
by the master already in the Museum, form an impressive representation 
covering all phases of one of the most important graphic careers in print- 
making history. The 49 etchings by Rembrandt add equally to the growth 
of the Print Room's collection of the artist's accomplishment in the field, and 
it is interesting to note the preference of Mr. Wallerstein for the mature 
period of his production. The first examples of prints by Hans Sebald 
Lautensack and Israhel van Meckenem come through the generosity of the 
Wallerstein gifts, as ^vell as several of the most important engravings of 
Martin Schongauer. 

Mr. ^Vallerstein recalls that he began to acquire prints on a small scale 
some thirty years ago, that he was greatly stimulated by them and learned 
much from studying them. Later, he augmented these early efforts by pur- 
chasing important prints from dealers here and abroad, and through the auc- 
tion market. He especially credits Dr. Theodor Hampe of the Germanisches 
Museum in Nuremberg^ with valuable advice and assistance. 

Above all, Mr. Wallerstein's collection represents his personal judgment 
and taste. He has never sought completion in any section, preferring quality 

65 



as a determining factor. Astute and discerning, his special interest in the 
small exquisite engravings of Hans Sebald Beham displays the high standard 
of the true collector. 

The donor knows The Cooper Union well. He was a student in the chem- 
istry course of the school from 1903 to 1905. It was during a visit to his old 
school early in 1948 that Mr. Wallerstein was welcomed by Dr. Edwin S. 
Burdell, the Director. On this occasion he saw the Museum. After noting 
the development of the Print Room and its collections, as well as realizing 
the value of the material to students, he decided to make the first of his many 
important gifts to the Museum. 

A very modest man, Mr. Wallerstein dislikes any fanfare which might tend 
to publicize his generosity. He consented to the publication of this note only 
when it was pointed out that there would be many in the future interested 
in knowing something about the donor and his collection. Even then he 
wished it emphasized that his gifts were based on the deep gratitude he felt 
for the privileges afforded him as a student of The Cooper Union and that 
he would be happy if this attitude should serve as an example to others. 

E. Maurice Bloch 



()6 



SOME FRENCH AND ENGLISH TOLE 
IN THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM 



■]"he painting of metal accessories of decora- 
tion, while not the most spectacular nor de- 
manding of the minor arts, is surel)' an engaging 
jjleasiire or occupation, though since the begin- 
nings of the craft, some^vhere late in the seven- 
teenth centiuA , its practice has suffered the usual 
fluctuations of fashion and demand. In recent 
years there has been a healthy revival of interest 
both in the objects themselves and in their pro- 
duction, a fact not surprising in view of the 
decorative and useful value of tole pieces. It is 
diHicidt to imagine an art at which such a variety 
of hands ha\e been tried, hands ranging in skill 
from the most professional to the most plainly 
amateur. But perhaps it is the very fact that a 
pleasing result can reasonably be expected from 
almost any attempt that accoimts for the wide 
expenditures of energy and talent at virtually 
e\erv level. Certainly the eagerness with which 
the production of tole articles is approached to- 
dav Avas fully matched by the lady of fashion of 
the eighteenth century. In a letter to her sister 
written in 1727, Mrs. Pendarves remarks that 
". . . everybody's mad about Japan work, I hope 

to be a dab at it by the time I see you. I will 

perfect myself in the art and bring materials 

with me."i 

Such delight in the learning and application 
of a popular skill is demonstrated two centuries 
and a quarter later by the appearance of a num- 
ber of technical manuals and, indeed, by the 
display on shelf and sideboard of the efforts of 
the newly taught. Behind these modern pieces 
lies the absorbing history of the first years of 
tole painting, of the struggles of the experi- 
menters and technicians, and of the accomplish- 
ments of designer and artist. 

The Museimi is fortunate in the possession of 
a small but eloquent collection of early painted 
tole, most of which originated in France or in 
England. The United States is not yet repre- 
sented in the collections, a lack which we hope 
the future may fill. But the eighteenth and 
nineteenth century objects to be examined sup- 
ply a rich background for the study and enjoy- 
ment of later pieces and are so varied in their 
natine and technique as to provide expressive 
material for discussion. 

The French word itself, tole, is derived from . 
taiile, in turn a form of table, and has the literal 



1 Quoted in Macquoid and Edwards; The dictionary of 
English furniture; London, 1926; Japanning, vol. 3, 
p. 266 et seq. 



meaning of thin sheet or tablet of iron. Thus 
for our purpose "painted tole" would be the 
most acciuate term to use; biU the shorter "tole" 
has found such general acceptance that it will 
be used hereafter to describe tole ware. Further, 
while tole in England generally means painted 
sheets of iron, tinned or utrtinned, it more rarely 
designates painted pewter, a usage more popu- 
larly accepted in France where painted copper 
is also thus described. In the early years of the 
craft, it was called japan, a reference dictated 
by its oriental origin. Indeed, as late as 1779 
we are told in an edition of the Chambers 
Cyclopaedia which appeared in London during 
that year that japanning is the art of varnishing 
"after the same manner as the ^^'orkmen do who 
are natives of Japan, a famous island not far 
from the coast of China." It may be convenient 
here to note that the "tin" of England is called 
Blik in Holland, where pewter is known as Tin. 
When painted, both are there called Wallisch 
laciverk (Welsh lacquer) . 

Lacquered objects had been imported into 
Europe early in the seventeenth century by the 
English, the Dutch, and the Portuguese. But 
it seems unlikely that they enjoyed any status 
other than that of curiosities until the Restora- 
tion when Charles II was responsible for popu- 
larizing small pieces and furniture Avith lac- 
quered surfaces in the oriental style. The first 
articles of domestic manufacture were adapted 
somewhat freely from this same style, and pat- 
tern books, which contained rather verbose di- 
rections for the accomplishment of the art, ap- 
peared late in the century. Stalker and Parker's 
Treatise of Japanning and Varnishing was pub- 
lished in London in 1688 complete with full 
directions and a series of fascinating if crude 
designs (Fig. 3) including a pair of highly en- 
tertaining "Pagod" (pagan) rites. 

But an examination of these early references 
reveals immediately that the secret of true ori- 
ental lacquer had not been imported along with 
oriental lacquered objects. Genuine oriental 
lacquer is composed of a number of coats of the 
sap of a tree, Rhus vernicifera. European japan 
on the other hand made use of other ginns which 
were capable of producing a similar effect. 
Among these were gum-lac or seed-lac, a sub- 
stance deposited on twigs by the insect Coccus 
lacca: dragon's blood, a red-colored resin ob- 
tainable from several plants; isinglass, a gelatin 
got by processing the bladders of several species 

67 



of fish; and gum-copal, another vegetable gum. 
Though not entirely suitable, it is probable that 
these substances were occasionally employed in 
the decoration of metal objects.^ 

The popularity of lacquer and lacquering dur- 



demning at one time "two vile china jars that 
look like modern japanning by ladies." 

The ^vomen of the French eighteenth and 
early nineteenth centuries were also caught up 
in the vogue; Mme. Recamier along with other 




FK.URF. 1. idle tray. England, aboiU 1800. 



ing the eighteenth century has already been 
suggested. It was mentioned to Lady Walpole 
in 1735 as a "polite accomplishment", a sugges- 
tion she seems to have acted on, for a description 
later in the century of the contents of Strawberry 
Hill mentions a cabinet from her hand. It seems 
likely that she would, along with other ladies 
of her time, have decorated metal objects as well. 
The great Horace Walpole appears to have been 
generally unimpressed by such industry, con- 



In 1729, Gumley and Turing, cabinet-makers to the 
King, include in their accounts "japanning four large 
tin receivers in Red with neat drawings in silver . . ." 



elegant ladies is known to have collected avidly. 
This taste for tole in France in the late eigh- 
teenth and early nineteenth centuries may popu- 
larly have been dictated by the hard times fol- 
lowing the Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, 
for the material combined beauty with relatively 
low cost. In England it remained in favor until 
the introduction, aroimd 1840, of electroplating. 
Papier mdche, too, played a part in its decline, 
with many factories previously given over to the 
production of painted metals turning gradually 
to the new and lighter material. 

The practicability of the commercial manu- 



68 



I'actmc c)t painted mclal objects depended laige- 
l\ on the conjunction of three things; demand, 
a stiital)le material to decorate, and a substance 
witii wiiich to decorate. These came together at 
the end of the seventeenth century in the little 
town of I'ontypool, located in Monmouthshire 



a hard lacquer." In this he was successful, 
though it seems he undertook no extended com- 
mercial application of his discoveries. Upon his 
death in 1710, his secret passed to his sons, and 
it is to Edward that credit goes for the first pro- 
duction, aroinid 1730, of the new ware. Ap- 




FiGURE 2. Tole tray. England, about 1810. 



near the ^Velsh border. It was to this place that 
Thomas Allgood, of Northampton, came about 
1660 to join John Hanbury's iron works as a 
manager. Here, where rolled plate, so much 
more smooth and even than the previous hand- 
hammered sheets, was available to him, he 
imdertook his experiments with copperas, or 
ferrous sulphate, a by-product of iron-pickling, 
in an attempt to find "a substance capable of 
application, under heat, to metal, which made 



parently the business was conducted as a family 
affair, with the brothers, their wives, and their 
children working together. Competition appears 
to ha\e arisen quickly and must have been to 
some extent successful, a point on ^vhich Arch- 
deacon Coxe, the historian of Monmouthshire, 
throws an amusing light. With some relish he 
informs us that the factory at Pontypool was 
". . . deficient in the ^vay of polishing to that 
established at Woburn, in Bedfordshire; and 

69 




a=^ 



> 


OT; 


rt 


OJ 


















gj 








O 


C 


h 


w 




fc^ -^ 






?" c/5 



OJ -3 o 



for the purpose of discoverin;^ the secret, 
Edward AUgood (son of Thomas) repaired to 
Woburn in the disguise of a beggar, and, act- 
ing the part of a buffoon, lie actiuilly obtained 
access to the ^vorkshop, and by this means 
acquired the arts of making the leys, the prin- 
cipal ingredient . . ."3 

It was not long after this that Bishop Pococke, 
during a \isit to Pontypool, describes the decora- 
tion of the period (1750-55) which was of ori- 
ental designs in gold on a black lacquered 
groinid. The arrival of Benjamin Barker as chief 
decorator marks the introduction of flower paint- 
ing in a style then known as "Van Huysum" 
flowers.^ These generally were applied on a deep 
tortoise-shell ground for \vhich Pontypool was 
Avell-kno\vn. 

In 1761 a family quarrel split the business, 
part of it, under the direction of Thomas and 
his brother Edward, and Thomas, his eldest son, 
being transferred to the neighboring town of 
Hsk, as Allgood and Company. Another Thomas, 
possibly a cousin of the elder Thomas of Usk, 
continued in Pontypool. By this time imitators 
of Pontypool ^vares had begun to be styled 
"Pontipool Makers." They were located prin- 
cipally in Birmingham and Wolverhampton and 
began operations around the middle of the 
eighteenth century. Bilston was another center, 
such japanners as William Smith, Joseph Allen, 
and Samuel Stone being recorded as working 
there as early as 1709-19; on what sorts of pieces 
these early workmen applied their efforts is not 
clear. In Bristol the firm of J. Bartlett and Sons 
produced bo^vls and canisters, enriched with 
oriental designs in gold on green grounds, which 
were used in the display of their importations 
by members of the East India Company. 

Meanwhile Benjamin Barker had left Ponty- 
pool, and "Billy" Allgood had engaged William 
Pemberton, a rather mysterious character known 
\ariously as "a good tinsmith" and "the best 
decorator of the Midlands," to replace him. 
Pemberton's actual role remains obscure. Fi- 
nancial success seems to have attended the ven- 
tures centering around Pontypool for at the end 
of the century trays painted with landscapes 
brought as much as fifteen guineas. Popular 
acceptance of the wares had reached such pro- 
portions that terms such as "round as a Ponty- 
pool waiter" (used in reference to very stout 
persons) were in general use. The esteem in 
which this painted metal was held is reflected in 
a speech given in 1790 by Sarah Siddons in which 
she praised the blue ground of Pontypool (which 
occurred variously as turquoise, peacock, and 



mazarin) . Esteem of a more local character is 
indicated in an immoderately long set of verses 
composed around 1799 by Thomas Thomas, the 
publican poet of Pontypool. Space permits the 
c|Uotation of only a fragment: 
"The swelling urn its lovely blue displays. 

And beauteous tortoiseshells are vie^\'ed on 
trays. 

O'er brilliant lines your pencils oft were wont 

To glide from narrow crimson to Stormont; 

\'our wreath to pluck, a host of daubers try 

With gaudy glare to catch the unskillful eye. 

But worth superior yet belongs to you; 

'Tis yours to lead, 'tis theirs but to pursue."5 

Fame from yet another source came to Ponty- 
pool tna Thomas Barker, son of Benjamin, who 
for some time had been employed there in the 
decoration of certain pieces. He later went on to 
attain notability as "Barker of Bath," a painter 
of reputation. The works of other men of note 
were copied onto the centres of trays manufac- 
tured in the Midlands, paintings by such men as 
West, Morland, Bigg, and Copley. 

But this glory declined during the early 
nineteenth century after the untimely demise of 
"Billy" Allgood. The widow Allgood did not 
particularly interest herself in her late husband's 
enterprise in Pontypool, preferring rather the 
less hurried rewards of a chandlery, a sort of 
Post Office, and other pursuits. At Usk the All- 
goods had become extinct, the business passing 
into the hands of the Messrs. Pyrke, who spe- 
cialized in black trays with gold borders. Though 
their work was not of great merit, they yet se- 
cured the order for the lacquered fitments of 
Apsley House when the Duke of Wellington re- 
ceived it from the Nation. They later occupied 
themselves, as did so many, almost exclusively 
\vith the decoration of papier mdche articles. 

In the nineteenth century the Old Hall works 
in Wolverhampton became the center of the 
japanning business, employing at one time more 
than eight hundred people. It is probable, how- 
ever, that these were employed in the production 
of papier mdche rather than tole objects. It is 
possible that the invention, in 1834, of Gerard 
Barber of Bilston, that of transferring designs to 
trays, was applied to tole (Fig. 13) in the be- 
ginning and later to the newly popular material. 
It is certainly true that this device assisted the 
decline of the art as objects could mechanically 
be produced by the tens of thousands where only 
hundreds had been possible before. Hand-ivork 
continued, however.6 

Perhaps because French development of trade 



3 Quoted from the Historu of Monmouthshire in the 
Art Journal, 1872, p. 23-25. 

4 After Jan van Huysum ( 1682-1749). 



3 Quoted in the Art Journal, op. cit. 

6 A good chronology of style in the mid-nineteenth cen- 
tury along with notes on individual decorators is to be 
found in the Apollo for November, 1942, p. 137-139. 

71 



with the Orient lagged behind those of England 
and Holland, the art of lacquering was begun 
somewhat later than in England. It was cer- 
tainly practiced in Holland, particularly at Zeist, 
near Utrecht, very early in the eighteenth cen- 
tury. It was from Holland, perhaps by way of 
Wales, that such objects were first introduced 



Proof that tole peinte was used in France in 
most lavish surroimdings is found in a note 
from the Vente du Mobilier de Versailles after 
the Terror; here is mentioned a cabaret of Sevres 
porcelain on a "plateau de tole peinte jagon de 
lac." During the Terror, Hubert Robert, the 
noted painter, is known to have decorated metal 




,'.""■ ijVRi. m. 1 Li.rus, 

J'ar >' r.fl.ni .U 



FIGURE 5. Group of flower and fruit subjects engraved by Jean Pillement. 



into France. Surely much Welsh lacquer found 
its way to that country. In 1744 Simon Etienne 
Martin was granted a monopoly for his vernis 
which he produced with great success for some 
years. The Martins were not the only innovators, 
however. Le Sieur Desforges in 1762 introduced 
a new varnish substance to which he gave his 
name. It was applied on copper. The French 
soon put lacquered metal sheets to a new and 
interesting use — as decorative panels for fur- 
niture. 7 



■^ A reference from Le Mercure for May, 1770, indicates 
that one Sieur Clement was responsible for this novel 
practice, specializing in fruit and flower subjects. 



articles, during his imprisonment in the Con- 
ciergerie, which ^vere exchanged for the require- 
ments of life for himself and fellow prisoners. 
A number of pieces of tole were exhibited in 
1799 at the first Exhibition of Industrial Arts in 
Paris by Citizen Deharme. They were greatly 
admired and no doubt encouraged the entry by 
other artists of their works in later exhibitions. 
Among them may be mentioned le Sieur Taver- 
nier. Rue de Paradis 12, who exhibited in the 
Exposition des Produits de I'lndustries held in 
the Louvre in 1819, and M. Pierre Lessard, Rue 
St. Denis 302, whose pieces found place in the 
Exposition of 1823. The latter specialized in 



72 



lighting devices, and one may safely assume that 
ami)ng his entries tlie t'reqiiently encountered 
hotiillolte lamp, a sort of shaded candle-lamp 
named for a popidar card game, was represented. 
Tole lighting devices were especially in vogue 
ciiaing the early nineteenth century in France; 
not only the bouUlotle lamps but candle urns, 
sticks, and chandeliers are often represented in 
contemporarv illustrations of interiors. 



decorating. French designs current at the end 
of the eighteenth century are not infrecpiently 
found on pieces of characteristically Dutch 
shape. To a lesser degree, tole ^vas produced 
elsewhere in Europe, in Italy, and, around 1800, 
at Brimswick in northern Germany. 

Reference has already been made to the com- 
position of true oriental lacquer and to the early 
attempts in Europe and England to imitate it. 



i^^.^ 




FIGURE 6. Oriental view engraved by Jean Antoine Fraisse (active 1733-1740) for his Livre de 
Dessins ... of 1735. 



Of all the French tole-makers, perhaps the 
most favored was the establishment variously 
gi\en as Au petit Duukerque and Dii petit Dun- 
qucrque. It flourished in the late eighteenth cen- 
tury in the Faubourg St. Honore. One of its spe- 
cialties ^vas decoration in grisaille on light 
grounds. 

The Dutch, while employing the shapes char- 
acteristic of their metalwork, depended heavily 
on the English and French for their painted de- 
sign and even for the painting itself; it is known 
that pieces \vere sent from Holland to Wales for 



Such early substances were, of course, developed 
primarily for application to wood, and the tech- 
nique of tole proper demands some exposition. 

We have a little first-hand information con- 
cerning the metal stocks used by the Allgoods. A 
local accoimt book contains an entry mentioning 
Usk black plate and tin taggers in sheets. 
"Taggers" apparently refer to thin sheet iron, 
tinned in this instance. Such material was used 
in the construction of the bodies of small articles 
such as coasters, tea caddies, snuff boxes, and the 
like. The "black plate" must surely have been 



73 




FIGURE 7- Tole tray. England, Pontypool, about 1770. 



74 



used in the produclion of larger objects such as 
iravs, depencUng by their nature on the inherent 
strength of the material used. Both the taggers 
and plates ^vere undoubtedly rolled, as this 
process provides, ^^'ith its repeated heatings and 
passages through the mangles, the smooth and 
even surface reciuired for the successful applica- 
tion of laccjuer. 

Tnlike later trays, which were formed by dies, 
the edges of early examples were turned up by 
hand and riveted at the corners. This corner 
riveting is thus a dependable indication of early 
date and is especially characteristic of the \vork 
done at Pontypool and at Usk during the middle 
years of the eighteenth century and shortly 
thereafter. The piercing of the borders was, of 
course, necessarily interrupted at the corners to 
allow for this treatment. 

Pewter was another body material in use in 
the English Midlands, though its appearance 
seems to have been later than the ferrous stocks 
thus far noted, such objects as coffee urns and 
chestnut jars being manufactured in this metal. 
For the most part these date from the years 
around 1800, many coming from the hands of 
Pontvpool decorators. It is not unusual to find 
a combination of metals employed in the compo- 
sition of an individual piece; frequently mounts, 
ring handles, knobs, masks, finials, and galleries 
are of some other material than the body of the 
article. Though extended use of pewter is not 
seen in England until the final years of the 
eighteenth century, earlier experiments, at least, 
are kno\\'n to have existed, for in 1622 it was il- 
legal to paint or gild this metal. Such protective 
measures do not seem to have been thought nec- 
essary in the case of Sheffield plate, for strangely 
enough even this was occasionally decorated. 

The French made use of the stocks noted 
abo\e in the manufacture of their japanned 
wares but, to a much greater extent than the 
English, used copper. As its shapes were fre- 
quently formed by the hammer, the technique 
generally associated with silver articles, its sur- 
face was by no means ideally suited for the ap- 
plication of lacquer. Obiects of this nature still 
existing often exhibit a disintegration of the sur- 
faces displayed in the flaking off of the coats of 
groiuid color. On such pieces, following a fa- 
miliar French taste, are often found gilt bronze 
mounts of high quality and great refinement, 
cpiite in contrast with brass, pewter, and lead 
mountings of English and Welsh objects. 

Aside from the uses of decoration, the japan- 
ning of metal, particularly iron, served the very 
practical end of preventing oxidation. Iron stocks 
coidd ne^er have been used in the production of 
domestic utensils without a protective coating to 
preserve it from rust; even tinning proved an 



insufficient measure in this respect, providing 
protection for only a relatively short length of 
time. Thus Allgood's discovery of a compara- 
tively waterproof, heat-proof covering actually 
made possible the application of the products of 
the Hanbury mills to minor household uses 
never before practicable. Allgood's varnish was 
a fired substance which acquired a fine smooth 
surface and considerable hardness in the oven. 
It apparently was composed of a mineral oil 
mixed with pigment and a sludge of some sort, 
this last called "lees" (the "leys" of Archdeacon 
Coxe) , the improvement of ^vhich drove Edward 
to such singular extremes of enterprise. Today 
it is known that simple refined asphaltum toned 
with varnish will fire satisfactorily. 

The Allgoods quickly learned the technique 
of the tortoise-shell ground found on their early 
trays. This effect was achieved by application of 
patches of silver leaf applied to the surface to 
be decorated (the mere tinned surface sufficing 
on smaller pieces) , a coating of red pigment, and 
the wiping out of lights in the final coatings of 
lacquer. Thus were brought about the "beaute- 
ous tortoiseshells" vie^ved with such loyal pleas- 
ure by Thomas Thomas. 

The French are noted for the distinction of 
color and quality of surface of their japanned 
grounds. But perhaps the most striking effects 
got by them were through the use of vernis 
Martin, that remarkable transparent varnish in 
which are, in some instances, suspended millions 
of specks of gold metal. These varnishes occur 
in a number of hues, many of which are really 
gem-like in quality. They all appear to be of a 
considerable delicacy and ^vere enrployed pri- 
marily for the decoration of the exteriors of 
vessels, verrieres, or glass-coolers, ice cups and 
buckets, cache-pots, and the like. Certainly they 
lack the durability of the more plain solid 
grounds. 

The gilding of tole was never done with gold 
paint, but always either with metal leaf or metal 
powders applied to previously sized designs. Use 
of bronze powders of different hues on a single 
piece was developed in 1812 by Thomas Hubbel 
of Clerkenwell. The technique was popular from 
the year of its invention until about 1830. Com- 
plete pictures could be and were applied to trays 
with this method; at the very least, they are 
striking. Silver leaf can be made to give the effect 
of gold by toning it with a transparent yellow- 
ish lacquer, a fact much appreciated in the early 
days of Pontypool. 

From the late years of the seventeenth century 
onward thiough the eighteenth the amateur 
devotee of the arts of japanning found himself 
with no dearth of encouragement or instruction. 
As Stalker and Parker were to exclaim: 



75 



"No amorous nymph need entertain a Dialogue 
^vith her Glass, or Narcissus retire to a Foun- 
tain, to siuvey his charming coimtenance, 
when the \vhole house is one entire speculimi." 
During the eighteenth century a number of 
books \vere issued which professed to reveal the 
true secrets of successful japanning; some actu- 
ally contained really practical information ^vhich 
can easily be followed today. Among these is 
Robert Dossie's The Handmaid to the Arts 
^vhich appeared in London in its second edition 
in 1764. In it are found full instructions for the 
japanning of metals with the composition of all 
substances used in the various processes care- 
fully outlined. The rivalry of English japanners 
with the French is noted with reference to the 



gilding offered. Gilding here is accomplished by 
reducing gold or "Dutch" leaf to powder by 
grinding it with virgin honey, recovering the 
powder through washing, and applying it dry 
upon a size. 

Nor was there a lack of sources of design for 
amateur or professional, either in France or in 
England. The designs appended to Stalker and 
Parker's Treatise have already come under no- 
tice. They are entirely in the oriental vein and 
the purpose of each is clearly indicated, designs 
for even such things as the backs of brushes be- 
ing included. The Ladies Amusement^ contained 
a great many more designs from the hands of a 
number of men; the most interesting, perhaps, 
are those in Pillement's characteristically so- 




FiGURE 8. T6\e verriere. France, about 1765. 



alleged inferiority of the Parisian manufactures 
and the superiority of those of Birmingham 
origin. Then follows a series of instructions for 
the preparation of various colored grounds in- 
cluding the fired "common black" and fired tor- 
toise-shell.S Pigments for decorating are ex- 
plored and comjDlete instruction in the arts of 



8 Interestingly enough, a translation of the instructions 
for the preparation of these fired grounds appears in 
the French Secrets concernant les arts et metiers, 
Paris, 1790, vol. II, p. 825-827. 



76 



phisticated style. Again, as in almost every aspect 
of the decorative arts, the influence of the 
brothers Adam is felt in the classical mode, par- 
ticularly in the shapes of vessels. It is not un- 
usual to find fairly naive flower or genre subjects 
imposed on the surface of a classical derivative, 
such being almost general as a late eighteenth 
century European phenomenon. Flower subjects 



9 The ladies amusement or whole art of japanning made 
easy; London, about 1760. 



in themselves are ^vell represented in contem- 
porary compendia as well as in the exhibited 
works of the outstanding floral artists of the 
times. And finally, in England as well as in 
France, designs ^vere freely adapted from actual 
objects imported directly from the Orient. 

In France, Pillement himself published col- 
lections of engravings of his designs of which a 
large proportion are to be foimd in the Cooper 



even occasionally executed by artists of note. 
The centres of many large trays of the period 
1785-1810 bear versions of well-known paintings 
by established masters, sometimes taken directly 
from the original, more often adapted from 
some published engraving or mezzotint. Decora- 
tive painting in general was in great fashion in 
the late eighteenth century, and the skill of 
many renowned artists was applied to this work. 




FIGURE 9. Pair of tole cache-pots. France, about 17^ 



Union Museum (Figs. 4 and 5) . Others did the 
same. They include not only the familiar ori- 
ental fantasies, but flower pieces, birds, and 
other classes of material. Shortly before the mid- 
dle of the century le Sieur Fraisseio published 
his important and fascinating coflection of ori- 
ental vie^vs and subjects (Fig. 6) . Previously, 
the brothers Martin had follo\ved the vogue for 
chinoiserie in their labors. 

Attention has already been called to the fact 
that designs were frequently adapted from, and 



10 To be found in the Museum Print Room in a later 
edition furnished with a false title page: de Devon- 
hire; Reciieil de differentes fleurs et figures chinoises; 
Paris, Mondhare, about 1770. 



It is perfectly possible that important pieces of 
tole were actually painted by such persons as 
those associated with the workshops of the 
brothers Adam or their followers. 

As one would expect, tole-painting of the early 
nineteenth century continued to depend heavily 
on the classic arts for its inspiration. The involve- 
ments of the heroic figures of antique mythology 
frequently found place on garnitiues of vases, on 
trays, and vessels of many types. Of course the 
technical merit of these pieces varies with the 
skill of the individual decorator from the ^vholly 
admirable to the downright crude. Sources of 
such design are m)riad and it would seem point- 



77 




FIGURE lo. Tole cdche-pot with gilt bronze mounts. France, about 1750. 



78 



less to enumerate tlicm. Peltier's Rcrucil^'^ will 
serve as one example. 

Another class of decoration popular during 
the decades following the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century is the genre scene. To this group 
belongs the work of Thomas Barker (1769-1847), 
already mentioned, whose rustic views of cot- 
tages, countryfolk, and animals animate with 
such favor the classicistic shapes on which they 
were applied. His painting is not confined in 
panels but occurs in vignette on the pieces it 
adorns. Further rustic compositions by such 
painters as George Morland were freely adapted 
for use on tole pieces. Historical themes were 
also explored in tole as they became popular in 
painting. Benjamin West's The Death of Wolfe 
was popularly used as an example of English 
work; in France, scenes from the campaigns of 
Napoleon were executed as the centre-pieces of 
trays. 

Having in mind the foregoing brief historical 
and technical notes, ^ve may begin our examina- 
tion of the objects in the Museum's collection. 
It is always a considerable delight to come upon 
the physical realizations of ^vhat in ^vritten analy- 
ses can at best be interesting abstractions. For 
the seeing of the objects themselves brings into 
life the remarks made upon them and vitalizes 
the processes of understanding and appreciation 
upon which their enjoyment depends. Certainly 
there is as much to enjoy in this group of things 
as there is to learn; as in every collection of merit 
among the decorative arts, admiration of the 
vitality, the skill, and the imagination of the in- 
dividual artist increases with each step through 
the display. 

Among the earliest examples in this group of 
tole pieces are two traysl2 from the factory sup- 
posedly located at Trosnant, in Pontypool, of 
the period 1760-70. They are excellent examples 
of the "Van Huysum" floral style, with their 
polychrome designs superimposed on the deep 
tortoise-shell ground developed so successfully 
at this center. The flowers, comprising roses, 
lilies, and a number of others, are executed with 
great dash, and though this quality is brought 
about perhaps at the expense of detail, the rapid 
brush work is admirably suited to the decoration 
of the flat tray surface on which it is seen. There 
is a union between the shape of the tray and its 
decoration, the tu-o combining to form a single 
object which can be appreciated immediately as 
a whole and complete thing, rather than as an 
example, first, of the painter's, and then of the 
metal-worker's art. There is a great deal of 
strength in the simplicity of the edges and their 



piercing. The corners, defined by deep notches, 
are unpierced to provide substance for the rivet- 
ing which is so characteristic a mark of work of 
this origin and date (Fig. 7) . 

A bit later in jieriod is the cake basketlS with 
scalloped edge and scrolled wire handles. The 
decoration of this piece is somewhat similar to 
that of the trays just described and sadly is much 
disintegrated. A valuable lesson is to be had 
from just this fact, however, for the losses of the 
surface reveal, beneath, the coating of red pig- 
ment which plays so important a role in the 
structure of the tortoise-shell ground. 

Turning to France, a jaair of verrieres,^i deco- 
rated with raised chinoiseries on a deep buff 
ground, claims our attention. These peculiarly 
shaped vessels, with their notched rims, were 
intended for the cooling of glasses, suspended 
upside down about the edge, in ice. Representa- 
tions of them in use are visible in a number of 
the popular colored engravings of the period 
illustrating the intricacies of the indoor exist- 
ence of the last quarter of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. Though with age the ground varnish has 
acquired an obscuring crackle, enough of its 
original nature remains to demonstrate the 
depth and luminosity of the original. The 
charming landscape with figure which composes 
the decoration of the side illustrated (Fig. 8) is 
a good example of European fancy at work on 
Oriental themes. A landowner is seen gazing 
with satisfaction, not unmixed with puzzlement, 
on his holdings which are marked by rustic and 
somcAvhat impractical opulence. The colors, 
heightened by a rich use of gold, are eloquent 
of that peculiar conjunction of softness and 
vividness which characterizes pieces of this sort. 
This is only one pair of a number of such 
examples. 

Also decorated with chinoiseries, but this time 
on a ground of opaque Chinese red, are a pair 
of cdche-potsJ^ The nature of the varnishes used 
on these pieces is in distinct contrast with the 
translucent materials employed on the verrieres 
described above; the quality of the effect here de- 
pends solely upon the excellence of the hue and 
finish rather than upon depth and translucency. 
The French excel in their grounds, a success 
visible in these and other objects of the class. 
The charm of the scenes given need hardly be 
commented on. On the right, in a shaped gold 
enframement, a rider seated on an amiable spir- 
ited horse is greeted by his servant who has just 
emerged from the dwelling in the background. 
The other scene is more simply a group of build- 
ings set among trees by the borders of a stream. 



11 Percier, C. and Fontaine, P. F. L.; Recueil de deco- 
rations interieures . . ., Paris, Les Auteurs, 1812. 

12 1915-16-14AandB. 



13 1914-21-4. 

14 1912-18-17AandB. 

15 1907-19-5A and B. 



79 




Oh C 

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Ph C3 3 



P3 o 



O O 
si Oh 

c 

^ Oh 




Addilional fantasy is given to llie setting by the 
unrestrained use of color in the raised foliage; 
this is a tree which bears red, blue, and greenish- 
hull leaves deftly picked out with gold, certainly 
an unreal though engaging conceit (Fig. 9) . At- 
tention should be drawn here to the quality 
of design and execution exhibited on another 
cdche-poii^6 of this series, one with a superb blue 
ground. 

A fiuther note^vorthy pair of similar objects 
is the pair of very small cache-pots, l'^ again with 
the familiar fanciful oriental enrichments. It is 
in these that the nature of the French trans- 
lucent varnishes may best be observed, and the 
unique French technique of incorporating into 
the varnishes themselves minute gold-colored 
metallic flakes, lending to the material a most 
wonderful richness and sheen. Especially effec- 
tive is the brilliant ruby used as a background 
to the scenic design. 

Very coarse in drawing and crude in concep- 
tion is another cdche-pof^s which is, however, in- 
teresting from a technical standpoint. On a 
plain polished black groimd are pencilled a most 
undistinguished series of pseudo-Chinese deriva- 
tives. The decoration is applied in this case over 
a hammered-uja copper vessel ^vhich has a great 
deal of elegance of form. Here the accusation 
levelled by the English, that French japan was 
liable to chip and flake, is certainly deserved for 
in many areas very little remains of the varnish 
layers. The singularity of the object is further 
emphasized by the quality of the gilt bronze 
mounts which are in the style of tlie mid- 
eighteenth century. The conclusion is almost 
inescapable that this is a piece from the hand 
of an enthusiastic if some\vhat imgifted amateur, 
for the mounts and materials possess every 
aspect of quality the lack of ^vhich so distin- 
guishes the decoration (Fig. 10) . Perhaps it was 
English work of this nature which moved Wal- 
pole to his flattening utterance. 

Possibly the finest and certainly the most im- 
pressive piece of painted tole in the collection is 
a very large oval English tea tray with a most 
satisfying apple-green groimdi9 (Fig. 1) . The 
shape, a graceful oval with a straightsided, 
canted rim deepened at the ends to admit of 
single piercings for handles, is familiar in the 
last decade of the eighteenth century. This evi- 
dence of its period is supported by the painted 
reserve in the centre, a decorative painting of the 
highest possible quality within its type. In a 
classical setting, a returning warrior is about to 
awaken a lightly-clad woman. This is without 



16 1931-86-150. 

17 1907-19-lAandB. 

18 1931-86-151. 

19 1912-18-31. 



doubt a representation of an episode from some 
familiar tale of classical mythology, perhaps that 
of Peleus and Thetis. The style of the work 
speaks strongly of the Royal Academy, and while 
it is not possible to give it with certainty to any 
one artist, it certainly stems from some hand 
close to the circle of Angelica Kauffman. The 
piece is fortunately in excellent preservation and 
stands as a high point in the art of painted tole. 

The Museum possesses two trays of slightly 
later date, one painted with a three-quarter fig- 
ure of a woman musing over a letter20 (Fig. 2) , 
the other with a lady seated in a summer gar- 
den2l. The painted medallions of both of these 
trays are in all probability free adaptations of 
the published engravings of well-known artists. 
The workmanship, while pleasing enough, is not 
of an especially high order, surely not of the 
quality of the example presented above. Repre- 
sentations of late eighteenth century English 
ladies in attitudes of domestic preoccupation or 
merely in attractive contemplation seem to have 
enjoyed a vogue as subject-matter for tea waiters. 
In these cases immediately before us the ele- 
ments of decoration most ^vorthy of our atten- 
tion are the finely painted and gilt borders 
\vhich are admirably executed with great sure- 
ness. These trays are, of course, commercial 
productions entailing the skills of the metal- 
worker, the layer-on of grounds, the painter and 
the gilder. 

A pair of French cdche-pots,22 similar in shape 
to those already discussed, is decorated after the 
classical mode simply in black on a reddish 
ground with nymphs astride fabulous sea horses. 
During the latter part of the century the fashion 
for chinoiserie found competition in a great in- 
terest in the classical and the classicistic, of 
^vhich these vessels are examples. The scheme of 
colors suggests at once that discoveied in ancient 
vase painting, though, of course, in both tech- 
nique and expression these flo^ver-pot holders 
have little to do with the older art. In them- 
selves they have great charm as reflections of a 
classic revival. 

In the next group ^vhich we are to discuss, the 
influence of classical antiquity is very strongly 
felt from a number of aspects. The basic shapes 
of things are in many cases dictated by antique 
objects or by ornamentalists depending directly 
on the antique for their impetus. Decorative 
borders stemming from classical modes, the 
classical finial, the urn, the mask — all find place 
in the productions of the English Midlands 
around 1800-1815. The really amusing thing 
about the class of tole coming from Pontypool 



20 1912-18-35. 

21 1912-18-34. 

22 1907-18-24AandB. 



81 



al this lime lies in tiie supcriniposilioii on the 
shapes and the association with the other classi- 
cisticelements of perfectly representative English 
rustic paintings of the period. In this connection 
we are apt to think especially of Thomas Barker 
who specialized at this time in stich painted em- 
liellishment, before proceeding to the firmer 
groimd of fame. The Mnseinn is fortunate in 
the possession of a small number of pieces the 
painting of which may be assigned to this artist. 
The most important of this group are t\vo coffee 
urns23 decorated in polychrome and gold on 
black grounds. The subjects represented are 
rustic villages or farms peopled with country- 
folk and enlivened with domestic animals. On 
one, a man conducts his horse-drawn cart 
through the tree-lined streets of a village and 
past a cottage door at \vhich a group are en- 
gaged in conversation, a dog barking at their 
feet. The village church is seen in the back- 
ground. All this is in vignette under a debased 
classicistic border in toned gilding from which 
spring fwo lion masks bearing riirg handles. The 
top is lifted by means of a gilt flame finial and 
the whole cylindrical body is supported on a 
pierced squared stage in which provision is made 
for the heating lamp (Fig. 12) . The second, in 
the shape of a true urn and supported on three 
scrolled legs, bears a view of a peasant's cottage 
in front of which stand a pair of goats, a lamb, 
and a group of people (Fig. 11). This whole 
piece rests on a shaped stand fitted with a 
pierced ring to hold a lamp. Where the first was 
constructed of tinned iron sheets with brass 
masks, this one is entirely of pe^vter. A third 
coffee urn is closely similar in ornament and 
decoration, but the jjainting is probably by an 
artist close to Barker. Thomas Barker is surely 
responsible for the decoration of a bread tray be- 
longing to this group. 24 

Scenic painting also came into use on tole 
pieces of the early French nineteenth century. 
In the Museum's collection are two extremely 
handsome squared flaring vases,25 each set into 
gilt winged lion feet disposed upon a square 
socle (one is illustrated on the cover) . As one 
would expect, the scenes painted on their sur- 
faces are scarcely rustic, representing classical 
landscapes enriched with classical architecture 
and enlivened with classical figures. The vases 
are very pleasing in color and the conjunction 
of gilding u'ith red marbled bases is most effec- 
tive. Red and gold was, of course, a favorite 
combination of the French Empire style, and we 
find it again on a j^air of smaller unmounted 



23 1912-18-5 and 1912-18-3. 

24 1912-18-25. 

25 1912-18-7AandB. 
2u 1912-18-8AandB. 



v:ises26 of similar shape. The decoration on 
these is entirely gilt and is composed of borders 
and trophies. 

Quite unlike the preceding are a pair of 
painted pewter chestnut urns27 of about the 
same period and of a type generally attributed 
to Pontypool or associated factories. The deco- 
ration is more characteristically Dutch, however, 
and is composed of a series of large, rather regu- 
lar blossoms set on an irregular arabesque of 
stems and leaves. The shape is that of a simple 
antique urn, the body embellished with a pair 
of lion mask ring handles and the pointed top 
terminating in an acorn finial (Fig. 14) . These 
chestnut jars were used during holiday seasons 
to hold chestnuts hot from the fire; at other 
times they served as purely decorative mantel 
garnitures. They invariably occur in pairs, of 
ivhich the Museum possesses two. 

The mid-nineteenth century in England sa^v 
a return to orientalized, rather than oriental de- 
sign. The mode frequently was called Indian; 
its characteristic lack of consistency and restraint 
^vere well exemplified in the Prince Regent's 
Royal Pavilion at Brighton. An example in 
tole is seen in a large rectangular tray28 with 
rounded corners, decorated in gold and colors 
on a black ground. The piece is not without 
quality though it does not bear comparison with 
objects of the great periods of the craft. It ex- 
hibits the characteristic random choosing of ele- 
ments, which bear little relation one to the 
other, to fill space. Exotic birds, fountains, and 
never-never flowers were all popidar devices and 
are here used (Fig. 15) . This tray is a valuable 
example technically because we find on its sur- 
face several shades of bronze -powder gold toned 
with glazes to heighten or mute their effect, by 
this time certainly not a new idiom, but one in 
^vhich the commercial houses had become ex- 
ceedingly fluent. 

This use of several varieties of bronze powders, 
however, is best demonstrated on a French tray 
of about 1830 bearing the scene. Napoleon at 
Frankfort.^^ Aside from a very restricted range 
of colored glazes (mainly umbers and other 
earth colors) the entire rather complicated scene 
is accomplished wholly in gold of several types. 
Such historical subjects were widely used on 
trays; this one is signed: Auger — fils, referring 
most probably to Adrien Victor Auger (1787-?) , 
a Parisian painter of historical and genre works. 
The drawing of the figures is of considerable 
merit and the composition as a whole is well 
conceived (Fig. 16) . 

These notes by no means complete a list of the 



27 1912-18-6AandB. 

28 1931-80-96. 

29 1912-18-33. 



83 



Museum's collection, which includes in addition 
a number of objects, both small and large, which 
will prove of interest to the visitor. Anrong these 
are two coffee urns with the pear-shaped bodies 
so typical of Dutch taste, a pair of delightfully 
painted coasters, and a group of other pieces of 
greatly varying character. 

The collection will be found in the Museum's 
metalwork gallery arranged for the pleasure and 
convenience of the visitor on a series of nine 
shelves. A label bearing a brief description of 
each piece serves each shelf. In addition to the 
objects themselves, there are available to those 



interested the very extensive facilities of the 
Museum's Section of Prints and Drawings where 
original sources for designs for japanning, some 
of which have been mentioned above, may be 
consulted at leisure. Further, the excellent re- 
sources of the Museum Library are easily at the 
call of student, expert, or casual onlooker, and 
provide an added richness of material for those 
who may desire to pursue additional investiga- 
tion into the subject of tole and its sister decora- 
tive arts. 

James I. Rambo 




FIGURE 15. Tole tray. England, about i860. 



84 




FIGURE 16. Tole tray painted with a representation of Napoleon at Frankfort. Signed: Auger-fils. 
France, prol:)ably Paris, about 1830. 



85 



SHORT LIST OF REFERENCES 
IN THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM LIBRARY 



Allemagne, Henry Rene d". Les accessoires du costume et du mobilier depuis le treizieme siecle 
jusqu'au milieu du dix-neuvieme siecle. Paris, 1928. vol. 3, plate 325. 

Cardiff. National Museum of Wales. Guide to the collections of Pontypool and Usk japan. Cardiff, 
1926. 

Chambers, E. Cyclopaedia or, an universal dictionary of sciences. London, 1779, vol. 2, Japanning. 

Dossie, Robert. The handmaid to the arts. 2nd ed. London, 1764. vol. 1, pp. 493-495. 

Fletcher, John Kyrle. The painted tray. Apollo, vol. 26, Aug., 1937, pp. 87-92. 

Glynn Vivian Art Gallery, Swansea, Wales. Catalogue of the special loan exhibitions. Swansea, 1914. 

Green, W. H. An extinct manufacture; the old Pontypool japan-ware. The Art Journal, 1872, 
pp. 23-25. 

Hare, Mrs. Montgomery. Tole vernie, or japanned metal. Bulletin of the Garden Club of Ajnerica, 
May, 1939, pp. 16-19. 

Havard, Henry. Dictionnaire de rameublement et de la decoration. Paris, n.d., vol. 8, pp. 1358-59. 

Hodgson, Mrs. Willoughby. The art of japanning. Antiques, vol. 2, Aug., 1922, pp. 65-67. (reprinted 
in Apollo, vol. 45, April, 1947, pp. 97-99^) 

Hughes, G. Bernard. Picture trays. Antiques, vol. 18, Oct. 1930, pp. 318-320. 

Keyes, Homer Eaton. The japanned wares of Pontypool and Usk. Antiques, vol. 32, July, 1937, 
pp. 12-14. 

Lounsbery, Elizabeth. Tole. American Homes and Gardens, vol. 11, July, 1914, pp. 244-247. 

Macquoid, Percy, and Edwards, Ralph. The dictionary of English furniture. London, 1924-27, 
vol. 2, pp. 266-271. 

Old English picture trays. Apollo, vol. 36, Nov. 1942, pp. 137-139. 

Secrets concernant les arts et metiers. Paris, 1790, vol. 2, pp. 825-827. 

Stalker, John, and Parker, George. A treatise of japanning and varnishing, being a compleat dis- 
covery of those arts. Oxford, 1688. 

Stephen, Robert. Pontypool japan ware. Apollo, vol. 46, Nov. 1947, pp. i2i-i24f. 

Walston, Lady Florence. Concerning tole peinte. Connoisseur, vol. 87, April, 1931, pp. 240-243. 
. Tole peinte. Connoisseur, vol. 73, Nov. 1925, pp. 144-152. 



86 



DONORS OF WORKS OF ART, 1950 



Allen Silk Mills 

American Xeedlecral'ts, Inc. 

Aiionvmoiis (3) 

Ari>os\ Book Stores 

Isabella Barclay Inc. 

Michel X. Benisovich 

Miss Marcia A. Bill 

Mrs. J. Inslev Blair 

E. Maurice Bloch 

Mrs. Leonard Bloch 

//; tnetuory of Mrs. Laura Barkiis 
Mrs. Adolphe Borie 
Miss Constance \V. Brand 
Brighton Art Gallery and Museum 
Mathew A. Callender 
Miss Mable Choate 
The Cooper Union Art School 
Mrs. Sarah S. Dennen 
Miss Marguerite E. DeWitt 

in memory of her Mother, 

.\ntoinette B. DeWitt 
Mrs. Henry B. du Pont 
Elisha Dyer 
Mrs. Morris Ernst 
Herr Doktor Fahrer 
Mrs. Edith L. R. Fisher 
Dr. John N. Gibson 
Mrs. Carola R. Green 
Richard C. Greenleaf 

in memory of his Mother, 

Adeline Emma Greenleaf 
Mrs. Solomon R. Guggenheim 
Madame Hector Guimard 
Miss Marian Hague 
Miss Mabel Haynes 
Edward Ringwood Hewitt 
Walter Hochstadter 
Holman's Print Shop 
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Horace L. Hotchkiss, Jr. 
Samuel A. Howes 
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Mrs. William A. Hutcheson 



Imperial (jlass Corporation 

Mrs. W. H. Jackson 

Miss Mary Rutherfurd Jay 

John Judkyn 

Kalzenbach and Warren, Inc. 

Daniel Kelleher 

Laverne Originals 

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Fru Revisor I. C. Linidsgaard 

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Mrs. Eugene Mabeau 

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Nancy McClelland, Inc. 

Miss Millicent McLaughlin 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art 

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Miss Margaret Palmer 

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James I. Rambo 

T. H. Robsjohn-Gibbings 

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I. E. Ernestina Graefin 

von Schoenborn-Wiesentheid 
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Erhard Weyhe 
Miss Gladys Wiles 
Baion Zandt 



PURCHASES IN MEMORIAM, 1950 



Mrs. Samuel W. Bridgham 
Commander Henry H. Gorringe 
James O. Green 
Mary Hearn Greims 
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Erskine Hewitt 
The Misses Hewitt 



Sarah Cooper Hewitt 

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Lady Mendl 

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William G. Salomon 

Jacques Seligmann 

Katherine Strong Welman 



87 



DONORS OF SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT, 1950 



Mrs. Lillian Smith Albert 
Mrs. E. Gerry Chadwick 
Elisha Dyer 

Eagle-Otta\va Leather Company 
Miss Edith E. Emmet 



Miss Marian Hague 
Ohio Leather Company 
Miss Serbella Moores 
Tanners' Coimcil of America 



DONORS TO THE MUSEUM LIBRARY, 1950 



A La Vieille Russie 
Alphaeus H. Albert 
Amsterdam. Rijksmiiseum 
Anonymous (2) 
Michel N. Benisovich 
Dr. Walter Boll 
Arthur Bolton 
Buffalo Fine Arts Academy. 

Albright Art Gallery 
Mrs. E. C. Chadbourne 
Ciba Company, Inc. 
Cleveland Museum of Art 
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Copenhagen. Nationalmuseet 
Cremona. Museo Civico 
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Elisha Dyer 
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Freer Gallery of Art 
Charles A. Frueauff 
Madame Hector Guimard 
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Havana. Corporacion Nacional de Turismo 
Mrs. Edward Haynes 

in memory of Elizabeth Haynes 
Miss Mary Rutherfurd Jay 
John Herron Art Institute, Indianapolis 



Kende Galleries, Inc. 

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M. H. De Young Memorial Museum 

Lester M argon 

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Newark Museunr Association 

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Pierpont Morgan Library 

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Tarrasa, Spain. Museo Textil Biosca 

John Kent Tilton 

Vatican. Biblioteca Vaticana 

Village Improvement Society, 

Jaff'rey Center, N. H. 
Virginia Museum of Fine Arts 
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Peter B. Zouboff 



FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM, 1950 - 1951 



HONORARY BENEFACTORS 

Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 
Mrs. De Witt Clinton Cohen 
Miss Marian Hague 
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Miss Edith Wetmore 

LIFE MEMBERS 

Mrs. Robert Woods Bliss 
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BENEFACTORS 
Mrs. J. Insley Blair 
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SUSTAINING MEMBERS 
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SUBSCRIHING MEMHKRS 
Mrs. \\'erncr Abegg 
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CONTRIBUTING MEMBERS 

Miss Amey Aldrich 

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Original Textile Company 
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ANNUAL MEMBERS 

John Ahrens 

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89 



VV. Carlton Dresser 
Miss Caioline King Diier 
Miss Beatrice Ecclesine 
Miss Helen C. Elhvanger 
Miss Alice S. Erskine 
H. Russell Farjeon 
James Fisher Northrop 
Mrs. William G. Eraser 
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Madame Hector Guimard 
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Miss Marian Hague 
Miss Marie-Helene Hallgarten 
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90 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM 

The Advisory Council of the Museum established in 1937 the following classes 
of membership: 

Benefactors who contribute $1,000 or more 

Life Members w4io contribute $500 or more 

Sustaining Members who contribute $100 annually 

Subscribing Members who contribute $50 annually 

Contributing Members .... who contribute $10 annually 

Annual Members who contribute $3 annually 

Checks should be drawn to The Cooper Union Museum Fund, and sent in 
care of The Business Officer, The Cooper Union, Cooper Square, New York 3, 
New York. 



91 



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is served by these lines of transporiation 

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CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 




L 




1 


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1 A 



i:x/^i.'\/'/« T. 



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foject tor a "Museum of history, art & science" 

Prf)posecl as the top story of The Cooper Union 

Probably drawn by Frederick A. Peterson, 

architect of the building, about 1854 



VOL 



NO 



JUNE • 1952 



THE COOPER UNION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE AND ART 

TRUSTEES 

GANO DUiNN 

Barklie Henry 
Irving S. Olds 
Hudson R. Searing 
Harrison Tweed 

OFFICERS 

Gano Dunn, Chairman of Trustees 

Edwin S. Burdell, President 

Barklie Henry, Secretary 

Sheridan A. Logan, Treasurer 

Elizabeth J. Carbon, Assistant Secretary and Business Officer 



Albert S. Wright, Counsel 

David D. Thompson, Superintendent of Buildings 



MUSEUM FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

ADVISORY COUNCIL 

Elisha Dyer, Chairman 

Mrs. Neville J. Booker, Secretary 

Henry F. du Pont 

Miss Marian Hague 

John Goldsmith Phillips 

Mrs. Grafton H. Pyne 

Mrs. Howard J. Sachs 

S TA F F 

Calvin S. Hathaway, Director 

James I. Rambo, Keeper of Decorative Arts 

E. Maurice Bloch, Keeper of Draxvings and Prints 

Alice Baldwin Beer, Keeper of Textiles 

Jean E. Mailey, Assistant Keeper of Textiles 



Mary S. M. Gibson, Curator Emeritus 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 

VOL . 2 • NO • 4 JUNE • 1952 



AN INTRODUCTION TO 
THE COLLECTION OF DRAWINGS 

Although for fifty years the Museum has steadily maintained on 
display several thousand dra^vings, ^vith other thousands accumulating 
in reserves, the richness of its graphic collection seems relatively un- 
known. Up to the present time it has not been possible to ptiblish any 
catalogue of drawings;^ indeed, it is little more than a decade since a 
specific staff position was created for the care and sttidy of this section 
of the Museum's holdings. While the detailed examination of this 
material has by no means been completed, it has been carried far, so 
that it is no^v^ possible to present a brief survey of this unusual ac- 
cumulation. 

The history of the assembling of the drawings is in itself ^vorthy o£ 
recording. Generous gifts have accounted for much, purchases have 
brought more; and the fact that the Museum has never had any assured 
annual income for the purchase of works of art is a further sotirce of 
admiration for the accomplishment of the Museum's founders, the 
Misses Hewitt. Already in 1900, less than four years after the formal 
opening of the Museum, these ladies were negotiating for the collection 
of Italian dra^vings formed by Cavaliere Giovanni Piancastelli, Director 
of the Borghese Gallery in Rome. Under pressure for a prompt deci- 
sion, and unable at the moment to see in Rome the collection that could 
not be for^varded for leismxly inspection in New York, Miss Sarah 
Cooper Hewitt pressed into service the American novelist long resident 
in Italy, F. Marion Crawford, and on the strength of his reports pur- 

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chased that portion of the Piancastelli Collection that appeared most 
suitable to the needs of the young Museum. Approximately 3.500 draw- 
ings were contained in this group, representing architectural design, 
interior architecture, furniture, metalwork, book illustration, ornament 




Figure 5. Study of a greynound 

Pen-and-ink and wash 

Italy, 1550-1600 

From the Piancastelli Collection; purchased 1901 



J^6{-3cj- il^ 



and decoration, as well as anatomical study and other ^vork of the 
Italian academies, and a not inconsiderable number of purely pictorial 
compositions. The cost of the purchase was met in part by the Misses 
Hewitt, in part by contributions made by such of their friends and 
supporters as Mrs. Charles B. Alexander, Henry Clews, Ogden Codman, 
Mrs. J. Woodward Haven, Erskine Hewitt, E. Willard Roby. Thomas 
Snell and Mrs. J. Clarence Webster. 

Although unable to acquire the entire Piancastelli Collection, Miss 

98 



He^vitt did not long remain uninformed of the portion that had not 
come to the Cooper Union Museum. This, more than twice as large, 
\vas bought in 1904 by Mrs. Edward D. Brandegee, of Boston, who made 
it available to Miss Hewitt for study and comparison with the material 




CdNA/PiH-Rv /\S^S6> 



Figure 6. Elephants attacked by the ■T%-ogTodytes;lstudy for an 



illustration to Pliny, Natural History. Book VIII, Chapter 8 
Ink and wash, by Jan van der Straet, called Stradanus (1523-1605) 

Executed in Italy, about 1590 
From the Piancastelli Collection; purchased 1901 



here. Ultimately, in 1938, Mrs. Brandegee generously gave the Museum 
the opportunity to acquire the majority of her portion of the Piancastelli 
drawings, some 8,200 in number, so that with inconspicuous omissions 
the entire collection has been reunited. 

This acquisition has done nothing toward alleviating the lamented 
scarcity of Michelangelo drawings in the United States, but it has ac- 
complished a great deal for those who are interested in tracing the 
development of architectural and decorative design in Italy from the 
seventeenth century into the nineteenth. The Battle of the Ancients 
and the Moderns, still fought in our o^vn day ^vhenever we erect such 

99 




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Figure ii. Proiect for 



^saggXTT^^^ 



Projec^t fo^ the sculptured decoration of a royal barge 
Pen-and-ink on vellum, by Pierre Puget (1622-1694) 
France, about 1650 
From the Decloux Collection; purchased 1911 



l%H ~ A.*^- Z<^'^ 



102 



monumental structures as the Jefferson Memorial in Washington, has 
for all practical purposes been decided. It is almost inconceivable, for 
example, to this year's traveller that as recently as forty years ago 
Baedeker should still have been making this comment on the Libreria 




Co^Pft.fV{ 3c^o- 6 



\cii^^^j2C>^( 



Figure 12. Study for an engraving showing the preparation for 

moving the Column of Antoninus Pius in 1705 

Pen-and-ink and wash, by Francesco Fontana (1668-1708) 

Italy, Rome, 1705-1708 
Purchased, 1942 



in Venice: "The effect is so fine as to justify certain liberties Sansovino 
has taken, such as that of enlarging the metopes at the expense of the 
triglyphs and architrave." We tend today to split other hairs; but an 
understanding of the architectural design of previous centuries and, 
through that, of the social structure and outlook of our ancestors, is 
based upon just such information as the design projects in the Piancas- 
telli Collection make available. 

Rome 'vvas not built in a day, or in an idle moment; and. as it happens, 
four of the artists especially '^vell represented in the Piancastelli accumu- 
lations each played his role, larger or smaller, in the gradual enrichment 
and embellishment of the chief centre of Western Christendom. The 
earliest of these is Jan van der Straet (born in Bruges, 1523; died in Flor- 
ence, 1605), who, besides producing cartoons for the tapestry factory 
of Cosimo de' Medici in Florence, ^vorked ^vith Vasari in the Vatican 

103 




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Figure 13. Project tor wall decoration in a drawing-room oi the Palace oi Caserta 

Ink and water-color, by Nicola Fiore 

Italy, Naples, 1775 

From the Piancastelli-Brandegee Collection; purchased 1938 



104 



from 1550 to 155^',. Van der Straet, perhaps more familiar under his 
Latinized name, Stradanus, was extensively published by the enter- 
prising print-makers of Antwerp; and the Museum possesses a number 
of dra"wings from his hand that were prepared for the engravers of 






Figure 14. Still life offish with parrot 
Crayon on green paper, by Jean-Baptiste Oudry (1686-1755) 

France. 1740 
From the Sarah Cooper Hewitt Collection; purchased 1938 



book illustrations and series of illustrative prints (Fig. 6). 

Another man ^vho made a small addition to the developing archi- 
tectural richness of Rome was Carlo Marchionni (1702-1786). Architect 
and engraver, sculptor and caricaturist, builder of the Ne^v Sacristy of 
St. Peter's, he is represented here by a handful of architectural studies 
that carry on into his century the spirit of the great Palladio. 

Later in the century came the equally versatile, and far more accom- 



lor; 



plished, Guiseppe Valadier. Grandson of a French metalworker who 
had come to Italy early in the century, son of the metahvorker and 
master goldsmith who cast the great bell of St. Peter's, Valadier was a 
prize-winner at the age of thirteen, when in 1775 he gained recognition 





m^^^^P^ j^i-7i. :'7'T SS^^ f^^S^^g^ 



:S*^--*-^ ^^..^^^^^A ll'cr- 



Figure 15. Project lor a library bookcase I 

Pen-and-ink and wash, by Thomas Chippendale (1718-1779) 
England, 1761 
Purchased 1949 



in the Concorso Clementino. He was thoroughly trained in design, and 
equally well grounded in technical knowledge; only twenty-three when 
he was obliged to assume the management of his father's goldsmithing 
establishment, he operated this successfully. Architect of the Vatican 
and of the City of Rome, his genius ranged over a wide field, from the 
publication of books of his designs to the reconstruction of the Arch 
of Titus and the designing of many individual structures. His most 
conspicuous achievement, however, was the redesigning and rehabili- 
tation of the Piazza del Popolo, which for generations had presented an 
unseemly squalor to the traveller arriving from the north. 



106 



The (halvings by \'^alaclier in the Museum's collection are a delightful 
reflection of a fertile, incisive mind and an easy mastery of problems in 
design. With equal facility are sketched grandiose schemes for town- 
planning, for country-houses and palaces (Fig. 22), goldsmith's designs. 




Tisure 1 



'alimetmaker's Shop; study for illustration to the R^ecii^l de Plafu^ies, 

Vol. IV, pi. 1, of Diderot's Ency dope die 

Ink and wash; France, about 1765 

From the Decloux Collection; purchased 1911 



projects for cabinetmakers, and a host of the ornamental strtictures that 
give life and beauty to a city and its free spaces. There are even, for 
good measure, a fe^v sttidies for such displays of fireworks as he was fre- 
quently called upon to design. Fortunately, the Museum possesses some 
hundreds of sheets from his hand, and they are among the most reward- 
ing of the entire Piancastelli purchase. 

A slightly later figure, by no means as accomplished as Valadier but 
curiously interesting today, is Filippo Agricola (1776-1857). Born in 
Urbino of a family originally German (Bauer into Agricola). he is no'vv 
likely to be kno^v^n to Americans only as the designer of the cartoons 



10^ 



for the inescapable mosaics on the facade of San Paolo fuori le Mura at 
Rome. The handful of drawings by which he is represented in the 
Cooper Union Museum, however, presents the man as an entirely 
unexpected voyager into regions customarily thought to have been 




w _____ __ _. 

Figure 17. Sketch for an overdoor 

Charcoal and wash 

France, about 1775 

From the Decloux Collection; pvirchased 1911 



discovered by the twentieth century. 

In the simplicity of self-esteem we are prone to regard the Tvork of 
our predecessors as an interesting, if unrealized, forecast of our own 
more considerable achievements; but it is equally possible to regard 
these studies by Agricola as testimony to the perdurable vitality of 
classical antiquity, reinterpreted in a manner that at least superficially 
resembles some of the expressions of Picasso and Chirico. 

Even before the Piancastelli drawings arrived, others of somewhat 
similar character had been acquired in New York, some from the large 
collection formed by John J. Peoli that was dispersed at auction after 
his death in 1894.^ Another early acquisition was an unusual group of 

108 



cartoons tor French printed cottons, of the late eighteenth century and 
the first years of the nineteenth, '^vhich was purchased in 1898. 

Another collector, ^vho for some years had been gradually acciniiti- 
lating. in Paris atiction rooms and anticjuaries' shops. French archi- 




C!^>A^^£.1\^ £^*]3 



^Figure 18. The Nativity 

Pen-and-ink and sepia washes 

Italy, about 1770 

From the Piancastelli Collection; pvnxhased 1901 



tectural and decorative designs, became known to the Hewitts at about 
this time. Leon Decloux, an architect living at Sevres, had managed to 
bring together not only a large number of ornament prints and books 
of design, ranging in date from the seventeenth into the nineteeth 
centtiry, but possessed approximately five hundred original drawings, 
many of first rank. He released a few in 1907, a few more in 1908, and 
finally the bulk of his collection ^vas purchased in 1911. through the 
contributions of the Council for the Museum. Individually charming, 
in the aggixgate these dra^vings are a key to the ^vhole range of archi- 

loq 



^ f^int. . ova to ^ a mjui ciic^ 




Figure 19. Design for the decoration of a porcelaii 



lain tureen and tray 
Pen-and-ink and water-color 
France, probably Sevres, about 1775 
From the Piancastelli-Brandegee Collection; purchased 1938 



ind trav 



tectuial and decoratixe taste in France ot the iintolding eighteenth cen- 
tury, beginning -wdth such exponents of the taste of Louis XIV as BouUe 
(1642-1732) (Fig. 7). and Puget (1622-1694) (Fig. 11), carrying along 
Avith Toro (1672-17^^,1) and the first development of rococo design with 




Figure 20. Fantastic masquerade 
Pen-and-ink, with water-color and ink washes, by Jean-Charles Delafosse (1734-1789) 

France, about 1780 
From the Decloux Collection; purchased 1911 



Oppenort (1672-1742) and Meissonnier (1695-1750) ; then Nicolas 
Pineau (1684-1754). perhaps better known for his work at Peterhof 
than for anything that he executed in France; and following to the last 
days of the aiicien regime with designs by Belanger (1744-1818) for 
Marie Antoinette (Fig. 21). For good measure, the Decloux group 
even included a few drawings produced under the First Empire and, 

1 1 1 



at the earlier end o£ the series, the sixteenth-century drawing bv Jacques 
Androuet du Cerceau (1512-1592) of his Chateau de Verneuil. ' 

In the meantime a quite different predilection of the Misses Hewitt 
had brought to the Museum, as well, drawings unrelated to the decora- 




Figure 21. Designs for wall light and andirons bearing the cipher of Marie Antoinette 

Ink and water-color, by Francois-Joseph Belanger (1744-1818) 

France, about 1785 

From the Decloux Collection; purchased 1911 



tive arts. Interested in the development of painting in the United 
States, and anxious to obtain material that would be of value to students 
of the Art School conducted by The Cooper Union under the same roof, 
these indefatigable ladies had set about assembling ^vork by American 
artists. In 1 904 came the first gift, a group of drawings by Robert W. 
Blum, representing the preparatory work for his large painting. The 
Vintage Festival, in Mendelssohn Hall in Brooklyn. 

Other gifts of American drawings followed. In 1912 Mr. and Mrs. 
Charles Savage Homer presented to the Museum more than three hun- 
dred drawings by Winslow Homer, A.N. A. (189,6-1910), a group that 
represents every phase of Homer's work froin pre-Civil War davs until 



1 12 



the end of his career (Fig. 28) , and includes first sketches for a half- 
dozen of his best-kno^vn paintings. In 1917 came nearly one hundred 
drawings by Thomas Moran, N.A. (1837-1926). whose fondness for 
Western landscapes (Fig. 27) had led to the naming of a Wyoming 







C^w^SP^ViY c^^SZ 



'figure 22. Project ior^a care 
Pen-and-ink and sepia wash, by Giuseppe Valadier (1762-1839) 

Italy, Rome, 1795 
From the Piancastelli-Brandegee Collection; purchased 1938 



moiuitain in his honor; and in the same year Mr. Louis P. Church gave 
over two thousand oil and pencil studies by his father, Frederick Edwin 
Church, N.A. (1826-1900). Studies by Kenyon Cox, N.A. (1856-1919) 
for his Library of Congress decorations were given in 1923 by Mrs. Cox; 
and some years later came, by bequest of Erskine Hewitt, more than 
nine hundred drawings by Daniel Huntington, P. N.A. (1816-1906), 
including inany studies for well-known portraits. Smaller groups of 
drawings by Thomas Doughty (1793-1856), Samuel Colman, A. N.A. 
(1832-1920), Walter Shirlaw, N.A. (1838-1909), Francis Hopkinson 
Smith (1838-1915), Augustus Saint-Gaudens, N.A. (1848-1907), Walter 
Clark (1848-1917), Howard Russell Butler, A. N.A. (1856-1934) and 
others have also come to Cooper Union. 



The work of American architects of the same period is also on hand, 
such men as Bancel La Farge (1865-1938), Stanford White (1853-1906), 
Arnold W. Brunner (1857-1925) and Whitney Warren (1864-1943) 
(Fig. 30) being represented by drawings for significant structures. 




Piarure 2s. Proiect tor a 



Figure 2 3'.~T*Yhject f6r~a mural painting: The Chariot o£ Apollo 

Ink and sepia wash, by Felice Giani (about 1760-1823) 

Italy, Rome, 1810-1823 

From the Piancastelli Collection; purchased 1901 



Following the purchase of the Decloux drawings, little more decora- 
tive design of European origin was acquired until after the First World 
War. In 1923 a lucky find in Lyon brought to the Museum a group of 
early nineteenth century designs for ^voven fabrics and embroidery, 
some of which may with fair assurance be attributed to the accom- 
plished Jean Francois Bony {c. 1760-c. 1828). But the death of Miss 
Eleanor Garnier Hewitt in 1924, followed by the disbanding of the 
Council for the Museum, which had given great encouragement and 
generous financial support, was followed by the illness and death of 
Miss Sarah Cooper Hewitt in 1930; and some years were to pass before 

114 



the Museum again received significant additions to its collection of 
dra'wings. One such inHtix occtUTed early in 1938 \vith the pmxhase, 
already mentioned, of the Piancastelli-Brandegee group; and in the 
same year the Erskine Hewitt Bequest brought the Huntington draw- 







!^»&S»*^Ssi.. 



' Figure 247 The Pi-oposa 



oposal 

Pencil and water-color washes, by Achille Deveria (1800-1857) 

France, about 1820 
From the Peoli and Sarah Cooper Hewitt Collections; received by bequest 1931 



ings, to ^vhich reference has likewise been made, and the small collec- 
tion of drawings formed by Miss Sarah Cooper He^vitt. The most 
important of Miss Hewitt's drawings are several by Giambattista 
Tiepolo (1696-1770); though no less pleasure may be taken in the 
handful of sketches by Constantin Guys (1805-1892) (Fig. 25). 

In more recent years no large lots of drawings have been acquired. 



1 IF^ 



but smaller groups and single items have steadily come to round out 
the Museum's graphic collection and, when possible, to provide it with 
modern material (Fig. 33). First sketches for the Villa Stein, built at 
Garches, near Paris, for Leo Stein by Charles-Edouard Jeanneret-Gris, 




fl.t4. 



iQ^<i'^'q- 1 oh 



ligure 25. AtTIie theatre 

Pen-and-ink and wash, by Constantin Guys (1805-1892) 

France, about 1865 

From the Collection of Sarah Cooper Hewitt; Bequest of Erskine Hewitt, 1 



better known as Le Corbusier, were an American "first" in 1936; and 
another first-time-in-America acquisition was the original silversmith's 
design by Georg Jensen that came in 1937. The fifteenth-century Italian 
silverpoint attributed to Benozzo Gozzoli (1420-1497) (Fig. 2) that 
came with the Brandegee purchase to be the Museum's oldest drawing 
was joined in 1944 by a German design for a silver centerpiece (Fig. 4) , 
of approximately the same date. Another extremely welcome addition, 
though of a different order, was the series of original designs by 
Frederick Grace (1779-1859) for the decoration of that astonishing 
building, the Royal Pavilion at Brighton. Nearly one hundred draw- 
ings, most of them in color, came in 1948; as it is hoped to arrange a 

116 



special sho^vin_o and publication of them in the coming season, none is 
here illustrated. 

The Museums collection of drawings, as this brief survey has shown, 
is not all-inclusive. German and English representation is meagre. 





Figure 26. Project for the decoration of a staircase in Chateau-sur-Mer, 

Newport, Rhode Island 

Ink and water-color, by Charles Salagnad 

France, Paris, 1872 

Given by the Misses Wetmore, 1939 



Spanish and Scandinavian work almost entirely lacking, and the vacuum 
created by an earlier proscription of material postdating 1825 has not 
yet been filled. Even with these shortcomings, however, it remains one 
of the ftillest American collections known to the ^vriter; and hopes are 
high for its further development through gift and purchase. In the 
richly varied stibject-matter of these many sheets, so closely related to 
other divisions of the Museum's collections, in the technical excellence 
of much of the material, and in the facility ^vith ^vhich it may be 



1 1' 




'igure 27. Meadow" Creek, Utah 



vf^V-C>^ C 



ic^/n-f^" ^ 



Pencil and wash, by Thomas Moran (1837-1926) 

United States, 1871 

Given by Thomas Moran, 1917 



Figure 28. Mountain lake 
Pencil, ink and water-color, by Winslow Homer (1836-1910) 

United States, about 1895 
Given by Charles Savage Homer, 1913 




^'\ycJ\^oo^Z, 



'7/3 ' f r - ^ 



r' 







Cc^pt?-Ry ^"43^ 



\q\S-6 ' M -Jd 

Figure 29. From elevation, Le Castel d'Orgeval 

Pen-and-ink, by Hector Guimard (1867-1942) 

France, Paris, 1904 

Given by Madame Guimard, 1950 



1 iq 



-'Ik... 






^^ 




JT' n 






/f/d^ 



F]^ire'30.'':f^%rigma? sketch for the facade of the Grand Central TeMina^ New York 

Crayon and pencil, by Whitney Warren (1864-1943) 

United States, New York, 1910 

Given by Mrs. William Greenough, 1943 



/< 



Figure 31. Design for costumes of Brigands in the ballet, Daphuis et Chloe 

Water-color, by Leon Bakst (1868-1924) 

France. Paris, 1913 

Given by Mrs. G. Macculloch Miller, 1947 



^O VSI iQv._ ^ y / T3 ^ 







»•• ^ ^ m 9 




inspected, the collection constitutes a valuable testing-ground for the 
eye of the student, a useful stimulus for the pencil of the designer, and 
an easy guide for the development of understanding in the more casual 
visitor. 

Calvin S. Hathaway 



NOTES 

1 The Museum has pubHshed the follo^ving brief studies of drawings in its collections: 

Rudolf P. Berliner. The stage designs of the Cooper Union Museum. Chronicle of the 
Museum for the Arts of Decoration of The Cooper Union, V. i. No. 8 (August 1941), p. 284-320; 
illus. 

Rudolf P. Berliner. Italian drawings for jewelry, 1700-1875: an introduction to an exhibi- 
tion. 1940. 

Edna B. Donnell. An album of Chinnery drawings. Chronicle, V. 2, No. 1 (October 1949), 
p. 14-22; illus. 

Calvin S. Hathaway. Drawings by 'Winslow Homer in the Museum's Collections. Chronicle, 
V. 1, No. 2 (April 1936) ; p. 52-63; illus. 

Calvin S. Hathaway. Original designs for French silversmiths' work, with examples of the 
craft. Chronicle, V. 1, No. 1 (Winter 1934-35), p. 15-22; illus. 

Frances Morris. Exhibition of printed fabrics, with original cartoons and designs. Chronicle, 
\. 1, No. 1 (Winter 1934-35), p. 4-11; illus. 

- His daughter, Mary A. Peoli, was the first Curator of the Museum, serving under the Misses 
Hewitt from 1897 to 1904. 

3 No detailed comment on the drawings of the Decloux Collections is here made, since some of 
the most significant have been studied by Fiske Kimball and illustrated in The Creation of 
tJic Rococo, Philadelphia, 1943. 

121 



DONORS OF WORKS OF ART. 1951 



Aliied Kid Company 
Anonymous Gilt (3) 
Miss Hernia Aitaiia 
O'Connor Barrett 
Stanley Barrows 
Martin Battersby 
Miss Alice Baldwin Beer 
Miss Alice Baldwin Beer 

in memory of Thomas Beer 
Mrs. Francis R. Bellamy 

in memory of Mrs. Meda Dennay 
Mrs. E\sei Beloussoft 
Michel N. Benisovich 
E. Maurice Bloch 
Mrs. Leonard Bloch 
Edmond C. Bonaventure 
Miss Mary C. Bullard 
Peter Busa 
MatthcAv A. Callender in memory 

of his wife. Rose Callender 
Arthur B. Carlson 
Coimt S. Colonna Walewski 
Cooper Union Art School 
Raymond Baxter Do^vden 
Monroe F. Dreher 
Mrs. Henry B. du Pont 
Mrs. Jackson Ellis 
Mrs. A. W. Erickson 
Mrs. Hor tense Feme 
Fontaine Fox 
Miss Frances Fox 
Robert W. Friedel 
Mrs. Samuel Friedman 
Miss Lilian Gibbs 
Richard C. Greenleaf 
Mrs. Katherine Gregory 
Mme. Hector Guimard 
Miss Marian Hague 
Mrs. Edward Haynes 
Mrs. Henry Woodward Haynes 
Miss Josephine Howell 
Mrs. William A. Hutcheson 
J. A. Lloyd Hyde 
Interior Design and Decoration 
John Judkyn 
Mrs. R. Keith Kane 

(from estate of Mrs. Robert B. Noyes) 



Katzenbach and \Varren, Inc. 
George F. Kearney 
Dan Kelleher 
Miss Elizabeth P. Kellers 
Mrs. Bella C. Landauer 
Mrs. William N. Little 
Miss Frances Mahon 
Miss Jean Mailey 
Martin Fabrics Corporation 
Miss Nancy V. McClelland 
Mrs. Benjamin Moore 
Mrs. Charles F. Morgan 
Miss T. Morgan 
Whitney N. Morgan 
Miss Frances Morris 
The Needle and Bobbin Club 
Alexander Nesbitt 
Catherine Oglesby 
Mrs. Laurent Oppenheim 
*Courtlandt Palmer 
Pirie H. Perenyi 
Paul Piech 

Miss Catherine W. Pierce 
The Pierpont Morgan Library 
Miss Amy Pleadwell 
John Regan 
Walter Schatzki 

Scoville Manufacturing Company 
Everett Shinn 
Harvey Smith 

Harvey Smith and Benjamin Piazza 
Mrs. L. V. Solon 
Victor D. Spark 
Ed^vard Steese 
Myer Steingart 
Dr. Ettie Stettheimer 
Stroheim and Romann 
Miss Daisy M. Tinner 
University of Oklahoma 
Irwin Untermyer 
Mrs. Russell C. Veit 
Leo Wallerstein 
Isidor Weinberg 
Mrs. George N. White 
Mrs. Frances Williams 
Mrs. Margaret Fawcett Wilson 
The Misses Wins; 



DONORS OF SERVICES AND EOUIPMENT, 1951 



A. F. Films Inc. 
Mrs. Lillian Smith Albert 
.Allied Kid Company 
James Babcock 
* Deceased 



Mrs. Neville J. Booker 
S. Robert Elton 
Max Geisler Bird Company 
Miss Mabel Haynes 



1 23 



Mrs. Horace L. Hotchkiss 
Karl Kup 

Mrs. William N. Little 
Leonard Jan Mitchell 
Miss Marian Hague 
R. Scott Jackson 
Mrs. Rudolf Jacobi 
Katzenbach & Warren, Inc. 
Martin Fabrics Corporation 



Francis G. Mayer 
Mrs. Philip A. Means 
Frank & Du Bois Inc. 
Miss Serbella Moores 
Miss Frances Morris 
Miss Elizabeth Paine 
William Pahlmann 
Tanners Council of America 
Mrs. Ray W. Thompson 



DONORS TO THE MUSEUM LIBRARY, 1951 



Mrs. Lillian Smith Albert 

Amsterdam. Rijksmuseum 

Anonymous (2) 

Belgian Government Information Center 

Birmingham, Ala., Museum of Art 

Mrs. Neville J. Booker 

Richard S. Bowman 

British Travel 8c Holidays Association 

Dr. Edwin S. Burdell 

Mrs. Clarence C. Chapman 

Ciba Company, Inc. 

Cincinnati. Taft Museum 

Mrs. Howard Cleaves 

Cleveland Museum of Art 

Cranbrook Academy of Art 

Cooper Union Art School Library 

Copenhagen. Nationalmuseet 

Detroit Institute of Arts 

Miss Janet H. Douglas 

Elisha Dyer n, 

John R. Evans 

Finnish National Travel Office 

Freer Gallery of Art 

Freiberg, Germany. 

Stadt- unci Bergbaumuseum 
French Embassy, New York 
Frick Art Reference Library 
Friends of Contemporary Art, Berlin 
Richard Gump 
Gutenberg GeselJschaft, Mainz 



Hanover, Germany. Landesmuseimi 

Mrs. Dorothy Harrower 

Calvin S. Hathaway 

Mrs. William A. Hutcheson 

Miss Mary Rutherfurd Jay 

John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art 

John Herron Art Institute, Indianapolis 

Mrs. Doris J. Kahn 

Kende Galleries, Inc. 

Mrs. Bella C. Landauer 

London Museum of Leathercraft 

Paolo Mezzanotte 

Montreal Art Association 

Whitney N. Morgan 

Richard E. Morse 

Dr. Gerd Muehsam 

National Academy of Design 

Nebraska Art Association 

Newark Museum Association 

Miss N. Oppenheim 

William Francklyn Paris 

Parke-Bernet Galleries, Inc. 

Rotterdam, Museum Boymans 

Smith College Museum of Art 

Stockholm. National Museum 

Turkish Information Office 

U. S. National Gallery of Art 

Leo Wallerstein 

Williams Collesje. Clark Art Institute 



PURCHASES IN MEMORIAM, 1951 



Miss Laura V. Allien 
Miss Caroline F. Anderson 
Mrs. F. H. Belts 
Miss Eleanor Blodgett 
Mrs. Samuel W. Bridgham 
M. Chatel 
The Council 
Mrs. Charles Fairchild 
Miss Elizabeth Haynes 
Mrs. Charles Hendricks 



Mrs. Abram S. Hewitt 

Eleanor G. Hewitt 

Peter Cooper Hewitt 

Sarah Cooper Hewitt 

Mrs. Cadwalader Jones 

James Loeb 

Agnes M. O'Donnell 

Jacques Seligmann 

Mr. and Mrs. Talbot Jones Taylor 

Katherine Strons; ^V^elman 



124 



FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM, 1951-1952 



HONORARY MEMBERS 

Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 
*Mis. De AVitt Clinton Cohen 
Miss Marian Hague 
Mrs. Montgomery Hare 
Miss Edith Wetmore 

BENEFACTORS 
*Mrs. ]. Insley Blair 

Archer M. Huntington 

Leo Wallerstein 

Richard C. Gieenleaf 
LIFE MEMBERS 

Mrs. Robert Woods Bliss 

Miss Adelaide Milton de Groot 

James Hazen Hyde 

SUSTAINING MEMBERS 
Mrs. Neville J. Booker 
William C. Pahlmann 
Stroheim ;!v; Romann 
Miss .Adeline F. Wing 
Miss Caroline R. Wing 

SUBSCRIBING MEMBERS 
Miss Dora Brahms 
Charles of the Ritz 
Elisha D\er 

Mrs. Maximilian Elser, Jr. 
Harry Harkness Flagler 
Mr. and Mrs. John D. Gordan 
Greeff Fabrics, Inc. 
Richard C. Greenleaf 
Mrs. Catharine O. Hughes 
Miss Elinor Merrell 
The Parsons School of Design 
Rambusch Decorating Co. 
Mrs. Ho^vard J. Sachs 
James Seeman 

The Traphagen School of Fashion 
Dr. and Mrs. Davenport \Vest 
Mrs. Lucius ^Vilmerding 

CONTRIBUTING MEMBERS 

Miss .\mev Aldrich 

Miss Lucv T. Aldrich 

Anonymous 

Alfred .\iierbach Associates 

A. Everett Austin, Jr. 

Bailer Bros. 

Miss Ellen Behrens 

Mrs. Henrv J. Bernheim 
*Mrs. J. Inslev Blair 

Mrs. .\lbert Blum 

Brewster Board 

Mrs. Theodore Boettger 

Mrs. .'\dolphe Boric 
* Deceased 



Mrs. Chauncey Borland 

Thomas J. Brennan 

Randolph Bullock 

Mrs. Charles Burlingham 

Frank Caro 

Mrs. E. B. Cole 

Miss Kate T. Cory 

Mrs. Lincoln Cromwell 

George H. Danforth 

Mrs. Walter T. Daub 

Baroness Therese de Chambrier 

Mrs. William A. Delano 

Baron Voruz de Vaux 

Miss Freda Diamond 

Gano Dunn 

Mrs. Henry B. du Pont 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry F. du Pont 

H. G. Dwight 

Mrs. Thomas G. Field 

Eugene L. Garbaty 

Eva Gebhard-Gourgaud Foundation 

Miss Edith Gecker 

Frederick Glueckselig 

Max Glueckselig 

Miss Minnie Goodman 

Mrs. William Greenough 

Mrs. Frank Hagemeyer 

Miss Virginia Hamill 

Mrs. Dorothy Harro^ver 

Herbert Hartman &: Son 

Walter Hauser 

Dr. Jacob Hirsch 

Elva T. Hodgin, Interiors 

Miss Josephine Howell 

International Ladies Garment 

Workers Union 
I.L.G.W.U., Local 66 
Ernest Iselin, Jr. 
Miss Louise M. Iselin 
Jones & Erwin, Inc. 
John Judkyn 
Albert Kornfeld 
Ladies Neckwear Workers LTnion, 

Local 142 
Mrs. Russell C. Leffing\vell 
Mrs. William N. Little 
Miss Nancy V. McClelland 
Mrs. Donald H. McLaughlin 
Mrs. Paul Mallon 

The Manhattan Storage &: W^arehouse Co. 
Miss Harriet Marple 
Mr. and Mrs. Alastair B. Martin 
Mrs. Joseph M. May 
Francis G. Mayer 
Joseph Meltzer 
Mrs. J. F. B. Mitchell 



I2Fi 



Mrs. Edward C. Moen 

Mrs. Benjamin Moore 

Mrs. William H. Moore 

Joseph Moreng Iron Works, Int. 

Mrs. Matilde K. Muller 

Miss Gertrude M. Oppenheimer 

Miss Katharine de Berkeley Parsons 

Mr. and Mrs. Guido Perera 

Gilford B. Pinchot 

Pleaters, Stitchers & Embroiderers 
Association 
*Mrs. Percy R. Pyne 

Mrs. Henry C. Quinby 

Mrs. Henry S. Redmond 

Mrs. John Rogers 

Mrs. Victor Salvatore 

Miss Gertrude Sampson 

Ted Sandler 

Miss M. Evelyn Scott 

Miss Edith Scoville 

Miss Grace Scoville 

Cyril Sloane 

Miss Helen Sprackling 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Graham Phelps Stokes 

Miss Helen S. Stone 

Mrs. Herman F. Stone 

Mrs. Joseph B. Thom:;s 

Mrs. R. E. Tomlinson 

Miss Gertrude Townsend 

Mrs. John B. Trevor 

Carl Van Vechten 

Mrs. Ernest G. Victor 

Kenneth Volz 

Miss Susan B. Waring 

The John B. Watkins Company 

Mrs. Thomas D. Webb 

H. H. Werner 

Mrs. Forsyth Wickcs 

Albert S. Wright 

Mrs. Roxa Wright 

Harry St. Clair Zogbaum 
ANNUAL MEMBERS 

Miss Rebecca A. Adams 

John Ahrens 

Mrs. Alphaeus H. Albert 

Philip S. Anthes 

Miss Joanna K. Arfman 

Miss Josephine Atterbury 

Charles F. Beck 

E. J. Bennett 

George P. Bent 

Mr. and Mrs. James H. Blauvelt 

Mrs. Leonard Bloch 

Miss Lili Blimienau 

Mrs. Peter Borie 

Mrs. Ludlow Bull 

Donald A. Burgess 

Fred Caiola 
* Deceased 



Miss May Callas 

Miss Betty P. Carb 

Miss Phebe Gates 

George Chapman 

Miss Louise C. Chard 

W. Arthur Cole 

Miss Izabel M. Coles 

Kenneth M. Collins 

John Coolidge 

Mrs. Erastus Corning II 

Mrs. Jameson Cotting 

Mrs. George E. Cranmer 

Mrs. J. S. Dal try 

Carl Christian Dauterman 

Mr. and Mrs. Ben Davis 

Georges De Batz S: Co. 

Dikran Dingilian 

Miss Janet H. Douglas 

Dr. Paul Drey 

Miss Louise Dunbar 

William E. D\\'yer 

Miss Eleanor O. Eadie 

Miss Beatrice Ecclesine 

Miss Helen C. Ellwanger 

John A. Ely 

Miss Alice S. Erskine 

Carl F. Ficken 

Mrs. Oliver D. Filley 

James Fisher-North rop 

Charles Frank 

R. C. Franklin 

Mrs. W. G. Eraser 

Mrs. S. Friedman 

Miss Henriette J. Fuchs 

Miss Sue Fuller 

Max Gartol 

Miss Eva Ingersoll Catling 

Mortimer P. Giffin 

Miss Alice Click 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Holdsworth Gordon, Jr. 

Mrs. A. Guimard 

David Marshall Gwinn 

Miss \'vonne Hackenbroch 

Miss Marian Hague 

Mrs. M. H. Hallgarten 

Michael M. Hare 

Robert L. Harley 

Miss Virginia Harlow 

Mrs. Lathrop Colgate Harper 

Miss Katharine B. Hartshorne 

Miss Estelle I. Hayden 

Mrs. Edward Haynes 

Miss Mabel Haynes 

William W. Heer 

Mrs. Lionel M. Heiden 

George S. Hellman 

Barklie Henry 

Clayton Hoagland 



126 



Miss Elizabeth H. Holalian 

H. Maxson HoIlo\^a^ 

Mrs. John G. Hope 

Mrs. F. F. Humphrey 

Mrs. W. A. Hutchesoii 

}. A. Loycl Hyde 

The Hon. Stanley M. Isaacs 

Mrs. \V. H. Jackson 

Maxwell H. Jacoby 

Miss Mary Riitherriird Ja\ 

Mrs. R. I. Jenks 

Mrs. A. S. Johnston 

Morris Kan tor 

William King 

A[rs. G. M. Vv. Kobbe 

Mrs. Agnes Kremer 

Mrs. Anna H. Laessig 

O. F. Langmann 

Mrs. Sidney Lanier 

Miss Dorothy A. Lardner 

Mrs. Francis H. Lenygon 

Mrs. Dorothy Liebes 

Frank Long 

Miss Helen Lyall 

Mrs. Eugene Mabeaii 

Dr. Joseph Mann 

Lester Margon 

J. Vincent Mason 

Mrs. Philip A. Means 

William M. Milliken 

Dr. Grace L. McCann Morlev 

Miss Eleanor Nadeau 

Mrs. Donald M. Oenslager 

Alexandre Orlowski 

Miss Mildred M. Osgood 

Miss Elizabeth Paine 

Mrs. A. Kingsley Porter 

Miss Marian Powys 

Miss Miriam Siitro Price 



J. Wesley Pullman III 

Professor Herbert F. Roemmele 

E. Kendall Rogers 

Paul J. Sachs 

Mrs. Frances R. H. Sanford 

School Art League 

Miss Alice Benton Scott 

Mrs. Harriet Segessemann 

Miss Mary Jeffrey Shannon 

Mrs. Albert H. Spahr 

Victor D. Spark 

Miss Edith A. Standen 

Miss Berte Steele 

Miss Margaret Techy 

Miss Helen H. Tanzer 

M. B. Tiffany 

John Kent Til ton 

William B. Van Nortwick 

Mrs. Constance R. Van Schaack 

Mrs. Wilhelmine von Godin 

Miss A. Elizabeth Wadhams 

Miss Eleanor B. Wallace 

Mrs. Samuel I. Ward 

Harry E. Warren 

Mrs. Thomas J. Watson 

Isidor Weinberg 

Herbert P. Weissberger 

Miss Polaire Weissman 

Paul Wescott 

Morrison V. R. Weyant 

Mrs. Nelson C. White 

Sherrill Whiton 

Frank B. Williams 

Mrs. Arnold Wilson 

Mrs. Cora McDevitt Wilson 

John Windrum 

Edward J. Wormley 

Phineas Zolot 

Dr. Paul Zucker 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM 

The Advisory Council of the Museum established in 1937 the following classes 
of membership: 

Benefactors who contribute $1,000 or more 

Life Members who contribute |500 or more 

Sustaining Members who contribute $100 annually 

Subscribing Members who contribute $50 annually 

Contributing Members .... who contribute S 10 annually 

Annual Members who contribute $3 annually 

Checks should be drawn to The Cooper Union Museum Fund, and sent in 

care of The Business Officer, The Cooper Union, Cooper Square, New York 3, 

New York. 



• 1 Printed by The John B. \Vatkins Company, Xew York 



127 



THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM 
COOPER SQUARE and SEVENTH STREET 

is served by these lines of transportation 

B.-M. T. SUBWAY Broadway-Seventh Avenue Line - 8th Street Station 
I. R. T. SUBWAY Lexington-Fourth Avenue Line — Astor Place Station 
THIRD AVENUE ELEVATED 9th Street Station 

INDEPENDENT SUBWAY West 4th Street - AVashington Square Station 
HUDSON-MANHATTAN TUBES 9th Street Station 



FIFTH AVENUE BUS 
BROADWAY BUS, Route 6 
LEXINGTON AVENUE BUS 
MADISON FOURTH AVENUE BUS 



Wanamaker Terminal, Route 5 

THIRD AVENUE BUS 

Route 4 

Routes 1 and 2 



EIGHTH-NINTH STREET CROSSTOWN BUS 



Route 13 




^■y-'^^y 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 







Detail of coverlet or hanging: painted and dyed cotton. India, 
Madras, second half 18th century. Purchased, Au Panier Fleiiri Fund. 



VOL 



NO 



JUNE • 1953 



THE COOPER UNION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE AND ART 

TRUSTEES 
Irving S. Olds 
Hudson R. Searing 
Harrison Tweed 
Arthur A. Houghton, Jr. 

OFFICERS 

Irving S. Olds, Chairman, of Trustees 

Edwin S. Burdell, President 

Sheridan A. Logan, Treasurer 

Elizabeth J. Carbon, Secretary and Business Officer 



Albert S. Wright, Counsel 

David D. Thompson, Superinteyident of Buildings 

MUSEUM FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

ADVISORY COUNCIL 

Elisha Dyer, Chairman 

Mrs. Neville J. Booker, Secretary 

Richard F. Bach 

Henry F. du Pont 

Richard C. Greenleaf 

Miss Marian Hague 

John Goldsmith Phillips 

Mrs. Grafton H. Pyne 

Mrs. Howard J. Sachs 

William C. Segal 

STAFF 

Calvin S. Hathaway, Director 

E. Maurice Bloch, Keeper of Drawings and Prints 

Alice Baldwin Beer, Keeper of Textiles 

Jean E. Mailey, Assistant Keeper of Textiles 

Everett P. Lesley, Jr., Associate Keeper of Exhibitions 

William R. Osmun, Associate Keeper of Exhibitions 

Mary A. Noon, Recorder 



Mary S. M. Gibson, Curator Emeritus 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 

VOL . 2 • NO • 5 JUNE • 1953 



It is only natural that a museum should wish to publish accounts of its 
collections, particularly ^vhen these include examples of categories that are 
not often found in museums and are rarely the subject of ^vritten comment. 
Less frequently, ho'wever, does a nruseum offer a description of its activities, 
although the use made of museum objects is no less interesting than the 
objects thenrselves. The present issue of the Chronicle examines both of 
these themes, reporting on a section of the collection currently under 
de\'elopment and telling of an experiment in musetmi service tiiat is as 
promising as it is unusual. 

The Museum has twice, during the present year, suffered the loss of loyal 
and generotis friends. In February, 1953, Mrs. Henry B. du Pont died. A 
friend and supporter of the Museum for t^vo decades, she had only in the 
autumn accepted an appointment to the Advisory Cotuicil; her quick and 
sympathetic understanding ^vill be greatly missed. 

T^vo months later, in April, the Museum and all the other divisions of 
The Cooper Union ^v^ere shocked by the sudden death of Gano Dunn, 
Chairman of the Trustees. His utter devotion to the -well-being and develop- 
ment of the institution are too familiar to all to require any comment; his 
greatness and generosity of spirit were such as to leave in his follo^vers a 
lasting gratitude and admiration. 

131 



ENGINEERING STUDENTS IN THE MUSEUM 

In recent years the use of visual aids has become an accepted procedure in 
higher education. There was a time, not so very long ago, when instructors 
had to depend on photographs of works of art in courses in art appreciation, 
for example. Today, the use of color slides is common practice. There is 
still to be developed, however, the systematic use of actual objects as aids in 
the study of the arts and crafts, in literature, and in the social sciences. 

It is true that schools and colleges make more and more use of the museum 
field trip for the purpose of looking at objects related to text-book studies; 
but very little attempt has been made to integrate classroom instruction 
closely with museuins and their collections. In fact, a good deal of careful 
investigation will have yet to be undertaken before the museum can be 
used for liberal-arts subject matter as, for instance, a library is used. 

The Cooper Union is in a unique position with respect to an investiga- 
tion of this kind, for it numbers among its divisions not only a School of 
Engineering and an Art School but also a Museum for the Arts of Decora- 
tion. Through the Department of Humanities, which offers the Humanistic- 
Social subjects to the art and engineering students, it would be possible to 
carry on research into the ways in which the Museum can meaningfully sup- 
plement classroom instruction in history, anthropology, literature, the arts, 
and philosophy. 

An initial inquiry into such an educational relationship has already been 
made by the Department of Humanities in cooperation with The Cooper 
Union Museum; and whereas the use to which the Museum has been put so 
far is modest and exploratory, the educational results have been rewarding. 

Since Engineering students at The Cooper Union study the cultural his- 
tory of western civilization as a part of their requirements in Humanities, 
the Museum, at the request of the Department of Humanities, has prepared 
exhibitions especially designed for student use and has organized tours of the 
Museum wherein a main theme from cultural history has been emphasized. 

The relationship of the Cooper Union engineering student with the 
Museum begins early in the student's collegiate career. Sometime during 
the first semester of the first year the Museum staff conducts the sections of 
English I through the Museum on a two-hour tour which acquaints the stu- 
dent with the purpose and contents of the Museum and with the various 
facilities which it can place at the disposal of the student. From this tour 
the student is intended to gain an initial acquaintanceship with what the 
Museum can offer him as a collection of objects revealing, among other 
things, something of the history of taste and of styles or as a source of pic- 
tures, books, and other materials useful in research. 

132 



In this tour, tiie objective of a general orientation to the Museum is com- 
bined Avith a particular emphasis on a display of material illustrating the 
historical continiuty and the perennial appeal and vitality of the classical 
styles bequeathed to W^estern cidtine by the ancient Avorld. This focus upon 
Avhat the Museimi can do in the way of revealing the styles of an historical 
era and their relationship to those of other periods is carried on into the 
student's later work as the Museimi continues to serve as a tributary to his 
humanistic studies. 

The Humanities Civilization sequence begins with an investigation into 
the cidtmal ideals of ancient Greece and Rome. On several occasions the 
Museimi has prepared exhibitions from its collection of Greek and Roman 
materials, and members of the Museum staff have lectured to the Engineering 
students on the significance of the objects displayed. 

In their study of the cultural history of the Renaissance and the eighteenth 
century, students have a two-hour session in the Museum Library which 
gives them, through books, pictures, and music, an opportunity to examine 
in tangible form some of the styles and motifs of the Baroque period. 

Besides these contributions to the course Avork of the Civilization sequence 
the Museum has from time to tiine offered special exhibitions that have made 
available for study outside of classroom time some inaterial relevant to one 
of the Humanities courses. Characteristic of this kind of less formal teach- 
ing has been a display of masks. Freshman Humanities classes engaged in a 
study of primitive cultures found in this exhibition a chance to see some 
objects of primitive art and of magico-religious practices. 

On another occasion the Museum showed students studying the Middle 
Ages a film. The Life of Christ, drawn from Diirer etchings. At the same 
time the Museum displayed its own collection of Diirer's graphic ^vork. 

Again, as a part of the study of medieval cidture, use is made of the Mu- 
seum's textile collection and Museum staff members give a special lecture on 
the design and making of tapestries, following a field trip to the Cloisters, 
Avhere students have seen the Unicorn and the Nine Heroes tapestries. 

As an aid in the study of Contemporary Fine Arts, students in Contem- 
porary Literature, Painting, and Music (an elective for Engineering seniors) 
enjoy a t^vo-hour session in the Print Room, where, for example, they may 
be shoAvn samples of German Expressionism. The Keeper of Dra^vings and 
Prints comments on the pictures and on print-making in general. 

Individual students have on several occasions drawn upon the resources 
of the Museimi and the advice of its stafT in the preparation of English I or 
Civilization term papers, and in the writing of critiques. 

Weller Embler and Kingman N. Grover 
The Cooper Union, Department of Humanities 

133 



INDIAN TEXTILES IN THE MUSEUMS COLLECTION 

The CoorER Union Museum has been fortunate in beino- able recently to 
expand its collection of textiles witli dyed and painted cottons and related 
embroideries produced in India in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries 
for the European-East India trade and also with contemporaneous examples 
made in India for domestic use. 

The decoration of woven cloths with various forms of painting, dyeing, 
or printing begins even earlier than recorded history and is seen in every 
part of the ^vorld: as witness the Nazca tie-dyes of Peru dating from before 
the birth of Christ, the Late Classical fioural friezes on cloth, the seventh- 
and eighth-century Oriental examples from Turkestan and Japan, the medie- 
\'al Indian, Persian, Russian and European resist and block prints, the 
eighteenth-century printed cottons and linens of Europe and the American 
colonies. Reflecting as they do a rich and ancient eastern civilization and 
shelving, too, the particularly inventive mastery of a complex method of 
cloth decoration by means of painting, and resist and mordant dyeing, these 
Indian cottons of the Mogul or Indo-Persian dynasty apparently represent 
a final stage in a product famous for centuries. Certain of the Scriptures use 
the oriental word for cotton in describing the hangings in the court of 
Ahasuerus in the Book of Esther. Arrian, a contemporary of Pliny, says 
that "muslins . . . and cottons . . . sashes striped with different colors . . . 
purple cloth . . . and muslins the colour of mallows . . . were exported at 
this time to all the ports on the Arabian and East African coasts." ^ By the 
twelfth century A.D., the import of Indian cottons into China was at its 
peak, as shown by customs records, and an account by two Chinese travelers 
in the early part of the fifteenth century records the importance among the 
islands and southern coasts of Asia of dyed cottons which these travelers said 
came from Java and the southwest coast of India. A Portuguese government 
servant in India in the sixteenth century remarks on the importance of the 
cotton industry of India, particularly of Gujerat, not only for domestic con- 
sumption, but for export to the Muhammadan countries of the west and to 
the countries of the Far East.^ 

When the Portuouese, Vasco da Gama, discovered the sea route to India 
in 1498, ho^vever, spices ^vere claiming European attention as the outstand- 
ing oriental luxury. Portugal and Holland were the first countries to place 
a firm hand on the East Indies trade in these valuable commodities; but the 
high prices they exacted shortly led to the development of various other 
European East India companies. Elizabeth of England issued a charter to 
the East India Company in 1600, and a half a century later in Erance the 
Compagnie des Indes and the Compagnie des Indes Orientales were created 

135 



in imitation of the English company. Denmark also founded an East India 
company early in this century, and Sweden about a hundred years later. All 
these companies engaged in bitter rivalry and sometimes actual battles on 
Indian and Indonesian soil to bring to their home markets the products of 
China, India, and the Spice Islands. 

The reverberations created in Europe itself in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries by the exotic imports of these trading companies were 
profound. Among the most far-reaching of these were the India muslins, 
silks, and above all, the painted and dyed calicoes, which, about 1670, be- 
came the rasre for lianoinsrs, bed-fittins^s, dresses, dressins^-sfowns, mantles, 
Avaistcoats, and hat-coverings. English weavers by the mid-seventeenth cen- 
tury were printing textiles in "the only true way of East India printing and 
stayning such kinds of goods," ^ and domestic textile-printing, as well as the 
importation of India cottons, were such extremely prosperous occupations 
that the Spitalfields weavers of silks and velvets felt their livelihood threat- 
ened. In 1700, in response to their unrest, it was enacted that ". . . all 
wrought silks, Bengals, and stuffs mixed with silk or herba, of the manu- 
facture of China, Persia, or India, or the East Indies, and all calicoes, painted, 
dyed, printed, or stained there, which are or shall be imported into this 
kino:dom, shall not be worn or otherwise used in Great Britain . . ." ^ In 1720 
it became illegal to print cotton fabrics in England and to wear or use printed 
calicoes, whether domestic or foreign. This act was later alleviated, but not 
until the end of the century did English textile-printing again proceed with- 
out restrictions in the form of stipulations as to material or taxes by the yard 
on weaver and printer. In France, too, there were a similar fervent adoption 
of the "indiennes," a flood of domestic imitations and variations, and, finally, 
stringent restrictions to protect traditional domestic silks and velvets. An 
edict of October 26, 1686, ordered the destruction of all printing blocks and 
prohibited the sale after December 1, 1687, of all printed cottons, not only 
Indian but even French. But the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes had 
previously forced hundreds of artisans to emigrate, carrying with them the 
knowledge of the Indian process. They established themselves in Berlin, 
Bremen, Geneva, Neuchatel, and in the Hautes-Alpes region. The dispersal 
of the workers was accompanied by an increased and more widespread pas- 
sion for printed cottons and linens. As frequently happens, the prohibitions 
served only to increase the demand. The India trading companies also 
flourished, and their factors gathered thousands of painted cottons and em- 
broidered coverlets to be sold on the European market, at great profits. 

This development of a whole industry is amazing in view of the fact that 
Europe's earliest interest in the sea route to India had been as part of the 
spice trade, and in view of the fact that the first Indian textiles to come into 

136 



England and Portugal with this trade seem to have been, not painted cottons, 
Avhich Avere first used by the trading companies in trade further east, but 
such embroidered coverlets as those listed in the Hardwick Hall inventory 
of 1603. Contemporary records picture these as "embroidered all over with 
men and crafts." They are of yellowish ^vild silk (tussur) in chain and out- 
line stitch on a ground of undyed cotton, and have long been thought to 
have been made in Goa, the great Portuguese trading center grown up in an 
older Indian city on the Malabar Coast. This origin has recently been ques- 
tioned by Mr. John Ir^vin, ^vho produces strong arguments for a provenance 
in Bengal, which contemporary records show was specializing in commercial 
embroidery for the European markets in the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies.^ The Cooper Union Museum has several interesting embroideries of 
this type, including a small cape ^ and some coverlet sections.'^ The Cooper 
Union Museum cape (Fig. 1) does not show the European "men and crafts" 
or the Classical or Old Testament scenes common to so many of the Bengali 
embroideries of this type. Its semicircular form is filled by a number of 
borders framing a central square flanked by segments of circles. Indian birds 
and animals and serpents, some highly stylized, disport themselves within 
these various areas in great profusion, sometimes confronted in combat, 
sometimes climbing the trunk of a palm, or perching in the symmetrically 
twining branches of a tree with tear-shaped leaves; native huntsmen on 
elephants or horses gallop along occasionally; one set of bands, suggesting a 
seated dance, contains a row of seated women ^vith heads turned at varying 
angles and raised arms linked by the graceful arc of what may be a branch 
or a wand; the ^voman at the end of each row holds now a palm frond or 
again a leaf. Its designs are wrought in the characteristic golden tan ^vild 
silk in fine chain stitch, with outline and knot stitch fillings and accents, on 
a cotton ground now melloAved to biscuit color and covered closely with a 
fine scrolling leaf pattern in the same silk in outline stitch. A certain 
amateurishness of drawing which has impressed Mr. Irwin makes him sug- 
gest that it may have been worked by native converts in one of the Portuguese 
convents in Hughli, a Portuguese port in Bengal, rather than by the local 
village Avomen who probably produced most of this type of embroidery for 
the representatives of the various European trading companies. While a 
black and white photograph may emphasize this quality in the dra^ving, it 
scarcely does justice to the liveliness, vivacity, and naive giace of the details, 
to the assured and exquisite finesse of the ground arabesque, and to the warm 
subtle tone of the cape as a whole. 

The coverlet sections in the Museum collection are more characteristic of 
the general type, with a disposition of design suggesting contemporary Euro- 
pean silks — vertical and horizontal rows of large scalloped medallions formed 

137 



by interlacing dotted bands and framing \'arious li\ely episodes with Indian 
and European figmes on ships, riding on elepliants or \arious animals, some- 
tiines with Portuguese inscriptions, on a groimd filled with smaller figures, 
floral moti\es, birds, and animals. They are Tvorked in coarse >ello\v silk 
chain stitch on an imdved cotton ground. Though this type of embroidery 
was copied in both England and Portugal in the sexenteenth centmy, it xvas 
mtich less far-reaching in its effects on th.e textiles of the xvest than were the 
dyed and painted cottons xviiich made their first appearance in Europe in 
limited niunbers Avith these same yelloxv chain-stitch embroideries. 

Actually, the earliest Indian painted and dyed cotton in the Cooper Union 
Musetmi collection* dates from the second half of the seventeenth century 
and is a type noted xvith interest by European tra\elers in India, made in 
Golconda in south central India for the Mogul court there, not for export 
(Fig. 2). Sir Thomas Roe, '"a man of extraordinaire parts" sent out by the 
English East India Company "to prexent any plottes that may be xvrought 
by the Jesuits," ^ described in his journal (1615-1618) the double sets of tents 
in the Indian princes' camps "compassed in xvith Pales of Pintadoes." ^*^ 
"The tents of the King xvhen on a journey" are described in more detail by 
Aurangzeb's European physician, Bernier, as having linings of ". . . printed 
calico representing large vases of floxvers." ^^ Obviously part of a large hori- 
zontal band of many such panels, this vertical panel in the Museum collec- 
tion contains a characteristically Mohanrmedan mihrab or lobed niche xvhich 
encloses a tall \'ase supported by a small group of decorated mountain forms 
and containing spreading sprays -^vith large decorated floxver-heads and long 
serrated leaves xvhich fill the arch. The xvide top and bottom borders con- 
tain contintious bands of decorated medallions suggesting Persian rtigs of 
the period, as do the scrolling floral motives in the spandrels. Across the 
\'erv top of the panel is an undyed area -with a ro^w^ of identical lily-like flcw^ers 
Tvith apparently block-printed outlines. It is interesting that the simple 
diapers filling some of the mountains and parts of the main tree trunk are 
seen also in the earlier resist-dyed cottons found in Eostat, for xvhich Pfister 
strongly argues an Indian pro^■enance. Except for the block-printing at the 
top, the Museimi panel appears to be done in a complicated combination of 
resist and mordant dyeing, -^vith some hand-painted details (Eig. 3), an opera- 
tion approximating that described in detail by Pere Coeurdoux, a Jesuit 
priest in Pondicherry, in his letter to a confrere in Europe in 1742.^2 The 
amazing xariety of colors includes reds, sky blue, didl yelloxv, green (blue 
over vellox\ ), orange (pink oxer yelloxv), aubergine, and reser\ed areas, all 
outlined in black, dark brown, or dark red, on the reddish-broxvn ground of 
the central mihrab, and on the deep golden yello^v ground of the spandrels. 
Delicate linear reserve patterns of small floxver sprays and scrolling tendrils 

139 




Figure -f. Coverlet or hanging: painted and dyed cotton. India, Madras, second half 18th centnry. 
Purchased, An Panier Fleuri Fnnd. 



enhance the main design oi the vase and Hoovers and, ^vith small colored 
Chinese cloud-bands similarly enhanced, fill this brown groinid. The piece 
is imseamed, with plain cloth selvages on the long edges dyed sky blue. A 
panel apparently in the same series, with a date palm rising from a vase into 
a mihrab on a dark red ground, is at present in the Ne^v York art market, 
and related tent or palace fittings are the small cushion-covers in the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art; on these last, much smaller and more delicately 
drawn lumians, birds and animals are mingled ^vith the trees and flo\vers, 
Avith a medallion and arabesque border, done in the same range of colors 
and the same elaborate technique. 

Etnopean trading companies, with their instructions to their representa- 
ti\es in India for ". . . the more and skillfuller artists the better to make 
paintings of yotu- broad Bafts of good brisk colours, the ^vorks of any sort 
of rambling fancyes of the country . . ." ^^ soon were assembling and dis- 
persing in such centers as Surat, Ahmadabad, Madras, Masulipatam and 
many others, a mass of material for the European market. A handsome 
coverlet or hanging in the Cooper Union Museum collection ^^ of the type 
from Madras in southeast India in the third quarter of the eighteenth cen- 
tury ^^ gives a Chinese cast to the ancient Near Eastern tree of life seen above 
in a Golconda version, here painted and dyed in a variety of fresh, rich 
colors on a fine tuidyed cotton ground (Eig. 4). A palm tree is centered in 
a vertical panel wdth fronds radiating in an oval around flower clusters on 
shorter stems around its top; the base of the trunk is frayed, suggesting roots, 
and terminates (for reasons that still defy the modern investigator!) just 
above a mound ^vhose various areas are decorated with great imagination and 
variety; large fanciful bamboo shoots and variously flo^vering small trees 
spring from this, and a peacock Avith rising fantastic tail appears in profile 
on the right, facing the tree. A flow^ering vine also rising from the mound 
t^vines arotmd the stem of the main tree and divides into t^vo stems meeting 
above it, thus forming a flow^ery serpentine frame, and also gracefully filling 
the rectangular center of the hanging. The four edges are bordered ^vith a 
deep band of much smaller flowering trees, with similar frayed trunk bases 
and with a bamboo tree in each corner and in the center of each side, all 
rising from a shaded continuous scalloping ground-line close to each edge 
of the hanging (Fig. 5). The colors are shades of red, blue, green, aubergine, 
yellow (now mtich faded), in brownish-aubergine outlines on an luidyed 
cotton ground now a light biscuit color. It is completely unseamed and has 
narroAV plain cloth selvages with double ^varps on the long edges. We have 
no proof of hoAv cloths of such width (this one is more than seven feet) ^vere 
produced and can only suppose it to have been the product of a loom such 
as those that required the services of a man, his wife, and one boy or girl.^*' 

141 



■^JpC^/^'-^t^'jW^(^'%r}'^^ ;,€^Ml^4- '^cIVTa^Ti?.^ C'^ym^A''^'-^^- 




Figure 6. Section of coverlet: painteci and dyed cotton. India, second half 18th century. Pur- 
chased, Au Panier Fleuri Fund. 



The other lianging," with part of one border cut to shape it to coverlet 
tise, has a design perhaps more unusual in these large cottons (Fig. 6),^^ 
suggesting a certain relation to a series of silks generally considered European 




Figure 5. Detail of border of panel in Figure 4. 



and dating early in the century, which might here be arbitrarily designated 
as "fantastic" because of their characteristic juxtaposition of unexpected 
motives. ^^ Two large curving sprays with various large, carefully shaded 
flo'^vers and large curving jagged leaves, and smaller, more delicate sub- 
sidiary sprays of flowerets, buds, berries — one spray terminating in a 
fantastic bulging decorated jar with a leaf base, and one confined in two 
places by dotted bands — alternate vertically in the wide border and hori- 
zontally and vertically in the rectangular body of the coverlet, again filling 
both areas with an air of finality and grace. Wide guard borders set off the 
main border on inner and outer edges with continuously scalloping festoons, 
from which branch off at each high point delicate lobed leaves scrolling 
in^vard and ^vith a filling of ^vavy lines suggesting sea^weed.^o These festoons, 
seemingly so European in character, are actually widely used in medieval 
Indian sculpture and architecture in a more stylized form, perhaps having 
come in from the classical West at a much earlier date. The arranoement 
of design elements, however, suggests an adaptation to eighteenth-century 
European taste. The colors are shades of red and blue, and a soft aubergine 
from a combination of the t'^vo, ^vith touches of a much-faded yello^v; the 
outlines are red and pale aubergine. The repeats are a aried by changing the 

143 




^ X 






a 



CJ 



i, ^ iii^ 










=J3 )i 



grouping of these colors. While the general effect is fresh, spirited, and 
graceful, closer examination shoAvs that the drawing is becoming cursory; 
the filling decorations, Naried ^vith such infinite care on the earlier painted 
cottons, here are still efTective, but desiUtory and much simplified. The 
pressure to produce exerted by the trading companies led to greater and 
greater exploitation of the native workers, who ultimately had no choice 
l)ut to ^vork at top speed and very lo'w pay for a local company representati\e. 
Such working conditions were bound to lower the quality of the product 
of even the most skilled and originally enthusiastic craftsman. This large 
piece, too, is unseamed and has a plain cloth selvage on one long edge. 

Another coverlet, ^i also incomplete, in the Musetmi collection, is inter- 
esting l:)ecause its center is made of a Avidth (ca. 4OI/2" Avith plain selvages) 
and several pieces of a jouy woodblock print of about 1780-1790, a floral 
repeat in blue and red on undyed cotton inspired by the "indiennes"; while 
its borders are broad pieces of an actual Indian painted and dyed cotton 
border ^vith a laroe, bold and some^vhat coarse scrolling flower band in blue, 
red, aubergine on a red groiuid, and remaining areas of the field sho^ving 
part of a decorated mound and a medium-scale and uninventive floral repeat. 
One small rectangular area in this pieced coverlet section is a French floral 
print in brown and bluish red on a picotage ground with linen ^varps and 
cotton ^vefts of the type required by governmental restrictions in certain 
periods of the Etnopean cotton-printing industry. This piece, \vith its dif- 
ferent parts, represents in brief a sinnmary of East India cottons and their 
effect on Europe. 

The dress cottons in the same painted and dyed technique, so adored in 
Europe that ladies were known to have had their "indienne" mantuas lined 
Avith velvet or cloth-of-gold,-- are also delightfully represented in the Mu- 
seum collection. One^s shows a medium-scale, ingeniously-planned repeat 
of a stylized flower-head on the top of a gracefully curving cornucopia form 
decorated with graduated dots and a little sprig of blue berries (Fig. 7). 
These forms are planned to curve left in one horizontal row and right in 
the next, and a serpentine band of the same reddish broAvn as the cornu- 
copias tniderlays each vertical roAv, so that an ogival ground-plan accented 
by the floAver-heads is subtly suggested. Gold leaf on a gum base originally 
ran along all the main lines of the design, and enough of it remains to give 
a certain delicate opulence. A bodice-front 2* with self-covered buttons 
(Fig. 8) shows a rich, freely twining pattern of variously decorated flowers, 
feathery pointed clusters of flowerets, and various leaf forms, in blue, red, 
green, and yelloAV, with much reserved filling decoration, on an undyed 
cotton ground. The same remnants of gold-leaf accents as on the first piece 
add sparkle and richness. A third flowery cotton ^s possibly from a quilted 

145 




k. a 



O h-l 



o en 
o ,s^ 

OJ >^ 



O 



cn ■S 



petticoat, has sprays and sprigs of incredible variety and fantasy, apparently 
closely scattered by a fortuitous hand but actually the result of a carefully 
planned repeat of unusual size (abotit 32'' x 15") and with many elements. 

Stewart Culin, in his entertaining account of his search for painted cot- 
tons ^^ tells ho^v it started Avhen on one of his visits to Japan he became 
interested in the prized Japanese dyed cottons, called sarasa. In this same 
article, he illustrates several of these cottons with sinall all-over patterns of 
many sorts. Japanese tradition linked these originally with India, though 
by the time of Mr. Culin's visit, early in this century, the Japanese recog- 
nized Japanese, Indian, and Chinese sarasa. A sample-book ^'^ given to the 
Museum by Francis Lathrop, a contemporary artist and co-worker with 
William Morris and his group who later came to New York to live, casts an 
interesting light on the subject (Figs. 9 and 10). Bound in Japan, it con- 
tains, pasted on silvered, folding pages, a large number of textile samples. 
Along with unmistakably Indian painted and dyed cottons of Golconda and 
other domestic types, and floral cottons with gold accents of tlie type pro- 
duced for the eighteenth-century European market, are cottons in the same 
dyed and painted technique presenting Japanese patterns.^'* Mingled Avith 
these are stripes, plaids and pin-checks which might be Japanese or Indian, 
pieces of Javanese batiks, and swatches of equally unmistakably Japanese 
silks ranging in date from the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries. 
As we have seen above, textual references tell us that India exported cottons 
to the Far East from an early date, but whether the dyed cotton samples 
with Japanese motives shown here in such teasing abundance represent one 
more Indian adaptation to the foreign market, or whether they represent a 
Japanese adoption of an admired and sought-after technique and product, 
there is no final proof. Skilled tie-dye and resist-printing unquestionably 
native to Japan and in an utterly different style are beautifully represented 
in the earlier Shoso-in material. The grouping here seems to suggest an 
Indian provenance for all these dyed and painted cotton samples through 
their obvious stylistic and technical identity, even though European taste is 
catered to in one group, various local Indian tastes in another, Japanese 
in another.29 

Tlie painted and dyed cotton coverlets and hangings of the seventeenth- 
and eighteenth-century European trade discussed above are paralleled by a 
group of embroidered ones with similar designs in exquisitely fine poly- 
chrome silk chain stitch on a ground of undyed cotton, usually in fine fancy 
cloth or fancy twill ^veave (Fig. 11). Sections from these in the Cooper 
Union Museum collection emphasize that they are as rich in fantasy and 
invention and ^vith even more skillful drawing and shading than the best 
of their painted counterparts. ^° It is interesting to see the guard strips and 

147 



the accenting border palmette of one of these ^^ are also present in the border 
of a painted cotton in the Musee des Arts Decoratifs in Paris ^^ ^nd the 
syninietrical. vohited central motive from the same closely echoed in a silk 




Fi<ritre 11. Section of coverlet embroidered in polychrome chain stitch on fine cotton t\vill ground, 
India, 18th century. Purchased in memory of Mrs. John Innes Kane. 



embroidery on yellow satin in the collection of the Royal Ontario Museum 
for Art and Archeology which is there considered a Chinese version made at 
Macao for the Portuguese. ^^ Apparently parts of patterns were freely ex- 
changed and recombined forming new arrangements to please various 
markets. 

Besides the foregoing textiles, the Museimi has a small group of exqui- 
sitely sheer cottons^'* surely related to the Dacca muslins that evoked the 
names of "dcAv of evening" and "running water," Avith tiny all-over designs, 

149 



some printed and painted, some in enamel or gold and silver leaf. These 
have been attributed to Dacca in Bengal or to Rajputana. Also, as we have 
noted above, Gujerat, south of Rajputana, had a long tradition of printing 
in gold and silver leaf on cotton and silk. In any case, these show the taste 
and the type of decorated cottons made in Mogul India of the seventeenth 
throusfh the nineteenth centuries, for turbans and saris and other domestic 
use (Figs. 12 and 13). So beautiful are these that it is strange that they, too, 
did not become a European passion, if not earlier, then at the time when 
embroidered muslins of arresting thinness were the delight of the Empire 
ladies. 

The Indian fabrics described here are, it is true, small in number and 
perhaps somewhat limited in range, but they give an idea of the new design 
resources, the almost unparalleled richness of fancy and ingenuity of tech- 
nique that so profoundly influenced western textile design and production. 
So much of their design vocabulary has been absorbed into our own daily 
surroundings that these motives and combinations now seem like familiar 
friends rather than exotic visitors from a foreign civilization. The Museum 
is happy in this recent development of its resources and hopes that it may 
be continued farther. 

Jean Mailey 



150 



NOTES 



1. Sir George Birdwood. The Industrial Arts 
of India (London, 1880) , page 243. 

2. R. Pfister. Les Toiles iniprimees de Fostat 
et I'Hindoustan (Paris, 1938) , pages 13-14, 
quoling P. Peiliot, T'oung Pan. 1933, p. 237; 
1915. pp. 250 and 455. 

James Yates. Textrinum Antiquorura (Lon- 
don, 1843) , page 334 et seq. 
M. Bezon. Dictionnaire general des Tissus 
anciens et modernes (Lyon, 1862), vol. 6, 
p. 161-164. 

3. Quoted by G. Bernard Hughes. Old English 
Chintz, Country Life, February 20, 1953, 
page 497. 

4. Quoted by Sir George Birdwood. The In- 
dustrial Arts of India (London, 1880), page 
271. 

5. John Irwin. Indo-Portuguese Embroideries 
of Bengal, Art and Letters: The Journal of 
the Royal India, Pakistani, and Ceylon So- 
ciety. New Series, Vol. XXVI, No. 2, 1952, 
pages 65-73. 

6. 1951-41-1. 

7. 1947-50-1 and 1951-22-1. 

8. 1952-111-1. 

9. Quoted by Marguerite E. Wilbur. The East 
India Company (New York, 1945), p. 64. 

10. George P. Baker. Calico Painting and Print- 
ing in the East Indies in the XVIIth and 
XVIIIth Centuries (London, 1921) , page 19. 
Pintado is the Portuguese word for painted, 
later coming through common usage to 
mean painted cotton. 

11. Op. cit., page 20. 

12. Op. cit., pages 11-16. 

13. Op. cit., page 34. 

14. 1952-118-1. 

15. We are indebted to Mr. John Irwin, of the 
A'ictoria and Albert Museinn, for this exact 
attribution. 

16. Romesh Dutt. The Economic History of 
India under Early British Rule (London, 
1908), p. 238. 

17. 1953-21-2. 

18. See H. R. d'Allemagne, La Toile imprimee 
et les Indiennes de Traite (Paris, 1942), for 
another painted coverlet of this "fantastic" 
type. 



19. This series of early eighteenth-century silks 
is of unestablished provenance, and is dis- 
tinguished by unmistakable and highly 
characteristic traits: unexpected juxtaposi- 
tions of naturalistic and fantastic fruits and 
flowers, architectural parts, unidentifiable 
decorative forms — all of these often with 
decorated inner areas suggesting those on 
Indian textiles; often a massive serpentine 
layout; the use of a great variety of silks and 
metal threads on a plain or fancy satin 
ground. See Otto von Falke. Decorative 
Silks. New York, 1936, Figs. 511 and 512. 
See also Marian P. Bolles, Old Venetian 
Brocades, The Metropolitan Museum of Art 
Bulletin. October, 1944, pp. 41-47. 

20. D'Allemagne, op. cit., PI. 220, for a coverlet 
with identical borders dated by d'Allemagne 
1780. 

21. 1943-43-51. 

22. Baker, op. cit., p. 331. 

23. I902-I-974. 

24. 1911-11-7. 

25. 1952-113-1. 

26. Stewart Culin. The Story of the Painted 
Curtain, Good Furjiiture, September, 1918, 
p. 133 et seq. 

27. 1905-14-1. 

28. Culin, op. cit., jaage 134, top right, for close 
variant of one of these. 

29. Dr. Jiro Harada, Administrative and Liaison 
Officer of the Tokyo National Museiun, and 
Mr. Masao Ishizawa, Librarian of the Tokyo 
National Museum, who most graciously 
looked at this sample-book through the 
kindness of Miss Pauline Simmons of the 
Metropolitan Museum, say that, in their 
opinion, none of the cottons in it could 
have been made in Japan. 

30. 1951-59-1 and 2; 1952-101-7 A and B; 1953- 
20-1. 

31. 1951-59-1. 

32. For illustration, see: Henri Clouzot. Les 
Toiles peintes de I'lnde, Gazette des Beaux- 
Arts, Paris, 1912, at top of p. 282. 

33. K. B. Brett. Eastern and Westei-n Textiles, 
Bulletin of the Royal Ontario Museum of 
Archeology; University of Toronto, No. 19, 
fig. 11, September 1952. 

34. 1952-58-1 through -7. 



151 



LATER INDIAN TEXTILES: 
SELECTED REFERENCES 



Allemagne, H. R. d'. La Toile imprimee et les 
Indieiines de Tiaite. Paris, 1942. 

1 he Art of India and Pakistan, a commemora- 
tive catalogue of the exhibition held at The 
Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1947-8. Lon- 
don, 1948. New York, n.d. 

Baker, George P. Calico Painting and Printing 
in the East Indies in the XVIIth and XVIIIth 
Centuries. London, 1921. 

Birdwood, Sir George. The Industrial .\rts of 
India. London, 1880. 

Bezon, M. Dictionnaire general des Tissus an- 
ciens et modernes. 9 vols. Lyon, 1857-67, Vol. 6. 

Breck, Joseph. Four Seventeenth-Century Pin- 
tadoes. Metropolitan Museum Studies, Vol. I, 
Part One, pages 3-15. Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, 1928. 

Brett, K. B. Eastern and AVestern Textiles. 
Royal Ontario Museum of Archaeology. Bul- 
letin, no. 19, 1952. 

Brett, K. B. The Harry Wearne Collection of 
Painted and Printed Textiles — Part One. 
Royal Ontario Museum of Archaeology. Bul- 
letin, no. 17, 1951. 

Clouzot, Henri. Les Toiles peintes de I'lnde. 
Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 54e Annee (1912), 2^ 
semestre, pages 282-294. 

Clouzot, Henri and Morris, Frances. Painted 
and Printed Fabrics. New York, 1927. 

Culin, Stewart. The Story of the Painted Cur- 
tain. Good Furniture, September, 1918, Vol. 
XI, pages 133-147. 

Dutt, Romesh. India under Early British Ride. 
London, 1908. 

Gangoly, O. C. The Story of the Cotton-Printed 
Fabric of Orissa. Journal of the Bihar and 



Orissa Research Society, Vol. 5, 1919, pages 
325-330. 

Geijer, Agnes. Oriental Textiles in Sweden. 
Copenhagen, 1951. 

Hadaway, W. S. Cotton Painting and Printing 
in the Madras Presidency. Madras, 1917. 

Hughes, G. Bernard. Old English Chintz, 
Country Life, Vol. CXIII, Feb. 20, 1953, pages 
496-498. 

Irwin, John. Gujerat Embroideries. Journal of 
the Indian Society of Oriental Art, Vol. 17, 
1952. Efforts to obtain this copy of the Jour- 
nal have luifortunately been unsuccessful up 
to the time of the printing of the present 
article. 

Irwin, John. Indo-Portuguese Embroideries of 
Bengal. Art and Letters: The Journal of the 
Royal India, Pakistan and Ceylon Society, 
Voi. XXVI, No. 2. pages 65-73. Second issue 
for 1952. 

Jayakar, Pupid. Cotton Prints of Gujerat and 
Kathiawar. Marg, Vol. IV, No. 4, pages 40-43 
(n.d.) 

Pfister, R. Les Toiles imprimees de Fostat et 
I'Hindoustan. Paris, 1938. 

Savary des Bruslons, Jacques. Dictionnaire de 
Commerce. Paris, 1723. 

Watson, J. F. Collection of Specimens and Il- 
lustrations of the Textile Manufacturers of 
India; second series. London, India Museum, 
1872-1877. 15 volumes. 

Watt, Sir George. Indian Art at Delhi. Cal- 
cutta, 1903. 

Wilbur, Marguerite Ever. The East India Com- 
pany. New York, 1945. 

Yates, James. Textrinum Antiquorum, Part I. 
London, 1843. 



L52 



DONORS OF WORKS OF ART, 1952 



Mis. liina 1'. Andcisoii 

Anoinnious Gift (5) 

Will liainet 

\failiii Raiieisby 

Nfiss Alice Baldwin Beer 

\riss Dorcas Beer 

Miss Mary Goodrich Fitch Beer 

Martin Birnhaum 

Bequest of Natalie K. Blair 

Estate of Natalie K. Blair 

v.. Maurice Bloch 

Miss Lili Blumenau 

Mrs. Robert Blumenthal 

Mrs. Neville J. Booker 

Mrs. N. Gertrude Brown 

.\lfred G. Burnham 

Mrs. Claience C. Chapman 

Miss Emily H. Chauncey 

Miss Gladys \'oorhees Clark 

Miss Lois Clarke 

Miss Rosalie Coe 

Cooper Union Art School 

Cooper Union Library 

Cooper Union Museum Staff 

Cooper Union Public Relations OfTice 

Miss Fonnie E. Davis 

Mrs. William Denby 

Denst and Soderlund 

Paul Drechsler 

Heiny F. dii Pont 

Elisha Dyer 

Mrs. A. W. Erickson 

Harry G. Friedman 

Mrs. Samuel Friedman 

Mrs. Angel ika W. Frink 

Miss Lilian Gibbs 

Miss Mary S. M. Gibson in memory of 

Mrs. De Witt Clinton Cohen 
Mrs. Edwin J. Gohr 
Mr. and Mrs. G. Glen Gould 
Richard C. Greenleaf 
Richard C. Greenleaf in memory of his mother, 

Adeline F. Greenleaf 
Miss Marian Hague 
Mrs. Edward E. Harkavy 
Horace L. Hotchkiss 
Miss Josephine Howell 
Dard Hunter 

Mrs. William A. Hutcheson 
J. A. Lloyd Hyde 
James Hazen Hyde 
Mrs. Edward IngersoU 
International Graphic Arts Society 
Mrs. Harr) Johnson 



Mrs. Albert Sidney Johnstone 

John Judkyn 

Ely Jacques Kahn 

Mrs. Deiniis Katona 

Katzenbach and Warren, Inc. 

Achilles H. Kohn 

Miss Bertha Korbholz (Gredana Corporation 

of the U. S.) 
Miss Antoinette Kraushaar 
L. Bancel La Farge 
Mrs. F. Raymond Lefferts 
Sigfrid K. Lonegren, Inc. 
Mrs. W^arfield T. Longcope 
John Mac Gregor 
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Miss Serbella Moores 
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Morley-Fletcher 
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Parsons, Closson and Mc Ilvaine 
Marte Previti 
Mrs. Grafton H. Pyne 
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James I. Rambo 
Miss Katherine C. Rockwood 
Mrs. Frederic Rosengarten 
Mrs. J. Frederick Schenk 
Mrs. Lois Shaw in memory of Mary Sullivan 
Miss Dorothea C. Shipley 
Mrs. John Sloan 
A.J. Sluyter 

Flarvey Smith and Benjamin Piazza 
Society of American Graphic Artists 
Mrs. Edwin S. Steese 
Arthur Sussel, Jr. 
Gilbert Tompkins 
Miss Gertrude Townsend 
Reinhard C. Trof 
Mrs. Sophie Kerr Underwood 
Irwin Untermyer 
Village Art Center 
Leo Wallerstein 
Miss Sydna White 
Mrs. John Whileford 
Mrs. Hairison Williams 
Estate of Ruby Ross Wood 
Edgar Montillion Woolley 



153 



DONORS TO THE MUSEUM LIBRARY, 1952 



Mrs. Lillian Smith Albert 

Amsterdam. Rijksmuseum 

Anonymous (2) 

Mrs. Beryl S. Austrian 

P. M. Bardi 

Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, Munich 

Belgian Government Information Center 

Michel N. Benisovich 

E. Maurice Bloch 

Dr. Edwin S. Burdell 

Butler and Kohn 

Mrs. Florence Waye Casebolt 

Ciba Company, Inc. 

Cooper Union Art School Library 

Cooper Union Museum 

Copenhagen. Library of the Museum of 

Decorative Arts 
Corning Glass Works 
Cranbrook Academy of Art 
Dr. Emil Delmar 
Detroit Institute of Arts 
Deutsche Akademie der Kiinste, Berlin 
Miss Alleine E. Dodge 
Henry Francis du Pont 
Elisha Dyer 
Mrs. Eddy Fairchild 
Herbert A. Feuerlicht 
Finnish Embassy 

Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge University 
Freiberg, Germany. Stadt-und Bergbaumuseum 
French Embassy, New York 
Mrs. Kay Fulling 



Mr. and Mrs. G. Glen Gould 

Miss Marian Hague 

Mrs. Pruyn Harrison 

Calvin S. Hathaway 

Horace L. Hotchkiss 

Miss Josephine Howell 

Miss Mary Rutherfurd Jay 

Ely Jacques Kahn 

Kende Galleries, Inc. 

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Mehdi Dilmaghani & Company, Inc. 

Mrs. Edward C. Moen 

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William Francklyn Paris 

Parke-Bernet Galleries, Inc. 

Mrs. Florence Harvey Pettit 

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Stockholm. Nationalmuseum 

Sunnyside Restoration 

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Miss Gertrude Townsend 

Arthur S. Vernay, Inc. 

Wadsworth Athenaeum, Hartford 

Leo Wallerstein 

Yale University Press 



DONORS OF EQUIPMENT AND SERVICES, 1952 



Anonymous 
Brown Brothers 
Mrs. Vadna Dibble 
S.Robert Elton 
Frank and DuBois, Inc. 
French and Company, Inc. 
Miss Marian Hague 
Metropolitan Museum of Art 



Miss Serbella Moores 
Professor Clarence S. Sherman 
S. Z. Shirae 

Stroheim and Romann 
Mrs. Wilhelmine von Godin 
John Wanamaker New York 
Arthur A. Williams 



PURCHASES IN MEMORIAM, 1952 



Robert W. Chanler 
Abram S. Hewitt 

154 



Erskine Hewitt 

Mrs. John Innes Kane 



FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM, 1952-1953 



HONORARY BENEFACTORS 

Miss Susan Dwighl Bliss 
Miss Marian Hague 
Mrs. ATontgomer) Hare 
Miss Edith Wctmore 

BENEFACTORS 
Richard C. Greenleaf 
Archer M. Huntington 
R. Keith Kane 
Leo AVallerstein 

LIFE MEMBERS 
Mrs. Robert ^Voods Bhss 
Miss Adelaide Milton de Groot 
James Hazen Hyde 
Katzenbach & Warren, Inc. 

SUSTAINING MEMBERS 
Mrs. Neville J. Booker 
Mrs. A. W. Erickson 
Sigfrid K. Lonegren, Inc. 
Stroheim S: Romann 

SUBSCRIBING MEMBERS 

Mrs. AVerner Abegg 

Mr. & Mrs. Elisha Dyer 
* Harry Harkness Flagler 

Greeff Fabrics, Inc. 

Richard C. Greenleaf 

Mrs. Catharine O. Hughes 

Irving S. Olds 

The Parsons School of Design 

Mrs. J. G. Phelps Stokes 

Mrs. Howard J. Sachs 

F. Schunracher & Co. 

Miss M. Evelyn Scott 

The Traphagen School of Fashion 

Mrs. Lucius Wilmerding 

CONTRIBUTING MEMBERS 

Miss Amey Aldrich 
Miss Lucy T. Aldrich 
Allen Art Museum 
Anonymous 

Miss Josephine Atterbury 
A. Everett Austin, Jr. 
Charles F. Beck 
Miss Ellen Behrens 
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Monroe F. Dreher, Inc. 

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Miss Bell Gurnee 

Mrs. Dorothy Harrower 

Walter Hauser 

Barklie Henry 

Dr. Jacob Hirsch 

International Ladies Garment Workers Union 

Ernest Iselin, Jr. 

Miss Louise M. Iselin 

Jamesine Franklin School of 
Professional Arts 

Jones & Erwin, Inc. 

John Judkyn 

R. Keith Kane 

Albert Kornfeld 

Julian Clarence Levi 

Clarence Lewis 

Mrs. Wilmarth S. Le^vis 

Mrs. William N. Little 

Paul Mallon 

Manhattan Storage & Warehouse Co. 

Miss Harriet Marple 

Mrs. Joseph M. May 

Mrs. Donald H. McLaughlin 

Joseph Meltzer 

Earl Hart Miller 

William M. Milliken 

Mrs. J. F. B. Mitchell 

Mrs. George W. Mixter 

Mrs. Edward C. Moen 

Mrs. Benjamin Moore 

Mrs. William H. Moore 

* Deceased 



155 



Joseph Moreng 

Mrs. Matilde K. Muller 

Donald Oenslager 

Miss Gertrude M. Oppenheimer 

William C. Pahlmann 

Miss Katharine de Berkeley Parsons 
*Guido Perera 

J. G. Phelps Stokes 

Mrs. Henry L. Phillips 

Dr. Gilford B. Pinchot 

Pleaters, Stitchers & Embroiderers 
Association 

Mr. & Mrs. J. Wesley Pullman III 

Mrs. Henry C. Quinby 

Mrs. Beverley R. Robinson 

Miss Edith Sachs 

Mrs. Victor Salvatore 

Miss Gertrude Sampson 

Ted Sandler 

Hardinge Scholle 

Miss Grace Scoville 

Harold J. Siesel Co. 
*Mrs. Albert H. Spahr 

Joseph Stolfi 

Miss Helen S. Stone 

Mrs. Herman F. Stone 

Miss Gertrude Townsend 

Mrs. Andrew Underbill 

Miss Gertrude Underbill 

Mrs. Russell C. Veit 

Mrs. Wilhelmine von Godin 

Mr. 8c Mrs. George H. Warren 

The John B. Watkins Company 

Mrs. Thomas J. Watson 

Mrs. Thomas D. Webb 

Hemy Helmut Werner 

Dr. & Mrs. Davenport W^est 

Mrs. Giles Whiting 

Mrs. Foisyth Wickes 

Miss Adeline F. Wing 

Miss Caroline R. Wing 

Albert S. Wright 

Mrs. Roxa Wright 
ANNUAL MEMBERS 

Arnold A. Arbeit 

A. W. Bahr 

Gerald Barnes 

Miss Elsie G. Bell 

Mrs. Leonard Bloch 

Miss Lili Blumenau 

Mrs. Edmond C. Bonaventure 

Mrs. Peter Borie 

W. S. Budworth & Son, Inc. 

Miss Phebe Gates 

Robert Chafitz 

George Chapman 

Miss Louise C. Chard 

* Deceased 



Doda Conrad 

John Coolidge 

Mrs. Jameson Cotting 

Mrs. J. S. Daltry 

Mrs. Walter T. Daub 

Carl Christian Dauterman 

Mrs. Charlotte Chan Davis 

Edward M. Davis, 3rd 

Lawrence C. Davis 

Georges de Batz 

Mrs. William Adams Delano 

Kurt Delbanco 

Miss Rosemary R. Demarest 

Dikran Dingilian 

Mrs. Dikran Dingilian 

John A. K. Donovan 

Miss Janet H. Douglas 
*Dr. Paul Drey 

Thomas Durkin 

Miss Beatrice Ecclesine 

Miss Alice S. Erskine 

Carl F. Ficken 

Mrs. W. G. Eraser 

Miss Henriette J. Fuchs 

Miss Sue Fuller 

Gordon S. Gavan 
*The Rev. Mortimer P. Giffin 

Miss Edith Gecker 

Mrs. Alice Click 

Harry D. M. Grier 

Philip Grushkin 

Mrs. A. Guimard 

David Gwinn 

Miss Yvonne Hackenbroch 

Mrs. M. H. Hallgarten 

Miss Virginia Harlow 

Mrs. Lathrop Colgate Harper 

Miss Katherine Hartshorne 

Miss Estelle T. Hayden 
*Mrs. Edwaid Haynes 

Miss Mabel Haynes 

William W. Heer 

Miss Elizabeth Holahan 

H. Maxson Holloway 

Mrs. John G. Hope 

Mrs. T. F. Humphrey 

Mrs. William A. Hutcheson 

Miss Frances H. Ives 

Maxwell H. Jacoby 

Horst W. Janson 

Mrs. Gertrude R. Jarvis 

Miss Mary R. Jay 

Mrs. Robert Irving Jenks 

Morris Kantor 

Miss Julia B. Kelley 

Herbert S. Kirk 

Mrs. W. Thorn Kissel 



156 



Mrs. G. M. W. Kohbc 

Mrs. Agnes Krcmer 

Mrs. Anna H. Laessig 

Adrian Lamb 

Mrs. Sidney Lanier 
*Miss Dorothy A. Lardner 

Mrs. Francis H. Len^gon 

Miss Ruth Lieb 

Simon Lissim 

Adolph Loewi 

Miss Helen Lyail 

Mrs. Eugene Mabeau 

Dr. Joseph Mann 

Miss Margaret Marcus 

Lester Margon 

Miss Nancy V. McClelland 

Mrs. Philip A. Means 

Miss Gladys Miller 

Miss Emma M. Montanari 

Mrs. G. P. Montgomery 

Mrs. Alice Muehsam 

Alexander Nesbitt 

^[rs. Florence Z. E. Nicholls 

Miss Marie Nichols 

Mrs. Donald M. Oenslager 

Miss Elizabeth Paine 

Miss Hilda Pertha 

Mrs. A. Kingsley Porter 

Mrs. Miriam Sutro Price 

Mrs. Henry S. Redmond 

Jens Risom Design Inc. 

E. Kendall Rogers 

Mrs. C. H. Russell 

Mrs. Louise Sanders 

Mrs. Frances R. H. Sanford 
* Deceased 



Miss Mary Jeffrey Shannon 
Miss Susan W. Sheet 
Miss Dorothea C. Shipley 
John Davis Skilton, Jr. 
Craig Hugh Smyth 
Mrs. L. V. Solon 
Victor D. Spark 
Miss Edith A. Standen 
Dr. Otto Steinbrocker 
David Stocku'cll 
Miss Ruth L. Strauss 
Miss Helen H. Tanzer 
M. B. Tiffany 
John Kent Tilton 
Mrs. R. E. Tomlinson 
Miss Muriel P. TurofF 
Mrs. N. P. Van Buskirk 
Dana P. Vaughan 
Miss A. Elizabeth Wadhams 
Miss Stella Walek 
*Miss Eleanor B. AVallace 
Mrs. Charles C. ^Varren 
Miss Dorothy AVarren 
Harry E. Warren 
John B. Watkins 
Mrs. Vanderbilt Webb 
Herbert P. \Veissberger 
Paul Wescott 
Miss Ida R. White 
Mrs. Florence Wilkes 
Mrs. Harrison Williams 
Mrs. Arnold Wilson 
Edward J. Wormley 
Mrs. George Wrems 
Flarry St. Clair Zogbaum 
Paid Zucker 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM 

The Advisory Council of the Museum established in 1937 the following classes 
of membership: 

Benefactors who contribute $1,000 or more 

Life Members who contribute $500 or more 

SusT.\iNiNG Members who contribute $100 annually 

Subscribing Members who contribute $50 annually 

Contributing Members .... who contribute $10 annually 

Annual Members who contribute $3 annually 

Checks should be drawn to The Cooper Union Museum Fund, and sent in 

care of The Business Officer, The Cooper Union, Cooper Scjuare, New York 3, 

New York. 



157 



PUBLICATIONS IN STOCK 



Chronicle of the Museum for the Arts 
of Decoration of Cooper Union: 

Vol. 1, No. 7 — Japanese Sword Mountings in 
the Bequest of George Cameron Stone (il- 
lustrated, 15 cents) 

\'ol. 1, No. 9 — Trimmings in the Museum's 
Collection: Fringes, Tassels, Gimps, and 
Galloons (illustrated, 15 cents) 

Vol. 1, No. 10 — The Hispano-Islanric Tex- 
tiles in The Cooper Union Collection (illus- 
trated, 15 cents) 

Vol. 1, No. 11 — Comparisons in Lace Design 
(illustrated, 15 cents) 

Vol. 2, No. 1 — Some Japanese Textile-Print- 
ing Blocks; An Album of Chinnery Draw- 
ings (illustrated, 10 cents) 

Vol. 2, No. 2 — Some Gilt Bronze Furniture 
Mounts in The Cooper Union Museum 
(illustrated, 15 cents) 

Vol. 2, No. 3 - The Gift of Leo Wallerstein; 
Some French and English Tole in The 
Cooper Union Museum (illustrated, 15 
cents) 

Vol. 2, No. 4 — An Introduction to the Col- 
lection of Drawings (illustrated, 15 cents) 

Vol. 2, No. 5 — Engineering Students in the 
Musetmi; Indian Textiles in the Museum's 
Collection (illustrated, 15 cents) 



Catalogue of a Collection of Engravings and 
Etchings formed by the late George Campbell 
Cooper and ^3 resented by him to The Cooper 
Union Museum (not illustrated, 15 cents) 

Italian Drawings for Jewelry, 1700-1875 (illus- 
trated, 15 cents) 

Stitches in Time (Embroideries and Needlework 
Techniques) (not illustrated, 10 cents) 

2500" F., The Art and Technique of Modern 
Glass (not illustrated, 15 cents) 

Nine Lives, The Cat in History and in Art 
(illustrated, 25 cents) 

All That Glisters, Thirty Centuries of Golden 
Deception (illustrated, 25 cents) 

Leather in the Decorative Arts (illustrated, 20 
cents) 

Lacquer, Oriental and Western, Ancient and 
Modern (illustrated, 25 cents) 

A Joint Exhibition, Fritz Kredel, Woodcutter 
and Book Ilhistrator, Hermann Zapf, Callig- 
rapher and Type Designer (illustrated, no 
charge) 

The Cooper Union Museum (illustrated leaflet, 
no charge) 

Conspicuous Waist, Waistcoats and Waistcoat 
Designs, 1700-1952 (illustrated, 25 cents) 

The Prince Regent's Style, Decorative Arts in 
England, 1800-1830 (illustrated, 50 cents) 



Steadily increasing demand for the Museum's publications prompts the inclusion of this 
simimary list in the present issue of the Chronicle. At the same time, the Museum wishes to say 
that it would be grateful to its friends for the return of any copies of its out-of-print publica- 
tions, not shown in the list, which may no longer be wanted by the present possessors and would 
be usefid for further circulation. 



THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM 
COOPER SQUARE and SEVENTH STREET 

is served by these lines of transportation 

B.-M. T. SUBWAY Broadway-Seventh Avenue Line — 8th Street Station 
I. R. T. SUBWAY Lexington-Fourth Avenue Line — Astor Place Station 
THIRD AVENUE ELEVATED 9th Street Station 

INDEPENDENT SUBWAY West 4th Street - Washington Square Station 
HUDSON-MANHATTAN TUBES 9th Street Station 

FIFTH AVENUE BUS Wanamaker Terminal, Route 5 

BROADWAY BUS, Route 6 THIRD AVENUE BUS 

LEXINGTON AVENUE BUS Route 4 

MADISON-FOURTH AVENUE BUS Routes 1 and 2 

EIGHTH-NINTH STREET CROSSTOWN BUS Route 13 



Printed by The John B. AVatkins Company, New York 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 




Casket Avith decoration of mythological scenes. 

Carved and gilded pastiglia on \vood. 

Northern Italy, late I5th century. 

Purchased, The Friends of the Museum Fund. 

Length, 614". 



VOL • 2 • NO • 6 



JUNE • 1954 



THE COOPER UNION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE AND ART 

TRUSTEES 

Irving S. Olds 
Hudson R. Searing 
Harrison Tweed 
Arthur A. Houghton, Jr. 

OFFICERS 

Irving S. Olds, Chairman of Trustees 

Edw^in S. Burdell, President 

Sheridan A. Logan, Treasurer 

Elizabeth J. Carbon, Secretary ayid Business Officer 



Albert S. M^right, Counsel 

David D. Thompson, Superintendent of Buildings 

MUSEUM FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

ADVISORY COUNCIL 

Richard F. Bach, Chairman 
Mrs. Neville J. Booker, Secretary 
Henry F. du Pont 
Richard C. Greenleaf 
Miss Marian Hague 
John Goldsmith Phillips 
Mrs. Grafton H. Pyne 
Mrs. Howard J. Sachs 
William C. Segal 

STAFF 

Calvin S. Hathaway, Director 

E. Maurice Bloch, Keeper of Drawijigs and Prints 

Alice Baldwin Beer, Keeper of Textiles 

Jean E. Mailey, Assistant Keeper of Textiles 

William R. Osmun^ Acting Keeper of Exhibitions 

Mary A. Noon. Recorder 



Mary S. M. Gibson, Curator Emeritus 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 

VOL-2-NO-6 JUNE- 1954 



THE Chronicle has reported annually on a variety of matters, most 
frequently concerning itself Avith objects in the Museum's possession; 
and Avith succeeding issues its readers will have obtained some notion of the 
range of the Museum's collecting interests. In the absence of published 
catalogues or picture books, these accounts are of service, it may be hoped, 
in increasing the public awareness of the holdings of the Museum. But 
another activity of the Museuin, and one that has developed hand in hand 
Avith the formation of the collections, is equally -^vorthy of attention. For 
this reason the present issue of the Chronicle presents a short history of 
the Museum Library, which not only is a necessary element supporting the 
collections but to an unusual degree parallels the collections in serving the 
needs of the Museum's consultants. 

In their choice of books, their assembly of pictorial reference material, 
no less than in their developing of collections of objects, the founders of 
the Museum showed clearly the course that the Museum was to follo^v; 
and it seems well that the story should be recorded no^v more fully than 
it has been in the past. 

The Chronicle also records now, for convenience, certain additions re- 
cently made to the display collections. No special sho^ving of recent 
acquisitions has been held since 1950, although during this period many 
notable objects of high quality have taken their place in the collections. 
A small selection of these ne^v items is illustrated in the follo^ving pages. 

163 




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A DESIGNER'S LIBRARY 



AMONG THE ART LIBRARIES of Ncw Yoik The Coopcr Union Museum 
^ Library occupies a singular position. It has blended the educational 
mission for which it was organized with the expression of the personal 
tastes of those two g-reat amateurs of the arts, the Misses Eleanor Garnier 
and Sarah Cooper Hewitt, fust as the founding of a museum for study and 
research rather than for browsing and recreation or prestige was a new and 
for^vard-looking concept, the Museum's Library, too, was to be a cultural 
agency intended to serve the community by its usefulness to the individual. 
The education of public taste was the most important function of the new 
Museum for the Arts of Decoration and its library. This was to be accom- 
plished by showing well-designed examples of every form of decoration; 
the lessons learned from them would result in more beautiful objects of 
everyday use. 

The Museum was fashioned along the lines of the Musee des Arts 
Decoratifs in Paris. The Proposed Plan of the Cooper Union Museum for 
the Arts of Decoration published in 1896 clearly states its objectives. It was 
the last step of a development commencing with the Great Exhibition of 
1851. This exhibition had shown that although the English had taken the 
lead in industrialization, the aesthetic quality of their mass-produced goods 
lagged far behind their industrial proficiency. To remedy this situation 
certain keen-siohted Frenchmen founded the Musee des Arts Decoratifs, 
whose purpose was to encourage better design through the study of historical 
forms. This became also the avowed aim of the Cooper Union Museum, 
which opened its doors on May 26, 1897, just nineteen years after the inau- 
guration of its spiritual parent museum in Paris. 

It is interesting to note that the Misses Hewitt aimed at the improve- 
ment of industrial design, whereas in England William Morris and his circle 
tried to oppose the industrialization of the trades and wanted to turn back 
the tidal wave of the machine. The Misses Hewitt, equally idealistic, but 
with more practical common sense, realized that this could not be done. 
They wanted to train the workman in the perception of beauty. If the 
designer and craftsman studied the most beautiful objects of the past cen- 
turies, their aesthetic sense would be sharpened and their products would 
be more artistic. 

The Library had an important place in this new Museum. Its instructive 
value was to be as great as that of the collections themselves. Emphasis in 
the Library was also on visual presentation. It was to become a "Museum 

165 



without Walls" within the Museum in the sense that Andre Malraux has 
formulated it sixty years later, showing in the form of a picture any work 
of art, regardless of size, material or structure. A succession of pictures 




Francesco Sbarra. // Porno d'Oro. Vienna, 1668. — PI. 23: Festa Teatrale rappresentata in Vienna 
per Augustissime Nozze delle Sacre Cesaree Reali Maesta di Leopoldo, e Margherita . . . Scene 
designed by Ludovico Burnacini (1636-1707) . Given by Miss Sarah Cooper Hewitt. 



would present the complete historical and artistic sequence of a style or an 
art form, scrapbooks lending themselves most easily to such a project: an 
"Encyclopedic Scrapbook Collection" would thus constitute a complete sur- 
vey of all forms of decoration. By making scrapbooks for each medium of 
the decorative arts and for the architectural styles of every country and 
period, the Library was to become a huge "Grammar of Ornament." What 
Owen Jones in a more limited range did in his famous book became, in a 
way, the objective of the Museum Library, and especially of its Picture 
Collection. 

To build up this collection was the earliest Library activity. Pictures from 
every conceivable source were incorporated into large navy blue loose-leaf 
folios, of which more than one thousand volumes eloquently testify to the 
importance attached to this branch of the Museum's educational work. 
Pleas for the contribution of pictures were frequent in the early days of 

166 



the Museum IJbrary. "Pliotographs of art objects, of architecture and 
decorations, cuttings from art journals, from magazines, or even catalogues 
are desired — ^vhatever bears upon or illustrates the progress or history of 
industrial art is of value, and will aid the American workman and manu- 
facturer to elevate the character of their products. " 

The organization of the Scrapbook Collection followed its Parisian model, 
the Library of the Union Centrale des Arts Decoratifs, only with regard to 
its scope. It was based on two primary divisions; the decorations of build- 
ings, and the decoration of man and the objects he uses. Whereas in Paris 
the subject arrangement was classified throughout, a more elementary 
alphabetical arrangement of the main subjects, with topical, chronological 
and geographical subheads was chosen here. The desire to incorporate 
pictures into this giant historical and topical scheme embraced every- 
thing. Books were made and unmade to fit the system, to illustrate the 
scheme. In her paper. The Making of a Modern Museum (1919), Miss 
Eleanor Hewitt tells of a librarian from Boston, who, upon visiting the 
Scrapbook Library, "seemed overcome by its practical instructive value, 
and at the fact that both rare and expensive books had been taken apart 
and remade in a new order to render them more available for study." 

It might be observed that only incomplete duplicates were cut up for the 
Scrapbook Collection. At the same time many rare and old engraved books — 
not taken apart and not clipped — had become part of the Reference Library 
and were available for consultation in their original form. 

The Scrapbook Collection gradually fanned out from its initial concept 
of a decorative arts collection in the strict sense of the term. There was a 
demand for other pictorial materials, especially reproductions of paintings, 
drawino^s, euCTavinos, and the natural forms. In tlie 'thirties the classifica- 
tion scheme was revised and expanded on the basis of the "N," or 'Tine 
Arts," classification of the Library of Congress, to include all the arts. 
Furthermore, the chronological subdivision under each topic, followed by 
a geographical subhead, was abandoned in favor of an arrangement first by 
country and then by period. For example, the Tiepolo ceilings of the 
Wiirzburg Residenz may be found under Architectural Details — Ceilings — 
Germany — Eighteenth Century. Folders containing unmounted pictures 
were added on all subjects, and files established of related materials, such 
as "Countries and Peoples," "Transportation," "Sports and Games." In 
1948-49 two large groups of pictures came to the Library: Mr. and Mrs. 
G. Glen Gould gave some 45,000 original photographs of objects sold at 
auctions, and Mrs. George A. Kubler presented her husband's collection of 
over 6,000 classified folders of engravings, much of it of Americana, clipped 
primarily from nineteenth-century sources. The "Encyclopedic Scrapbook 

167 



Collection" had thus developed into a comprehensive Picture Collection 
comprising over 600,000 classified pictures and photographs. 

Books Avere first mentioned in the Museimi's annual report of 1899. 
Compared with the rapidly growing Scrapbook Collection they were ob- 




Bernard Forest de Belidor (1693-1761). Architecture Hydraulique. Paris, Jombert, 1737-1753.— 
Deuxieme partie, tome second, pi. XX, p. 208: Elevation vue de cote de la Machine a creuser les 
Ports . . . Given by Henry Oothout Milliken. 



viously only of secondary importance. Their purpose was to "reinforce" 
the scrapbooks. There was no book fund; gifts constituted the only source of 
acquisitions. The Misses He^vitt themselves w^ere the most generous donors 
of books to the young Library. Among the Library's first books Avere Owen 
Jones's Grammar of Ornament, Piranesi's Diverse Maniere d'Adornare i 
Cammini (1769) and Audsley and Bowes's Keramic Art of Japan. They 
were followed by the folios of reproductions of prints and drawings from the 
British Museum, the five volumes of the Spitzer Collection catalogue and 
others. These titles illustrate fairly well the direction the Museum Library 
Avas to take, to which it has remained faithful to this day: to collect books 
on the decorative and graphic arts, and to include also original engiaved 
books. The textile arts, now the strongest field in the Library, as well as 

169 







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furniture and architecture, were apparently not represented in the earliest 
stages of the book collection. 

After four vears of active functioning^, in 1901, the number of books in 
the Library was 250 and the number of scrapbooks 450. The following 
year, however. The Mary Stuart Book Fund was assigned by the Trustees 
of the Cooper Union to the Museum Library; this made it possible to build 
up the book collection more systematically. Among the earliest purchases 
were such standard works as Adeline's Art Dictionary and Bryan's Dictionary 
of Painters and Engravers. Other purchases included Symonds's Renaissance 
in Italy, Strange's furniture handbooks, and the writings of Lady Dilke and 
Paul Lacroix. All the South Kensington Museum handbooks were ordered 
from London; they were not to be kept in the Library, however, but placed 
on tables throughout the galleries as introductory reading matter on such 
subjects as glass, ceramics, enamels, embroidery, lace, etc. The next sum- 
mer's purchase Avas again very typical of the Misses Hewitt. Monographs 
on all the greater art cities were added, in order to give the American 
craftsman an idea of the surroundings of his European confrere, whose 
designs were to be his models. Purchased the same year were Molinier's 
books on the history of French furniture and Robert Wood's two monu- 
mental works on the Ruins of Baalbek (1757) and Palmyra (1753). 

The works of the great French architects, designers and ebenistes of the 
eighteenth century were the most desirable objects of study. The eighteenth 
century was, indeed, the century of "good design," so that the useful, and 
expendable, Guerinet facsimile reprints of the eighteenth century designers 
were quickly acquired, even before the present extensive holdings of original 
material of this period had been developed. 

Notable gifts had come to the Library in its earlier years. The earliest 
of the many magnificent color-plate books in this Library was Curtis's 
Flora Londinensis (1777) given by Miss Elisabeth Marbury in 1901. From 
Mrs. James W. Roosevelt in 1910 came the extremely rare nine volumes of 
Kingsborough's Antiquities of Mexico (1831-48). The ten volumes of 
Buffon's Histoire Naturelle cles Oiseaux (1770-86) was presented by Mrs. 
Charles T. Matthews in 1922. But it was three members of the Hewitt family 
who left an indelible mark on the Museum Library by bequeathing their 
book collections to it. The death of Mrs. Abram S. Hewitt brought several 
hundred volumes to the Library, among them many eighteenth-century 
works on architecture and landscape gardening. Through her bequest the 
book collection rose to 1,200 volumes in 1913. 

With the death of Sarah Cooper Hewitt in 1930 all books owned by her 
and her sister Eleanor (who had died in 1924) came to the Library, the 
greatest single influx of books in its history. To house her collection, her 

171 



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brother Erskine He\vitt gave the Sarah Cooper Hewitt Memorial Library, 
the room adjacent to the Reference Room. The eighteenth-century design 
of this room, Avhich Avas brought to the Museum from the Hewitt house at 




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J'j'Ji.iDiJ'ifi'J'. 



Journal fiir Mobelschreiner and Tapezirer. Mainz, Kunze, 1837. — Bl. 13: Bett-Sessel. Stehepult. 
Purchased, Mary Stuart Book Fund. 



9 Lexington Avenue, is a copy of the Salle de France in the former 
Ministere cles Affaires Etrangeres et de la Marine at Versailles. The Memo- 
rial Library, dedicated in 1932, became the appropriate setting not only for 
the Sarah Cooper Hewitt Bequest, but eventually for all the Library's rare 
book treasures. Its movable circular staircase, executed from an eighteenth- 
century design, provides a decorative and unusual, but practical enough 
means of reaching the upper book shelves, causing comment and admiration 
from Museum visitors of all ages. 

The third large bequest was that of Erskine Hewdtt, five hundred of whose 
books were added to the Library in 1938-39. He had, many years before, 
gi\en one of the most famous and most spectacidar books ever published: 
the four original double-elephant folio volimies of Audubon's Birds of 
America (1827-30). 

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There were other outstanding bequests which added precious volumes to 
tlie Library, especially that of Robert W. Chanler, the well-known decora- 
ti\e painter, who derived such inspiration from the Museum's collections 
that in 1930 he willed his choicest books on the decorative arts and natural 
history to the Library. Prominent in this group were Mark Catesby's 
Xatural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands (1771), Maria 
Sybilla Merian's Surinaamsche Insecten (1730), and Lavaillant's Histoire 
Natnrelle des Oiseanx de Paradis (1806). 

Several of the most sought-after color-plate books had been purchased out 
of the Mary Stuart Book Fund, among them Thornton's Temple of Flora 
(1799-1807) and Edwards' Natural History of Birds (1743-64). 

Although the original concept of a "library of good design" has always 
been kept alive, other aspects of book collecting have been included in 
the Library's program. Selectivity is of utmost importance in a library which 
operates on an extremely small book budget and where space is at a 
premium. Since space presently available restricts the Library to about 
12.000 books and periodicals and 7,000 art auction catalogues, the needs of 
the public, the necessity to aid the research of the museum workers, and the 
desire to keep the decorative arts collection ^veil-rounded by acquisition of 
material relating to contemporary design have to be carefully weighed 
against each other in book selection. Another more general objective is to 
render the Library more useful by developing its unique collections and 
resources. The combination of all of these factors has made the Library's 
book collection on textile arts a very complete one. It includes not only 
some of the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century pattern books, but also a 
number of volumes containing actual swatches, the most important of which 
is J. F. Watson's second series of Collection of Specimens of the Textile 
Manufactures of India (1872-77). In the fields of furniture, costume, orna- 
ment, and ceramics the Library contains the great standard works, but is 
not quite as complete as in works on textiles. The subject of prints and 
dra^vings is now requiring the purchase of new material, although, for some 
years, the Library has been so fortunate as to own some of the greatest sets 
of facsimile reproductions of drawings such as those in the Uffizi Gallery. 
The number of early architectural books is remarkable for a library of this 
size, and the same is true of the early natural history works. The Decloux 
collection of ornamental engraving is hardly matched in this country. 

Along with these the Museum Library has developed certain specialties 
and side lines in fields not ahvays directly connected ^vith the decorative 
arts. Exhibitions, festivals, stage designs and calligraphy are some of the 
subjects represented in this group. There is also a collection of illustrated 
children's books, mostly from the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, 

175 



including some o£ the best known illustrators, such as Kate Greenaway, 
Walter Crane and Arthur Rackham from England, and Job, Dulac, Caran 
d'Ache and Boutet de Monvel from France. The Library has established 



WKo in my CKildliood's earliest day, 
Before irjy- toTi^ue one word could say. 
vVould let me vritK liis >vatcK-cKain play. 

Father. 




When seated on my Mother's knee. 
Who utsed to play at peep witK me 
Hiding, "wKere Babjr could not see- 
My Father. 



Who coaxed tne.pVvysic For to take , 
Giving me sugar plums and cake . 
If 1 would drinV it for lus sake ? 

Mv Father 




WKo placed me on Kis Eoot to nde 
While anxVo>V my Mother cried, 
To hold her Boy lest he should slide 
My Father. 



My Father. A Poem. Philadelphia, 1818. Given by Miss Elisa Akerly Richardson. 



something of a reputation for having out-of-the-way or hard-to-find materials. 
Reference questions on birdcages, fireworks, or snuff boxes occur quite 
frequently. But if a reader were to ask for information on the dyeing of 
ostrich feathers, on cake decoration, or on secret chambers and hiding places, 
books could also be found at a moment's notice. 

And who are the people who seek information on the multitude of sub- 
jects from furniture and textile design to wine labels and old sheet music 
covers? 

There are, of course, first and above all, the professional Library users, 
the designers. Here is the amateur designer who wants to decorate metal 
trays with native American folk motifs. There is the interior designer who is 
looking for French Empire color schemes. Stage designers, costume de- 
signers, advertising artists and especially textile designers constantly draw 
on the Library's resources for their ideas. Its materials are adapted and 
transformed into workable desio:ns that can be sold and manufactured. 



176 



Indeed, tlie most amazing transformations take place in the course of this 
process. Job's ilhistrations of a children's book become stage costumes for a 
college drama department; the Pantheon in Rome makes a backdrop for a 
department store's advertisement of marble top tables; an old New England 
well-head turns into a design for a letter head. Lace patterns become printed 
cottons; calligraphic scrolls, design motifs on mass-produced porcelain plates; 
a directoire urn, a fancy perfume bottle. 

Another group of Library clients is composed of writers and authors. 
They usually appear after they have visited many other places and, much 
to their surprise, they find at Cooper Union what could not be unearthed 
elsewhere. An architectural historian may be in search of examples of 
oriental influence in art nouveau. Another may be looking for illustrations 
of early bathtubs, and still another is writing an article on draperies and 
lambrequins for a women's magazine. In the same class are the telephone 
requests of editors and publishers checking on the accuracy of some of 
their authors' statements. 

A manufacturer ^vho wants to put brass beds on the market, is looking for 
early designs of such beds. A textile manufacturer might be interested in 
designs of savonnerie that could be produced on his machines. 

The design trends well illustrate the changing taste of the times. Over 
the years the chief interest in the field of furniture design has shifted from 
the Italian Renaissance to the eighteenth century and more recently to the 
English Regency and the Victorian era. Although all kinds of European 
folk designs are in constant demand, growing nationalism has been reflected 
in an increasing preference for the earlier American decorative patterns. 

Art collectors and art dealers, also, make use of the Library. One may 
want to identify the maker of an old clock and another to establish the origin 
of a piece of rococo jewelry. A hobbyist who collects buttons may desire 
information on vegetable ivory. There may be a clubwoman giving a talk 
on the history of lighting, who wants to gather material for her lecture. 

The most active and largest contingent of Library visitors, however, are 
students. It is first mentioned in the Annual Report of 1905 that four 
schools regularly used the Museum for study. During the past fifty years 
students, individually and in classes, have steadily come to the Library in 
search of materials. Classroom assignments and individual projects have 
included copies and sketches of the Greek orders as well as Gothic tracery; 
of Sheraton chairs as Avell as Adam mantelpieces; of Louis XIV trophies as 
well as Louis XV mouldings. Egyptian lotus ornaments, Greek meanders, 
French toiles, English chintzes, American Pilgrim clothes or eighteenth- 
century court costumes are among the innumerable objects and designs 
that have commanded the students' attention. Term papers on the origin 

177 




lllustrirte Zeitschrift, Leipzig. — Illustration: Von der Weltausstellung in Philadelphia 1876: Der 
Japanesische Bazar. Given by Mrs. George A. Kubler. 



of the brocades in the paintings of Van Eyck, or the development of the 
hardware designs used on Enolish furniture, have involved rather ad- 
vanced research on the part of certain students. 

Library use by the Cooper Union students, on the other hand, has been 
along different lines. Although all reference materials are used whenever 
the occasion arises, it is the rare book collection that is the primary object 
of their study. The craftsmanship of a handmade book, the artistic quality 
of the illustrations and the graphic processes have a considerable attraction 
for the students and stimulate their own efforts. The great eighteenth- 
century color-plate books on natural history offer unlimited possibilities 
for applications and solutions of two-dimensional design problems. The 
Nuremberg Chronicle (1493) and other examples of early printing are 
frequently consulted in connection with classes on book design and typog- 
raphy. In the History of Architecture course the development of the 
architectural styles is discussed by demonstrating the Library's early edi- 
tions of the works of Alberti, Palladio, Inigo Jones, Gibbs, Blondel, Mariette 

178 



and others, down to the classicism of nineteenth-century American archi- 
tects stich as Asher Benjamin and Minard Lafever. 

The Cooper Union engineering students, too, benefit from the riches 
of tlie Museum Library. In the course of their Civilization classes l^ook 
seminars are held in the Memorial Library, and original soince books are 
examined illustrating the arts and sciences of the Renaissance, the Baroque 
and Rococo, or the Nineteenth Century, as the occasion requires. Here 
again, the historic flavor of a rare old book has a special appeal to the 
students, and the Avorkmanship and quality of these fine books usually elicit 
their admiration. Phonograph records of contemporary music add another 
dimension to the period discussed. The combination of tangifjle, visual 
and audible elements brings to life periods of history that are rather remote 
from the young engineering student of today. It gives the student an aware- 
ness of his cultural heritage and puts him in communication with the 
spiritual content of other eras. 

Accessibility and a minimuin of restrictions have gtiided the Library's 
services ever since it opened its doors. Tiie physical compactness of the 
Library, which has no stack space, has rendered these services personal and 
informal. Everything is there "for use," as Miss Eleanor Hewitt put it. 
Present day Library policy has remained true to this philosophy. No books 
are kept behind glass doors or in locked cases, available only to the 
selected few with proper introductions or elegant appearance. All books, 
even the rarest, may be consulted for reference by any one who wishes to 
see them. Study and use of materials not easily available elsewhere are 
permitted and even encouraged. 

The place of the Museum Library within The Cooper Union and the 
larger community is determined by its collections, but in no lesser degree 
by its philosophy of service. By providing research materials to the Museum 
staff and to facidty members and students of both Schools, the Library has 
aided with individual study projects and thus contributed to the educa- 
tional work of the institution. Through tours, classes, and seminars held 
in its quarters the Library has even more directly participated in the teach- 
ing program of The Cooper Union. The Library's services to the com- 
munity are not so tangibly measured. In the nearly sixty years of its 
existence its collections have been a source of inspiration and a guide to 
professional accomplishment of many an artist, designer, or lover of the 
arts. By offering personal enrichment and enlightenment the Library has 
followed the old democratic principle so dear to Peter Cooper, that the 
highest development of the individual will ultimately benefit society itself. 

Gerd Muehsam 

179 




Panel ot cut velvet on satin ground. Asia Minor, late 
16th-early 17th century. Purchased, Au Panier Fleuri 
Fund. Height of repeat, 42". 




Detail of embroideied border sho\ving David before Saul. Italy, late 16th-early 17th century. 
Given bv Irwin Untermyer. Portion shown, 8" x 15"; whole border, 8" x 41". 



RECENT ADDITIONS TO THE MUSEUM COLLECTIONS 



During the past four years the special exhibition gallery of the Museum 
has been so steadily occupied with loan or travelling exhibitions that there 
has been slight opportunity to put on view a selection of the objects that 
have continued to flow into the collections. A special showing was made, 
in the autumn of 1951, of the old master prints presented over the course 
of several years by Mr. Leo Wallerstein, and reference to this munificent 
gift, as well as to various individual objects acquired during this period, 
has been made in recent issues of the Chronicle. 

In these pages is shown a small sampling of the additions that have 
recently been made to the Museum's collections. Although the available 
space permits only an inadequate representation, both of categories and 
of individual fine items, the objects here illustrated will serve as a reminder 
of the Museum's consistent development and enrichment, and as an acknow- 
ledgment of the Museum's gratitude to all the generous donors of these 
objects and of hundreds of others that can not be illustrated. 

181 



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a. 

be 



^M' 




Salon interior: drawing. Signed and dated: A. Redkovsky, 1858. Russia. Given by 
Leon Grinberg. 



n> armust Jn 6m itui! tr )i;b ratn»v<ni.£Mmi B4a Cbia iffjllo BOTapmt/BjO"' ^ »J<lfK>ii>t mdjto tMt tbSn.Su hts^otJiidi bM ia Xh^■ll..^a^lo Bdiiidl/.frif tig wi6 ii(^ |cy. 




The Rhinoceros; woodcut. By Albrecht Diirer (1471-1528). Germany, 1515. Given by 
Leo Wallerstein. 





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nnt a amntiuMcamu que mulCj^ 

Oc i'vn mOks mam cc mtc ^^ 

Wm^ Icini'tcraui uar icui^ca' utu^o 

xxw)p cciiui Vim fcra mo0uaOlc.^ 



Page of a writing book; engraving. By F. Scheleman, after David Roelands. Nether- 
lands, 1616. Given by W. J. Donald. 




Other Laws for the People; aquatint. By Francisco Jose Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828). 
Spain, 1877 (executed 1800-1810). Given by Mrs. A. W. Erickson. 





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Wallpaper printed Ironi woodblocks. Portion ot an muised roll from Schloss 
Weikersheim, Wiirttemberg. England, about 1765. Purchased, The Friends 
of the Museum Fund. Length of repeat, 35%". 




Wallpaper overdoor molit of a musical trophy, printed from woodblocks. Fronr the Joseph 
Bonaparte House. Philadelphia. France, 1815-1830; probably by Mader Pcre. Given by George F. 



ipa 
Kearney. Height, IS^A". 



DONORS OF WORKS OF ART, 1953 



Miss Edith R. Abbot 

Mrs. Charles M. Ackerman 

Anni Albers 

American Academy of Arts and Letters 

Anonymous Gift (9) 

Harold Bailey 

Miss Alice Baldwin Beer 

Miss Alice Baldwin Beer and 

Miss Jean E. Mailey 
Mrs. Olin C. Bevin 
Martin Birnbaum 
Mrs. Leah Slater Black 
E. Maurice Bloch 
Mrs. Albert Blum 
Edmond C. Bonaventure 
Mrs. Edmond C. Bonaventure 
Louis W. Bowen, Inc. 
Arthur L. Brandon 
Miss Stephanie Cartwright 
Robert Chafitz 
Mrs. Louise Cable Chard 
Eliot C. Clark 
Cole and Son, Ltd. 
Miss Izabel M. Coles 
Cooper Union Art School 
Cooper Union Art School Library 
Cooper Union Business Office 
Cooper Union Library 

Cooper Union Museum Library 

Cooper Union Public Relations Division 

Cortaulds Limited 

Dr. W. H. Dohm 

Raymond B. Dowden 

W. J. Donald 

Miss Mary E. Dreier (from the estate 
of her sister Katherine S. Dreier) 
*Mrs. Henry B. du Pont 

W. E. Dyer 

E. A. Entwisle 

Mrs. A. W. Erickson 

Mrs. Max Farrand 

Miss Edith P. Eetterolf 

The Franklin Delano Roosevelt Library 

Mrs. Edna de Frise 

Mrs. Alice Click 

Mrs. Wilhelmine von Godin 

Norvin Hewitt Green 

Richard C. Greenleaf 

Leon Grinberg 

Miss Marian Hague 

Miss Virginia Hamill 

Mrs. Samuel Hammond 

Mrs. Montgomery Hare 

Dr. Ernest Harms 



Ward Harrison 
Miss Mabel Haynes 
B. H. Hellman 
Hanley Henoch 
The Misses Hernstadt 
Mrs. Agnes J. Holden 

(in Memory of Elizabeth Haynes) 
Richard B. Holman 
Miss Josephine Howell 
James Hazen Hyde 
Mrs. Julius Isaacs 
Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin A. Javits 
Jessup, Inc. 
John Judkyn 
John Judkyn (in Memory of his Mother 

Florence Judkins) 
Katzenbach and Warren, Inc. 
William Katzenbach 
Mrs. Diantha Hulbert Keyes 
Pierre Kleykamp 
Mrs. Achilles H. Kohn 
Mrs. Alexander Kreisel 
Mrs. A. C. Landsberg 
Miss Carol Loew 
Victor Liguori 
Benjamin J. Luberoff 
T. S. Mathews 
Roger W. Mac Loughlin 
Miss Virginia Mac Leod 
Mr. and Mrs. Howard Mailey 
Miss Jean E. Mailey 
Mr. and Mrs. Royal D. Mailey 
Bequest of Georgiana L. Mc Clellan 
Miss Elinor Merrell 
John C. Milne 
Miss Adrienne Minassian 
*Mrs. Ira Nelson Morris 
The National Academy of Design 
Walter W. Naumburg 
Christopher Norris 
Catharine Oglesby 
The Ohio State Museum 
Okyoy Necmeddin 
Wilton E. Owen, Inc. 
Owens-Corning Fiberglass Corp. 
Mrs. Florence Peto 
Piazza Prints, Inc. 
Mrs. Helen Haseltine Plowden 
Mrs. Grafton H. Pyne 
Mrs. Elizabeth Riefstahl 
The Estate of Christian Francis Rosborg 
The Estate of Philip H. Rosenbach 
Miss Louise B. Scott 
Mrs. Stevenson Scott 



*Deceased 

194 



Mrs. Margaret Scoville 

Charles Scribner's Sons 

Sesoni Knitting Mills, Inc. 

S. Z. Shirae 

Silkar Stndios, Inc. 

W. and J. Sloane 

Mrs. Louise Miller Smith 

Mrs. L. V. Solon 

Arthur V. Stanley 

Mr. and Mrs. Stephen B. Stanton 

David Stockwell 



Miss Stella G. Streeter 

Arthur Sussel, Jr. 

Frank J. Tano 

Bequest of Grace Lincoln Temple 

Allen Townsend Terrell 

Mrs. Harley E. Thompson 

J. H. Thorp and Company, Inc. 

Miss Ruth Van Norman 

1 he Wallpaper Magazine 

Miss Florence A. Williams 

Mrs. Elizabeth B. Willis 



PURCHASES IN MEMORIAM, 1953 



Charles W. Gould 
James O. Green 
Marie Torrance Hadden 
Samuel C. Harriman 
The Misses Hewitt 
Peter Cooper Hewitt 
A. A. Kaltenberg 
Mrs. John Innes Kane 



H. Madison Jones 

Mme. Raimondo de Madrazo 

Georgiana L. Mc Clellan 

Ogden Codman 

John R. Safford 

Rodman Wanamaker 

Mrs. Hamilton Fish Webster 



DONORS OF EQUIPMENT AND SERVICES, 1953 



Anonymous 

Martin Birnbaum 

H. Ray Black 

Miss Sally Church 

Perry B. Cott 

Mrs. Antoinette K. Gordon 

Miss Marian Hague 

Mrs. Agnes J. Holden 

John Irwin 

George J. Lee 

Stanley T. Lewis 

Dr. George Linton 

Aschwin Lippe 

Adolph Loewi 



Alan W. Lukens 
William H. McCarthy, Jr. 
Miss Adrienne Minassian 
Mrs. R. Burnham Moffat 
Miss Serbella Moores 
Benjamin Piazza 
Miss Ruth Robinson 
Dr. Peter Schlumbohm 
Dr. Carl Schuster 
Miss Pauline Simmons 
Victor D. Spark 
Mrs. Wilhelmine von Godin 
Mrs. Elizabeth Bayley Willis 



DONORS TO THE MUSEUM LIBRARY, 1953 



Mrs. Lillian Smith Albert 
Miss Amey Aldrich 
Anonymous 
Arnold A. Arbeit 
Architectural Forum 
Miss Jennie L. Barnitz 
Mrs. George F. Bateman 
Miss Alice B. Beer 
Benaki Museum, Athens 



Maurice Benson 

Martin Birnbaum 

E. Maurice Bloch 

H. M. Calmann 

Chambre Syndicale des Fabricants de Papiers 

Peints de France 
Ciba Company, Inc. 
Robert Sterling Clark Art Institute 
P. & D. Colnaghi & Co., Ltd. 



195 



Colonial Williamsburg, Inc. 

Albert Gushing Crehore 

Danske Kunstindustrimuseet, Copenhagen 

Deutsche Akademie der Kunste, Berlin 

Deutsches Tapetenmuseum, Kassel 

Miss C. De Yoanna 

W. J. Donald 

Eugene E. Dressner 

Elisha Dyer 

E. A. Entwisle 

The Frick Collection 

Dr. Agnes Geijer 

Glass Crafts of America 

Norvin H. Green 

Leon Grinberg 

Signora Daria Guarnati 

Miss Marian Hague 

Calvin S. Hathaway 

Miss Mabel Haynes 

Erich H. Herrmann, Inc. 

Hispanic Society of America 

Historisches Museum der Pfalz, Speyer 

Miss Josephine Howell 

Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery 

Kunstgewerbemuseum, Zurich 

Clay Lancaster 

Mrs. Bella C. Landauer 

Everett P. Lesley, Jr. 

Frederick Leveaux 



Clarence McK. Lewis 
Miss Margaret K. MacAllen 
Mrs. Hazel McKinley 
Malmo Museum 
Metropolitan Museum of Art 
Whitney N. Morgan 
National Gallery of Art, Ottawa 
National Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C. 
Nationalmuseum, Stockholm 
Arthur U. Newton Gallery 
William R. Osmun 
* William Francklyn Paris 
Parke-Bernet Galleries, Inc. 
Harry de Pauer 
The Pierpont Morgan Library 
Harry M. Raphaelian 
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam 
Smithsonian Institution 
Taft Museum 

Textilingenieurschule, Krefeld 
Turkish Press and Tourist Department, 

Istanbul 
UNESCO Relations Staff 
Universitetsbiblioteket, Uppsala 
Victoria and Albert Museum 
Mrs. A. Stewart Walker 
Tapetenzeitung 
Leo Wallerstein 
Lloyd W. Weed 



Deceased 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM, 1953-1954 



HONORARY BENEFACTORS 

Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 
Miss Marian Hague 
Mrs. Montgomery Hare 
Miss Edith Wetmore 

BENEFACTORS 

Richard C. Greenleaf 
Archer M. Huntington 
R. Keith Kane 
Leo Wallerstein 

LIFE MEMBERS 
Mrs. Robert Woods Bliss 
Miss Adelaide Milton de Groot 
James Hazen Hyde 
Katzenbach & Warren, Inc. 

SUSTAINING MEMBERS 
Mrs. Neville J. Booker 
Charles of the Ritz 
Mrs. Howard J. Sachs 



SUBSCRIBING MEMBERS 
Miss Kate T. Cory 
Mr. & Mrs. Elisha Dyer 
Richard C. Greenleaf 
Miss Elinor Merrell 
Irving S. Olds 
Miss M. Evelyn Scott 
Stroheim and Romann 
J. H. Thorp & Co., Inc. 
Traphagen School of Fashion 
Mrs. Lucius Wilmerding, Jr. 

CONTRIBUTING MEMBERS 

Miss Amey Aldrich 
Miss Lucy T. Aldrich 
Allen Art Museum 
Anonymous 
Arnold A. Arbeit 
Bailer Brothers 
Miss Charlotte C. Baldwin 
Louis G. Baldwin 



196 



Mrs. Charles Keller Beekman 

Mrs. Henry J. Bernheim 

Mrs. Retina Bernstein 

Martin Birnhauni 

Mrs. .\ll)crt Blum 

Mrs. Thcociorc Boettger 

Mrs. .\dolphe Borie 

Miss Dora Brahms 

Miss Marion Bridgnian 

^V. S. Biidworth & Son 

Einar A. Bnhl 

Mrs. Charles Biirlingham 

Alfred G. Binnham 

Mrs. Franklin Chace 

Mrs. Clarence Chapman 

Mrs. Ethel Bnrnet Clark 

T. M. Cleland 

Miss Fannia M. Cohn 

Kenneth M. Collins 

Mrs. Lincoln Cromwell 

George H. Danforth 

Baron Manrice Vornz de Vaux 

Miss Freda Diamond 

Joseph Downs 

Henry F. du Pont 

H. G. Dwight 

Eugene L. Garbaty 

Eva Gebhard-Gourgaud Foundation 

Ginsburg & Levy, Inc. 

Miss Minnie Goodman 

Mrs. William Greenough 

Mrs. Hector Guimard 

David Marshall Gwinn 

Mrs. Pascal R. Harrower 

Walter Hauser 

Mrs. Bayard Henry 

Jacob Hirsch 

Mrs. John Gregory Hope 

Mrs. Catharine O. Hughes 

J. A. Lloyd Hyde 

Ernest Iselin, Jr. 

Miss Louise M. Iselin 

Jones & Erwin, Inc. 

John Judkyn 

George Kaplan 

Charles S. Keller 

Albert Kornfeld 

International Ladies Garment "Workers Union 

Tom Lee 

Mrs. Russell C. Leffing^vell 

Julian Clarence Levi 

Clarence McK. Lewis 

Mrs. William N. Little 

Raymond Loewy 

Miss Nancy V. McClelland 

Mr. & Mrs. D. H. McLaughlin 

Manhattan Storage R: \Varehoiise Co. 

Miss Harriet Marple 



Frederick W. Martin 
Mrs. Joseph M. Mav 
Francis G. Mayer 
Joseph Meltzer 
Earl Hart Miller 
William M. Milliken 
Mrs. George W. Mixter 
Mrs. Edward C. Moen 
Mrs. George P. Montgomery 
Mrs. William Moore 
Joseph Moreng 
Mrs. Matilde K. Muller 
The Ohio Leather Co., Inc. 
Miss Gertrude M. Oppenheimer 
Wilton E. Owen, Inc. 
William C. Pahlmann 
Miss Katharine de B. Parsons 
Mrs. Guido Perera 
Mrs. Harry T. Peters 
Mrs. J. G. Phelps Stokes 
Gilford B. Pinchot 

Pleaters, Stitchers & Embroiderers Assn. Inc. 
Mr. & Mrs. J. Wesley Pullman III 
Mrs. Grafton H. Pyne 
Mrs. Henry Cole Quinby 
Rambusch Decorating Co. 
Mrs. Beverley R. Robinson 
Paid J. Sachs 
Mrs. Victor Salvatore 
Miss Gertrude Sampson 
Mrs. Margaret N. Sandfort 
Ted Sandler 
Hardinge Scholle 
F. Schumacher & Company 
Miss Edith Scoville 
James Seeman 
Miss Mary Jeffrey Shannon 
Robert G. Smith 
Mrs. Irving M. Snow 
Miss Helen S. Stone 
Mrs. Herman F. Stone 
Mills Ten Eyck, Jr. 
Mrs. Paul Tuckerman 
Mrs. Andrew M. Underbill 
*Miss Gertrude Underbill 
Kenneth Volz 
Hudson D. Walker 
Mrs. George H. Warren, Jr. 
Miss Helen Watkins 
The John B. Watkins Company 
Mrs. Thomas J. Watson 
Mrs. Vanderbilt Webb 
Henry Helmut \Verner 
Dr. R: Mrs. Davenport West 
Mrs. Forsyth Wickes 
Alan L. Wolfe 
Albert S. Wright 
Mrs. Roxa Wright 



197 



ANNUAL MEMBERS 

Mrs. Alphaeus H. Albert 

Marshall C. Anderson 

Miss Joanna K. Arfman 

Mrs. Madeline Barry 

Miss Elsie G. Bell 

George Payne Bent II 
*Mrs. Elliott Blanc 

Mr. & Mrs. James H. Blauvelt 

Mrs. Leonard Bloch 

Mrs. Peter Borie 

Mrs. Ludlow S. Bull 

Fred Caiola 

Mrs. Alfred B. Garb 

Miss Phebe Gates 

George Ghapman 

Mrs. Louise G. Ghard 

Miss Gladys Voorhees Glark 

Mrs. Edward B. Gole 

Frank E. Comparato 

Doda Conrad 

John Goolidge 

Mrs. Erastus Coining II 

Mrs. Jameson Cotting 

John J. Cunningham 

Mrs. Joseph S. Daltry 

Mrs. Walter T. Daub 

Ben Davis 

Georges de Batz 

Mrs. William Adams Delano 

Mr. and Mrs. Dikran Dingilian 

George E. Dix, Jr. 

Senator & Mrs. John A. K. Donovan 

Miss Janet H. Douglas 

Miss Louise Dunbar 

Miss Esther Dunn 

Miss Beatrice Ecclesine 

Miss Helen C. Ellwanger 

Miss Alice S. Erskine 

Mrs. T. R. Eskesen 

Carl F. Ficken 

George H. Fitch 

Miss Frances B. Fox 

Mrs. William G. Eraser 

Mrs. Robert L. Frey 

Mrs. Samuel Friedman 

Miss Henriette J. Fuchs 

Miss Sue Fuller 

Thomas L. Galla^vay 

Mrs. William Gatheral 

Mrs. Robert J. Geist 

Mrs. Emma M. Gibbs 

Miss Elsie Glass 

Mrs. Alice Glick 

Mrs. Peter Grey 

Harry D. M. Grier 

William Gulden 

Mrs. Charles S. Guthrie 

Miss Yvonne Hackenbroch 



Robert L. Harley 

John M. Harney 

Miss Katharine B. Hartshorne 

Miss Estelle T. Ha)den 

Miss Mabel Haynes 

William W. Heer 

Mr. & Mrs. George S. Hellman 

Barklie Henry 

Miss Elizabeth H. Holahan 

Hubert T. Holland 

H. Maxson Holloway 

Thomas N. Horan 

Mrs. Theodoie F. Humphrey 

Mrs. William A. Hutcheson 

The Honorable Julius Isaacs 

Miss Frances H. Ives 

Mrs. W. H. Jackson 

Horst W. Janson 
*Miss Mary Rutherfurd Jay 

Mrs. Robert Irving Jenks 

Mrs. William Francis Kane 

Morris Kantor 

Maxim Karolik 

Mrs. George G. King 

Mrs. Lois Dodd King 

Max Knoecklein 

Mrs. G. M. W. Kobbe 

Mrs. Agnes Kremer 

Mrs. Anna H. Laessig 

Mrs. Sidney Lanier 

Otto F. Langmann 

Mrs. Francis H. Lenygon 

Miss Ruth Lieb 

Simon Lissim 

Adolph Loewi 

Miss Helen Lyall 

Mrs. Eugene Mabeau 

Miss Millicent McLaughlin 

Roger W. MacLaughlin 

Joseph Mann 

Leston Margon 

Mrs. Philip A. Means 

J. J. Mendelsohn 

Miss Emma Montanari 
*Mrs. Ira Nelson Morris 

Dr. Alice Muehsam 

Mrs. Arnold Nelson 

Alexander Nesbitt 

Mrs. Florence Z. E. Nicholls 

Miss Marie Nichols 

Mrs. Donald M. Oenslager 

Count Alexandre Orlowski 

James St. L. O'Toole 

Miss Elizabeth Paine 

Miss Hilda Pertha 

Miss Pauline M. Peterson 

Miss Evelyn A. Pitshke 

* Deceased 



198 



Mrs. A. Kingsley Porter 
Miss Miriam Siitro Price 
Mrs. Hciuy S. Redmond 
Miss Mar\ riuiay Robinson 
Herbert F. Roemmele 
E. Kendall Rogers 
Thomas J. Rosenl)erg 
Maud G. Routte 
Mrs. Frances R. H. Santord 
Miss Rathryn Scott 
Mrs. Harriet Segessemann 
Miss Susan \V. Slieet 
Miss Dorothea C. Shipley 
Mrs. L. V. Solon 
Victor D. Spark 
Miss Edith A. Standen 
Mrs. Clarence S. Stein 
C. Eugene Stephenson 
Mrs. Olive T. Stephenson 
Joseph A. Sukaskas 
\V'ilson A. Swanker 
Miss Helen H. Tanzer 
Allen Townsend Terrell 
Marguerite B. Tiffany 
John Kent Tilton 
Mrs. \V. \\'. Tompkins 
Mrs. Roy E. Tomlinson 
Reinhard C. Trof 



Mrs. Muriel P. Turoft 
William R. Van Nortwick 
Mrs. \Vilhelniine von Godin 
Miss A. Elizabeth Wadhams 
Miss Stella Walek 
Wallpaper Magazine, Inc. 
Mrs. Charles C. Warren 
Miss Dorothy J. W^arren 
Harry E. Warren 
Mrs. S. C. Webster 
Mrs. Lionel Weil 
Herbert Weissberger 
Mrs. Hay den Weller 
Paul Wescott 
Major & Mrs. Morrison 

Van Rensselaer Weyant 
Mrs. Nelson C. White 
Miss Isabel L. Whitney 
Mrs. Florence Wilkes 
Mrs. Howard W. Willard 
Mrs. Harrison Williams 
Mrs. Arnold Wilson 
C. F. Woodcraft Co. 
Edward J. Wormley 
Miss D. Lorraine Yerkes 
*Harry St. Clair Zogbaum 
Paul Zucker 

* Deceased 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM 

The Advisory Council of the Museum established in 1937 the following classes 
of membership: 

Benefactors who contribute $1,000 or more 

Life Members who contribute $500 or more 

Sustaining Members . . . . . who contribute $100 annually 

Subscribing Members who contribute $50 annually 

Contributing Members .... who contribute $10 annually 

Annual Members who contribute $3 annually 

Checks should be drawn to The Cooper Union Museum Fund, and sent in 
care of The Business Officer, The Cooper Union, Cooper Square, New York 3, 
New York. 

199 



THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM 

COOPER SQUARE and SEVENTH STREET 

is served by these lines of transportation 

B.-M. T. SUBWAY Broadway-Seventh Avenue Line — 8th Street Station 
I. R. T. SUBWAY Lexington-Fourth Avenue Line — Astor Place Station 
THIRD AVENUE ELEVATED 9th Street Station 

INDEPENDENT SUBWAY West 4th Street - Washington Square Station 
HUDSON-MANHATTAN TUBES 9th Street Station 

FIFTH AVENUE BUS Wanamaker Terminal, Route 5 

BROADWAY BUS, Route 6 THIRD AVENUE BUS 

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MADISON-FOURTH AVENUE BUS Routes 1 and 2 

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Printed by The John B. Watkins Company^ New York 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 




Wreathed head; embroidery in colored wool on linen. Egypt, 4th century. Pinchased, 
Au Panier Fleuri Fund. Detail shown, 5%" by 4%". 



VOL • 2 • NO • 7 



JUNE • 1955 



THE COOPER UNION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE AND ART 

TRUSTEES 

Irving S. Olds 
Hudson R. Searing 
Harrison Tweed 
Arthur A. Houghton, Jr. 
Frank W. Abrams 

OFFICERS 

Irving S. Olds, Chairman of Tritsiees 

Edwin S. Burdell, President 

Sheridan A. Logan, Treasurer 

Elizabeth J. Carbon, Secretary and Business Officer 



Albert S. Wright, Counsel 

MUSEUM FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

ADVISORY COUNCIL 

Richard F. Bach, Chairman 
Mrs. Neville J. Booker, Secretary 
Henry F. du Pont 
Richard C. Greenleaf 
Miss Marian Hague 
John Goldsmith Phillips 
Mrs. Grafton H. Pyne 
Mrs. Howard I. Sachs 
William C. Segal 

STA F F 

Calvin S. Hathaway, Director 

E. Maurice Bloch, Keeper of Draivings and Prints 

Alice Baldwin Beer, Keeper of Textiles 

Jean E. Mailey, Assistant Keeper of Textiles 

Mrs. Hedy Backlin, Acting Keeper of Decorative Arts 

William R. Osmun, Keeper of Exhibitions 

Christian Rohlfing, Associate Keeper of Exhibitions 

Mary A. Noon, Recorder 



Mary S. M. Gibson, Curator Emeritus 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 

VOL . 2 • NO • 7 JUNE • 1955 



IV hy Textiles? 



SINCE MAX Stopped clothing himself in skins, Avent indoors, found it 
pleasant to cover himself at night, to shut out a sun too hot, a moon 
too bright, the drafts of cold air from the stone hall, the eye of a passing 
neighbor, it is clear that the materials for his clothino-, the coverino- of his 
bed, the hangings of his windows, his avails, his doors, of his temple of wor- 
ship, the clothing of its priests — all these and more have always been and 
remain so fundainental to existence as to be taken coinpletely for granted by 
the average man. And essential they W\\\ remain until that a^vful day, 
envisaged by Mr. Huxley,^ when ^ve clothe ourselves in some "ersatz" stuff 
^vhich, donned in the mornino, is tossed into the ^vaste basket at evening. 
Long may "\ve be spared that test-tube fate. For there is in man a constantly 
rectnring urge to incorporate in the making of the coverlet of his bed, the 
dress of his ^vife, or the robe in ^vhich his priest approaches the altar, some 
element of ^\^hat is to him beauty — be it the inherited combination of stripes 
and j)laids of his ancestors, the ornamentation of a delicate silk ^vith some 
pattern that has reached him across remote trade roiues, or the severe, 
symbolic contrast of certain colors in hieratic robes; and these have for him 
at the moment of creation an element of rightness, of fitness, that must have 
its expression. 

The contemplation of these efforts to^vard some attainment of beauty at 
once involves the beholder in the endless crisscrossing of the currents in the 
history of ornament, of decoration. Only a slight examination of the long 
development of decorative arts makes it obvious that any collections ptir- 
porting to illuminate this field must incorporate an ample survey of creation 
in the arts of ^veaving and embroidery. 

203 



The odd vague attitude of parts of the public toward the function of 
museums, toward Art (dangerous word!), is disclosed by the repeated experi- 
ence of the former head of the textile department in one of the country's 
laroest museums. Often, she said, when in summer the tourist from the 





Fig. 1. Tapestry bands, dark blue wool on linen; white details. The racing animals have red 
tongues. Egypt, 4th-5th century. Given bv J. Pierpont Morgan from the Miquel y Badia Col- 
lection. W. 2%"; L. 1111." (upper). W. 2%"; L. 131/," (lower). 



south or west was much in evidence, she would find a weary lady at the 
door of the Textile Study Room, asking plaintively: "Please . . . where is 
the Art?" The visitor was then of course directed to the galleries of painting. 
Now, the point of this tale is that, in those days, to reach that study room 
the visitor would have passed through a series of galleries hung with the 
beautiful arts of the Near East, magnificent rugs, Persian miniatures, 
ceramics, silks; or by another route she would have Avandered through gal- 
leries of Chinese art, then into a corridor where superb costume from the 
17th to 19th century was arranged. None of what she had seen was, to her, 
art. Only the painting on canvas was so defined. 

"An art museum," writes one who should know, "is usually thought of 
as a gallery for the display of masterpieces. But possibly we should think of 
it rather as a visual reference collection of cultural history. Now, contrary 
to popular belief the history of culture is not written about the isolated 
masterpiece, but is drawn from the study collections." - 

204 



The \aliie of the study collection was of course basic in the beliefs of the 
founders of this Museiuii years before the above words were published, when 
they planned a series of reference collections, quickly availafjle for active 
use l)y \vorkers in and students of the arts of decoration. At once, in its 
first years, the Misses Hewitt began seeking textiles as essential to their 
plan, and the testimony of early gifts as support of their theory is most 
notably exemplified by one of the greatest collectors of our age, Mr. 
J. Pierpont Morgan, who, sympathetic and interested in their efforts, pur- 
chased in Europe three famous collections in 1901 and sent them to the 
Cooper Union Museum. 

By this truly Maecenean gift Mr. Morgan lifted the textile collection of 
this young museum into a position of importance and great potential useful- 
ness to the student of design, of techniques, of cultural history, and to the 
designer himself, that individual whom most especially as a link with indus- 
try it was hoped this Museum would serve. 

The range of this group of materials, numbering something over one 
thousand pieces, is extensive in periods covered, country of origin and, of 
course, in types of decoration and construction. Referred to intramurally 
as "the Morgan Collection" it actually contains three: ^ 

The Stanislas Baron collection, from Paris, numbered some t\vo hundred 
thirty-one pieces; about one hundred fifteen were late classic and Coptic, 
over fifty-two Egypto-Arabic, and the balance miscellaneous, ainong them 
several large panels of early European embroideries. 

The collection of Antonio Vives y Escudero, from Madrid, numbered 
three hundred thirty-seven pieces, among these many 16th- and 17th-cen- 
tury silks, velvets, and interesting weaves of linen and wool or silk and wool, 
mostly of Spanish or Italian origin, though two fine Peruvian mantles, post- 
Columbian, were in this group. 

Finally the collection of Francisco Miquel y Badia, piuchased from his 
widoTiv in Barcelona, listed four hundred two pieces and is perhaps the best 
known of the three groups now forming the Morgan Collection, for it 
contained many of the finest of the medieval stuffs: several Byzantine exam- 
ples, delicate Egypto-Arabic fragments, the extraordinary gxoup of Hispano- 
Moresque silks, 14th-century Italian silks, a group of the rare German 
medieval printed linens as well as Near Eastern silks, even several fine 15th- 
century tapestry-woven fragments froin China of the Ming dynasty, as well 
as a small survey of Peruvian weavings. Silks, velvets, einbroideries and a 
variety of European materials from the 15th through the 18th centuries, 
Spanish, Italian, French, all of exceptional quality or interest, complete the 
range of this truly extraordinary compilation of examples of textile art.^ 

However, Mr. Morgan's was not the first gift toward the foundation of a 

205 





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textile department. Turning over our catalogue cards from the first year, 
1896, of published records, Ave encounter a series of names of donors indicat- 
ing support from many sorts and conditions of men and women. 




Fig. 4. lioicki liagnient, tapesiiy, silk and gold; icd, grecii and brown on gold ground. Hispano- 
Moresque, 13th century. One of six similar fragments given by J. Pierpont Morgan from the 
Miquel v Badia Collection. Detail shown, 3%" by 4i/2"- 



The first is, rather naturally, a gift from the Misses Hewitt themselves 
of one hundred fifty-two pieces from the Jarves Collection. These, Miss 
Eleanor Hewitt has recalled,^ were purchased years before when the sisters 
were under sixteen, before they had dreamt of a museum, but apparently 
with some intuition that these textiles, mostly of the 16th and 17th centuries, 
should be salvaged. Let us note a contact, over a period of time, between 
these young experimenters and that earlier pioneer in the history of art in 
America, whose collection of early Italian painting has brought such lustre 
to the Yale University Art Gallery. 

There follow in our file cards, 1897 through 1900, names of donors known 
in their time for a variety of reasons, whose gifts attest their belief in the 

207 




to c " 
E O Q 




plans ot the Museum: Mrs. janies \V. Pinchot; Elsie de Wolfe, to become 
one of the best known of the coimtry's decorators; Raimundo de Madrazo, 
the Spanish painter; M. Chatel of the famous old French firm of Tassinari 
and Chatel; George Arnold Hearn, merchant, always a supporter of the 
early efforts of the foiuiders; and in 1899 a group of thirty-five fragments of 
Persian and Tinkish silks, 16th-18th centuries, from the great collector- 
dealer Dikran Kelekian. In 1900 appears the name of one of the country's 
most distinguished writers, who added to her gifts in fiction and criticism 
an expressed interest in decoration,*^ Edith Wharton. A small group of 
Greek Island embroideries, possibly gathered by her on that journey "ever 
memorable, that raked the Mediterranean as far as the isles of Greece,'"^ 
\va.s to become the foundation of this section of our embroidery collection. 

Clyde Fitch, the playAvright, Worth, the Paris dressmaker, Diana del 
Monte, another interior decorator, appear among early donors; and always 
and continuously over the years recur the names of the founders, of their 
mother Mrs. Abram S. Hewitt, and of gifts and bequests of various members 
of the family — the Erskine Hewitt bequest of 1938 and the gift of Norvin 
He^vitt Green in the same year. 

Throughout its development this Museum has attracted and continues to 
attract the interest of collectors, of industry, of perspicacious dealers, of 
connoissems and of just plain intelligent folk Avho are steadfastly generous 
in their encouragement, not only by gifts, but by placing at our service their 
special attainments of knowledge or training. Just as Miss Eleanor Hewitt 
has chronicled the early help of Tassinari and Chatel in Paris, so we might 
record today the yearly support of American textile firms. Through many 
years one observes as a donor the name of the late Herman A. Elsberg, one 
of the foremost dealers in antique textiles of this country, who combined 
with his extensive knowledge of the whole field of early materials the ability 
to conduct in Lyon a manufacturing business of fine silks, a large group of 
^vhich the Museum received from his estate. But fmther, our records 
reveal how frequently his advice and wide acquaintance among scholars and 
museums were of service to this Museum. So today from specialists in the 
business ^vorld this Museum receives similar intelligent cooperation. To 
many experts Avhose research and experience in the gathering of textiles 
is so generously shared, the Musemn has cause to be constantly grateful. 

The groAvth of such a Musetmi as this, in its beginning an experiment, 
and always independent of any subvention from public funds, ^vould not 
have been possible without the devoted active friendship of many whose 
contribution has been, and is today, made not only in gifts of objects or 
money, but in an intelligent helpful participation that might be called 
extra-curatorial. Much of the progress of such an institution depends on its 

209 



interpretation by its friends to the world at large; and countless acts of 
interested ad\ice, within the circle of the Museum's Advisory Council and 
the antecedent Board of Directors, have moved it forward. 

AVhile it is not the pmpose of this study to chronicle donors to the textile 
collection, but rather the collection itself, the ramifications of its expansion 
tempt us to these added notes. Lace, a subject of study and collection by 
talented amateurs in the first years of the twentieth century, appeared early 
among gifts; and this section ^vas steadily built up by such donations as the 
laces from the collection of Mrs. J. P. Morgan, given by her daughter, Mrs. 
George Nichols; a group from the distinginshed collection of Mrs. Morris 
Hawkes, another from Mrs. Robert B. Noyes, and bter from Mr. and Mrs. 
R. Keith Kane.'^ By 1950 this Museum found itself the possessor of an 
extremely good lace collection, which in that year was remarkably enriched 
when Mr. Richard C. Greenleaf presented us, in memory of his mother, 
Adeline Emma Greenleaf, with fifty laces which brought to our collection 
many well-known examples of this lovely disappearing art.^ 

Children's dresses and accessories of dress from many lands were the gift 
of Mr. and Mrs. De Witt Clinton Cohen in 1940. The bequest of Mrs. W. P. 
Treadwell in 1916 had provided the department with early 19th-century 
accessories of dress. As space became a problem for either the exhibition or 
proper storage of costume, and as other sources of costume information had 
meanwhile developed in this city, it was decided that complete costume 
would not henceforth be acquired unless the material or embroidery decorat- 
ing it was an essential contribution to the textile collection. However, many 
delightful auxiliaries of dress, as gloves, caps, aprons, purses, and the like, 
for centuries the field for much beautiful design, are here and are of 
great use. 

Samplers to the number of two hundred sixty-three, from all countries 
and periods, Avere bequeathed to the Museum by Mrs. Henry E. Coe in 1941. 
In 1943 the firm of W. and J. Sloane presented us wath a gToup of one 
hundred seven printed cottons, from the collection of William Sloane Coffin. 
The forining of this collection had been the work of an expert, Mrs. Agnes 
Johnson Holden, and the section which canre to this Museum was a much- 
needed addition to a group of materials so steadily used. 

Growth of the collection continued not only by gift but by purchase to 
fill in some category not yet represented; or to acquire, perhaps from the 
break-up of a well-known collection, pieces of exceptional merit. So, in 
1941, the Advisory Coiuicil voted to purchase the rare 18th-century silk, "the 
Sun Chariot," from the sale of the Elsberg collection. In 1951, the fragment 
of 6th-century silk in late classic design, men gathering grapes,^^ was pur- 
chased from Dikran Kelekian. Followino- his death two fine velvets, one 

211 




tin 1/3 P5 



• 




Salaxid Persian, ol the period ol Shah 'Abbas, one Turkish, of the 16th 
centmy, Avere acxjiiired from this famous collection. 

Recently an opportiniity arose to acquire imusually handsome examples 
of Indian textile art, of both painted and embroidered cotton, when, follow- 




Fig. 11. Crane among clouds (detail). White, colors, gold ground. Slit tapestry. China, Ming 
Dynasty, 15th century. Given by J. Pierpont Morgan from the Miquel y Badia Collection. Detail 
shoivn, 12" by 6%". 



ino the sale in Enoland of the contents of Ashburnham Place, Sussex, two 
hangings from a set of six, one in each technique, were acquired by this 
Museum. The interest in these lay not only in their extraordinary beauty 
of design and color, but in the fact that half of the set Avere painted, half 
embroidered in brilliant silk chain stitch, fronr the same design.^^ 

Along one ^vall of our sttidy room stands a large cabinet housing, in its 
upper section, French and German weaving books of the early 19th century, 
wood blocks for printing cotton - French, American, even Japanese — and 
one hundred forty-six sample books. It would appear that, early in the 
Museum's career, manufacturers and dressmakers began bestowing these 
books; friends have added to, and several pm chases enlarged, this very 
useful section. The little "sAvatches" in these books range from 1784 in one 
portfolio that bears this date, through 1829 where, in a small volume 

213 



(Fig. 28) apparently brought from Bury in England to Providence, are 
shown printed cottons with records of dyeing experiments; and a far larger 
collection from a sinole mill, the Old Pacific Print Works, Lawrence, Massa- 




Fig. 12. Brown cotton, brocaded in white, red and light brown wools. Pern, Central Coast, 
900-1400 A.D. Given by ]. Pierpont Morgan from the Miquel y Badi'a Collection. Detail shown, 
161/4" by 14". 



chusetts, represents the years 1864 to 1868. In other volumes we find tie silks 
from Paterson, printed cottons fashionable in 1906, Rodier's wools, striped 
and checked cottons of India. Apparently age does not wither nor custom 
stale the infinite variety of their use, for again and again designers have 
recourse to these worn pages. 

Inspiration for textile design is of course found in other departments 
of the Museum. In the Department of Drawings and Prints is contained a 
delightful variety of original studies in white or colored gouache for em- 
broidery and textile composition, of the 18th and early 19th centuries, as 
well as a group of 18th-century mises-en-carte for weaving, in color, one 

214 




Fig. 13. Detail from a mantle, tapestry woven in colored wools and gold. Peru, 16th-17th century. 
Given by J. Pierpont Morgan from the Vives y Escudero Collection. Detail shown, 17" by 13%". 



of which is illustrated (Fig. 25). Another unusual group is the series of 
original cartoons for French printed cottons, representing the years from 
1770 to 1820, with trial proofs for some of the designs. ^- 

In the fifty-eight years since the Museum opened, the textile section has 
groAvn from its modest beginning with the group from the Jarves collection, 
was catapulted into importance by the Morgan gift, has now reached in 
holdings approximately 8,500 items, ranges in time from two hundred fifty 
years before Christ (exclusive of a few mummy wrappings) to the present, 
and offers material from the Near and Far East, Europe, England, South 
America and our own country. 

Why, you may ask — if you have persisted thus far — why should a textile 
collection of this size be maintained and wiiy do we steadily exert ourselves 
to develop the collection still further? 

215 



The answer is obvious, tlioiigh not simple to state, but let us put it thus: 
if there is art in the fine form of a chair, or the cup man raises to his lips, 
or the design of the lamp upon his table, or the lantern at his door, or the 
line of the door itself, so is there art in the pattern, be it simple or complex, 
of the stuff Avith ^vhich he curtains his windows, covers his chair, or which 
composes that dress of his wife, or the scarf around his neck. Art — or 
banality. 




Fig. 14. Censing angel. Embroidery in colored silk and metal thread. Germany, 15th century. 
One of a group of embroideries from an antependium. Given by J. Pierpont Morgan. L. 20%"; 
H. 81^". 



The present tense in the above is used in a general, historic sense, for we 
cannot separate ourselves from our past culture. As the understanding of 
our cultural history must include a survey, however cursory, of design, either 
as an exemplification of advance or decadence, as well as an expression of 
the psychology, the taste of the moment, so is it essential to examine the 
wide field, the ramifications of design, and construction, and what lies 
behind them, in the history of textile arts. 

Man turns constantly to the past, his past, to learn. He is taught the his- 
tory of his country, his race, the accomplishments of many races. He cannot 
examine the past ^vithout encountering in every epoch the business of 
textiles; for quite aside from their aesthetic value, the textiles of any civiliza- 
tion have been, quite literally since time immemorial, of basic economic 
importance — "big business" — and obviously so remain today. 

Archeologists of today, exhuming the past, constantly bring this point to 
our attention. For instance a late (though not the earliest) example occurs 

216 



in the report by Welles Hangen, from Ankara, Turkey to The Next) York 
Times for February 5, 1955, concerning the large find of cuneiform clay 
tablets at the site of an ancient Assyrian trading settlement, dating from 
about 1900 B. C. Here the Assyrian traders were welcomed by the local 
rulers "because they brought with them tin, textiles [italics ours], drugs, 
and other adornments of the more advanced culture of Assur." 

It is a temptation to d'well at length on traffic in textiles throughout his- 
tory, for the story of their making and movement about the world is almost 
as interesting as the materials themselves. But, flitting lightly over our time, 
we may glance back at a few illustrations. Aside from all the known inter- 
coinse of the Roman Empire with far lands, in the constant East-West trade 
around the Mediterranean basin throughout the Middle Ages, textiles 
played an important part. Chinxh records of the 8th and 9th centuries 
specify the silks ordered from the Eevant, and the presence in European 
cliinxh treasuries of such materials is proof today of their importance. 

Silk culture, as we know, was carried to Spain by the all-conquering 
Mohammedans. By the tenth century an active trade existed between Spain 
and Egypt and in the early Middle Ages the beautiful silks of Arabic Spain 
^vere exported. ^^^ The prosperity of Florence in the 13th century, which 
tdtimately led to her 14th-century pre-eminence as banker to Europe, was 
founded upon her famous cloths of wool. These were consumed not only in 
Europe but ^vere shipped to the East, for the East-West trade worked both 
^vays. In Cairo there existed a special market for Avestern textiles. ^^ Venice, 
as the port of trans-shipment of Europe's goods, rose to great po^ver; to her 
were shipped the wools of Spain, the linens of Reims, the wools of Flanders, 
and from her quays went out the ships to trade these goods in ports about 
the Eastern Mediterranean and return with all the merchandise of the East, 
in ^vhich rich textiles played an enormous part.^-^ 

Certainly the western trade to and into the East Avas well established by 
the mid-1 3th century, for we note that when the venturesome Venetian jewel 
merchants, Maffeo and Nicolo Polo, set out on their first journey to reach 
China, they started from Soldaii in the Crimea where they had a counting 
house. From the long and truly marvelous story of their second joinney, 
begiui in 1272, on which Nicolo's son, Marco, accompanied them, we have 
space for only brief citations. In the seventeen years that Marco journeyed 
about the kingdom of Kublai Khan he saw and, in his history, mentioned 
much of the silk weavino in China, of the beautiful stuffs of silk or silk 
mingled Avith gold which the Chinese ^veaver kne^v so "well ho^v to execute. 
In the great city of Khinsai (the modern HangchoAv) with its t^velve gates, 
he found, as in other parts of China, Mohammedan merchants settled and 
active. Of the merchandise traded in Khinsai he reported above all silk, 

217 



and estimated the total amount which entered the city each day to be a 
thousand wagon loads. ^'' 

Siunmino up the evidence of opened trade with China, Heyd says it was 
the raw silk and the stuffs made ol silk which above everythinsi, else the mer- 
chants of the A\'est souuht in the Chinese market. ^'^ 



I'M I 






f. 



Fig. 17. Detail from border of an apron. Needlepoint lace, "punto in aria." Italy, second half 
of 16th century. Given b)- Richard C. Greenleaf, in memory of his mother, Adeline Emma 
Greenleaf. Detail shown, 4%" by 10%". 



Patterns of Chinese silks reaching the West were to have a marked and 
refreshing effect on the spreading art of Italian silk weaving in the 14th 
century, of which those of Lucca became so famous. ^^ And those same silks 
of Italy, moving northward by old trade routes and through the medieval 
fairs, were much sought by the French and the English, and most elaborately 
used in the court of Burgundy, concerning whose luxury and behavior in the 
dying days of chivalry that overworked word "fabulous" is for once correct. ^^ 

Indeed the feasts, parades, jousts, celebrations, civil and religious, must 
have been a boon to the world's weavers, and descriptions of materials used 
and worn amaze us, leaving only Hollywood as a possible contemporary 
comparison. No ticker-tape parades greeted visiting notables, for ^vhen in 
1360 four English barons, on a diplomatic mission, arrived in Paris they 
found, "toutes les rues jonchees et parees d'herbe, et entour parees de drap 
d'or." Twenty years later Charles VI, returning from his coronation in 
Reims "oil il avait ete sacre vetu d'une robe de soie tout eclatante de fleurs 
de lis d'or," entered a Paris where "les rues et les carrefours de la ville etaint 
tendus de tapisseries diverses comme des teinples." -'^ 

They ordered these things better in France! 

219 




Fig. 18. Detail from white muslin embroidered apron. Initials S. K. and date, 1733, in body 
of bird. England, first half of 18th century. Bequest of Mrs. Henry E. Coe. Detail shown, 
2OV2" by 12%". 



Tapestries, so extensively woven in the Middle Ages, were a matter of 
artistic patronage by those same Dukes of Burgundy, regarded not only for 
their beauty but as objects of value. They were presented as kingly diplo- 
matic gifts, were used as ransom, and were of sufficient value to be sold in 
the clearing of the estate of Philip the Bold in 1404.-^ Moreover these 
tapestries consumed much good English wool. Cloths of wool, basic for all 
uses throughout centuries, which were a most profitable product of the 
looms of Ghent, Bruges, Ypres, and other Flemish centers in the Middle 
Ages, depended on a steady flow of ra^v wool from England and so built 
up an economic interdependence that was woven into the histories of the 
Lowlands and England. 

In England's House of Lords today the Lord Chancellor "sits upon a 
stout ungainly object," the Woolsack, reminder and symbol of the basis of 
England's prosperity and greatness up to the time of the Industrial Revolu- 
tion. The wool shipped by the Merchants of the Staple to the Continent, 
in the Middle Ages, later manufactured in her own lands and exported as 
cloth the world over, was indeed, until the comins^ of cotton, the most 
lucrative trade of the country.-^ 

220 



It ^vas next the trade in cotton that became of major economic importance 
in Europe after the opening in 1498 of sailing routes to India and the Far 
East. Tiie competition bet^veen the various East India trading companies, 
of Portugal, Holland, France, and England, was extensively motivated by 
ambition to control the business in Indian "calicos" and the painted cot- 
tons, soon to produce the craze for "indiennes" in France and "chintz" in 
England, in short to father the great business of printed cottons in Europe. 




Fig. 19. Embroidered valance; polychrome wool on twill weave cotton. England, late 17th-earlv 
18th century. Purchased, Au Panier Fleuri Fund. Detail shown, IGYj" by 32". 



Into this htige East India trade the little sailing ships from Massachusetts 
poked their prows, in the late 18th century, fared out over the Atlantic with 
mixed cargoes on some triangular voyage which might take them to Riga 
to turn over a cargo, buy Russian linen, then out east to Bombay or Calcutta 
where they might lay out $20,000 in a variety of Indian textiles whose names 
today are strange to our ears, save only chintz, seersucker and that long- 
staying article the Indian shawl. --^ The clipper ship trade round the Horn to 
China, from ports of our Eastern seaboard, familiarized our forefathers with 
the silks of that land, just as in Europe earlier in the 18th century once 
again silks of China were discovered, indeed all the arts of the Far East were 
to become favorites of fashion. As for the story of cotton in our own country, 

221 



it is so familiar, so much a part of our everyday life, that we forget its enor- 
mous importance in our history, which it retains today. 

NoAV all this transport of textiles about the known world throughout time 
continued not alone because, as ^vith so much tin or coal, their purveyors 
^vere sine of a market. It was because in their age someone liked them, be- 




Fig. 24. Men's silk caps; embroidered (left) and woven in colors and metal. France or Italy, 
18th century. Given by Richard C. Greenleaf. Approximate sizes, W. 7"; H. 7-9". 



cause of their beauty, either of pattern or construction, that they were 
sought. Records of silk ordered from the Near East for the popes of Rome 
in the 8th and 9th centuries are detailed as to colors and patterns — leopards, 
peacocks, griffons, elephants, and so on. "Fecit . . . vestem de fundato unam, 
habentem historiam aquilarum." "Fecit vestes . . . duas de tyrio . . . cum 
historia de elephantis." ^^ Presumably these silks were admired, for not only 
were they employed in ritual, but rulers sent them as gifts, great prelates 
of the Church were buried in them. 

To the rich Burgundians the Italian silks of the I4th and 15th century 
were above all admirable; the velvets appear in paintings and miniatures; 
their patterns are plain to see in the tapestries. The quality of Florentine 

224 




Fig- 
rose 
cent 



25 
. bl 
II r\. 



Mise-en-carte for a ^vo\en silk, painted in tempera on squared ]Daper in shades oi red. 
lie, green, orange and broA\n. ivith \vhite accents. France, third quarter o[ the 1 8th 
Gi\en b^ Miss Josephine Ho^vell. Detail shown, 18%" by 11%". 



wools must have been pleasing" to dwellers in Greece, Egypt, and Syria if in 
1420 sixteen thousand pieces were exported for distribution in the Near 
East. The Indian painted cottons, first imported into Europe in the 17th 
century, because of their rich strange designs created a furore of demand. 
The arts of China, rediscovered by Europe in the 17th century, had by the 
18th century penetrated and influenced every form of decorative art, and in 
textiles produced not only the familiar "chinoiserie" but, combining with 
the rococo movement, had for a time a freeing, enlivening influence on 
textile patterns. 

As the textiles have moved about the world, so have their techniques and 
patterns moved ^vith them, have entered into the art of other lands, have 
passed on from generation to generation. 

"Mark my trail" shouted Mowgli to Rann the Kite high above him, as the 
"banderlog" bore him captive through the tree tops. Frequently one may 
mark the trail of some captured element of decoration, as ^vhen only yester- 
day my eye "vvas transfixed by the broad band of ornament crossing the shirt 
on the grocery clerk's massiAC chest, for there ^vere the familiar confronted 

225 



stags, on either side of the stylized tree, straight out of the 16th-century 
Perugia blue-and-wliite towel borders. Two summers since appeared in our 
city a pretty printed silk dress whose design you may find in one of our 
14th century Hispano-Moresque silks. Adaptation, transmutation proceed, 
which, if there are archeologists in the future, will surely puzzle them. For 
mark the trail of such translation as this: one company we know finds a 




Fig. 26. Black cut and uncut velvet on satin. Detail from skirt border. Spain, late ISth-early 
I9th century. Given by Richard C. Greenleaf. Detail shown, 53^/i" by 13". 



design here, or elsewhere, reworks it in some way suitable to the ultimate 
consumer's taste, sends it to Japan to be printed, and markets it in the Congo. 
Art historians of the future — take note! 

The use of our collection, however, is not limited to the mere copying 
or reworking of textile designs. It is true that its resources are endlessly used 
by manufacturers and designers. We cannot follow to their final appearance 
the hundreds of sketches made here, from silk or cotton of India, from the 
embroidered pattern on an 18th-century waistcoat; from the needlepoint 
lace tassel of a 16th-century apron, or from the pages of our sample books 
which often are the final source of patterns for anything from challis to a 
"geometric" for decorative linens of modern design. 

The public's conception of the museum curator as the remote dweller in 
an ivory tower is not borne out by the experience of this department; to 
this chronicler at least it appears that in a museum it is the unexpected that 
always happens. It may be the arrival of a visitor from Japan, bearer of a 

226 



P\ilbrigiit fellowship, whose search is for Eastern influence in Western art. 
Perhaps a hand weaver from California comes to examine not only examples 
of contemporary craft, but the skills of ancient Peru. A decorator dealing 
with the restoration of an 18th-century house may appear for suggestions of 
materials. A graduate student working on his thesis may require any group 
of materials from the Coptic weavings of Egypt to the printed cottons of 
18th-century France. All of these problems are illuminating to our own 
Avork, as are the visits from staff members of other museums, whose researcii 
may be on anything from primitive weaves to the design of 19th-century 
textiles. 

Sessions with groups from schools and colleges are as interesting to us as 
we hope they are rewarding to the students. The reaction of the adult classes 
to materials shown is not only gratifying in their appreciation of the beauty 
exhibited, but also illuminating, as an indication of contemporary taste. 

The response of yotniger folk of junior high school age is not without its 
surprises, as when a group of girls brought in to see fine embroidery, by 
chance catches sight of a terrifying example of "Berlin wool work" — that 
elaboration of Victorian decadence in embroidery — and freezes us with 
exclamations of delight. This episode moves us to such mental cliches as 
"One man's meat is another man's poison," or "Beauty is in the eye of the 
beholder." But indeed it confirms our belief that more and better examples 
of first-rate material should be seen by the young. 

The steady extensive use of this collection is proof of its need and impor- 
tance; and the citing of these few instances from the experience of this writer 
during the past half year seems in fact ruinecessary to any lover of decorative 
arts, for to such a one the textiles speak for themselves. 

Perhaps in our seriousness, our concern with education through the use of 
the museum objects, or perhaps from some last remains of a Puritan heritage, 
we tend to forget that aesthetic enjoyment of an object is not a sin, and that, 
put positively, the provision of such opportunity for pleasure is a function 
of a museum. Many people — and this writer admits to being one — enjoy 
looking at paintings or their affiliates, drawings and prints. Many people 
derive as much pleasure from the observation of a beautifully designed tex- 
tile, as in gazing at much of the "yard goods" exhibited as painting today. 
(Let me hastily add that I am indebted to a contemporary painter for the 
quoted phrase.) 

An added pleasure of perception is possible through an exercise of the 
imagination, which to be sure often depends on information. We forget 
that these textiles in their employment often had motion, either on the 
person of the wearer, or in long folds swaying at door or window. We tend 
to treat them as flat design. Indeed the Museum contributes to this impres- 

227 





•§^ 



I- <U (L) »• 

3 Q c " i> 



sion when Ave mount them flat under protecting glass or in study mounts 
under plastic. Tliis we must do, of necessity, for defense against dirt, for 
preser\'ation. They tluis take on for many the aspect of so many specimens, 
luirelated to any use. 

It is easy enough to conjure the image of full billowing robe from the 
richly flowered length of Loins XV silk; for silk of all materials suggests 
mo\ement. The large patterned velvets may be made familiar through 
painting. The medieval fragments compel more exercise of imagination; but 
occasionally our records provide us with a stimulating pictme. One minute 
fragment which, if you pause to glance at it, shoidd please you by the per- 
fection of its intricate design, Avas we knoAV once part of the vestment worn 
by a bishop of 13th-century Spain and might be figined moving in ritual 
under the stone arches of a Spanish cathedral. 

Selection of photographs for illustration of the present account has been 
conditioned by certain considerations; many have appeared in other pub- 
lications as Avell as past numbers of the Chronicle. For this reason the group 
of Hispano-Moresque silks, one of our most interesting, receives only refer- 
ence in the text. Illustrations of our Indian textiles have also been made 
available in previous issues.-'^ 

Color and clarity have limited us, for many of the earliest silks are now 
so delicate that the camera cannot capture what the eye perceives. So in 
Fig. 8 you must imagine the soft rose and green and silver through Avhich 
the phoenix — favorite bird of Lucca's silks — flutters, challenging the glance 
of the swimming swan. 

Finally came consideration of the type of textile to show: the most famous? 
rare? earliest? It is a basis often used, but Avhich in fact grives little indication 
of the full resources of a collection. The early and rare indeed have their 
historic value; their association is essential to the study of other arts of their 
time. But it is not always the grandest, the rarest, which is of the greatest 
assistance to the user of the collection. The Aveaver may be equally inter- 
ested in some two-inch scrap from Coptic Egypt and in a coverlet fragment 
from 19th-century America. The tracer of pattern sources may work from 
fragments of 16th-century cutwork to the same design in present-day Mexico. 

And what, by the way, is rarity? Time and destruction have produced this 
condition. Wool, one of the commonest textiles throughout history, dis- 
appears through activity of the moth, so that Avoolen fabrics of a period even 
as close as the 18th centiuy, which hung windows, covered chairs of our 
Colonial forbears, is now "rare." And this writer would admire to see a 
piece of 15th-century Florentine avooI. It might be very plain! 

The anonyinity of textile design throughout centuries renders the art 
none the less important. It is known that Jacopo Bellini designed elaborately 

229 



for 15th-century Venetian silks; here and there the names of embroidery 
designers are recorded, such as Geri Lapi of Florence, whose signed altar 
frontal is at Manresa, near Barcelona, and Marcos de Covarrubias, 16th- 




Fig. 29. Crocus and Daffodils. Cotton roller-printed on both sides in brown, yellow and red. 
Designed by Arthur Wilcock and printed in England about 1890. Given by Mr. and Mrs. G. Glen 
Gould. Detail shown, 26%" by 13%". 



century master embroiderer in Toledo Cathedral."^ In nearer times we 
know the names of many 18th-century artists — Huet for cottons printed at 
Jouy, Philippe de la Salle for silks of Lyon, to name the two most familiar; 
but what of the nameless thousands of artist-craftsmen whose skill, inherited, 
or harshly learned as a child apprentice, has left for us such a bequest of 
beauty as flows through centuries of their work, preserved for us by chance, 
by funerary or church rite, or by the collector's care? If we could assign 
them titles, such as those given minor painters, as The Master of the Swim- 
ming SAvan of Lucca or Master of the Rampant Lion of Almeria, would it 
render more important the work they have left us? 

The importance of a textile is in its communicable beauty, and this we 
may perceive in the intricate interlace of a tapestry-woven fragment made 
for the shirt of some nameless dweller in the Nile valley; in the flowing line 
of the arabesque which surrounds the main element of an Hispano-Moresque 
silk, appears years later in border designs of Italian embroidery; in the 
many agile, imaginative small patterns of silk, dress velvets and their imita- 

230 



tions in humbler combinations of material from the 16th and 17th century; 
in the grace of 18th-centiu"y flower patterns, not only in the silks but in the 
simple printed cottons of household use and daily wear. 

Even in so casual a back^vard glance over a thousand years of textile pat- 
terns, Ave cannot escape noting certain interesting features: the emergence 
and persistence of certain forms, such as the eight-pointed star whicii frames 
the cock in the Byzantine silk (Fig. 3); and again the rampant Spanish lion 
in the 16th-century wool (Fig. 10); the gradual disappearance of the Sasanid 
roundel; the fresh nervous animation of the 14th-century Italian silks; the 
return to the "tranquil balance of symmetry" during the Renaissance-^ and 
the gradual appearance of so many charming plant forms and their handling 
by various races in various epochs. 

Above all we observe the animals and birds, fantastic, severe, gay. In the 
earliest textiles they appear in their round frames with a kind of noble sav- 
agery; later they race, they run, how they run! through the borders of the 
Coptic stuffs; they perch, they swoop, they confront each other fiercely; they 
elude the hunter in 16th-century embroidery and are still eluding him in 
18th-century lace. 

All this concern with the fauna and flora in the world around them, so 
delightfully expressed in the past, presents a contrast to much contemporary 
design and makes one wonder whether the growth of cities and life indoors 
produces patterns based on the cafes of Paris, the monuments of Florence, or 
paving stones which may well be the sidewalks of New York. Should this be 
the case, it would but instance once again the reflection of life by art. 

Earlier in these pages it was suggested that the study of textiles was valu- 
able to an understanding of the artistic and cultural history of the time of 
their production. Quite aside from the similarity of design in different 
media to which ample reference exists in the matter of sculpture, wood 
carving, ivories, a far more revealing examination to pursue would be the 
tracino of sources of design in the combination of economic, social, and reli- 
gious forces of an epoch. What, for example, in the Arabic culture produced 
the intricate yet controlled geometrical forms which w^ere, to quote Grousset, 
not only a delight to the eye but to the intelligence? -^ 

Why in the mid-1 8th century are the opposing curves of the rococo, the 
waving branches of floral decoration, straightened; why do the legs of chairs 
assimie the form of delicate Roman pillars? The long war of taste in the 
18th century between the classicists and romantics — in which the lovers of 
the Classic Revival won out — derives, as e\'eryone knows, from forces deep 
in history, from archeology, literature of the time, awareness of nature, influ- 
ence of the Far East and in fact a complex of influences, of which the textiles 
of the century hint in their infinite changing patterns. 

231 



We are today in the midst of anotlier war of taste between the 'modern- 
ists," so called, and a variety of loosely assorted groups, who rely on tradi- 
tional design, but may express their predilections in many ways, from a love 
of New England pine furniture, to the decoration of something vaguely 
called "French Provincial" — with a little German porcelain for added 
interest. 




Fig. 30. Dandelions. Cotton screen-printed in black, grays, light brown on white, and glazed. 
Cheney Brothers, United States, 1951. Piuchased in memory of Miss Eleanor Blodgett. Detail 
shown, 33" by 17". 



The swing toward simplicity of the modern movement has undoubtedly 
removed a lot of fuss and dust. Yet in what sometimes appears an effort to 
deracinate their work from any obligation to the past so much has been 
removed as often to produce effects either sterile or bizarre. 

Surely it is obvious that the roots of modern design are not discovered 
alone in the works of the Messrs. Gropius, Wright, Le Corbusier, and their 
followers, but derive from as great an involvement of forces — social, eco- 
nomic, technological — as complex historically as those from which grew the 
conflicts of taste in the 13th, 15th, or 18th centuries. 

Even within the ranks of the modernists one discerns a chang^e — a or]ance 

232 



backward. Let me paraphrase the words of one, an architect, who, a year 
ago, addressing the Graduate School of Design at Harvard, stated that 
whereas in the architectural revolution of some thirty years ago aesthetics 
and history were ignored, "techniques and functionalism seemed all-inclu- 
sive, today we realize that functional form alone does not necessarily produce 
beauty" — which he allowed was a spiritual necessity of man. He regietted 
the lack of "training in the history of the visual arts," and ended by empha- 
sizing the necessity for "continuity between the past, the present, and the 
futinx."2« 

The function or functions performed by such a textile collection as that 
of the Cooper Union Museum are many, onlv a iew of which have been sug- 
gested in these pages. The collection, we are well aware, must be strength- 
ened in certain categories; it must grow to meet the need for continuity not 
only with the past but with the future, of which Mr. Sert spoke. 

A museum must take the long view, must plan its groAvth patiently and 
carefully; must interpret its work, its services to the public; must gather 
friends to interpret it. And if to some of these it may occasionally seem that 
the long view is the retarded view, it should be remembered that to many of 
us long in the field has been given a vantage point from which to watch the 
shifting tides of taste, while learning at the same time to recognize the firmly- 
set markers of man's artistic progress. 

Alice Baldwin Beer 



NOTES 

^ Aldous Leonard Huxley. Brave New World. her of the Academy of Fine Arts, and Professor 

NcAV York and London, Harper and Brothers, of Theory and History of Industrial Arts, of 

1939_ Barcelona; contributor of articles on decoration 

2 T7 ■ xj T- .1^^ Ti^K^i'o T„,.,^.-. tu^ to the Diario, Barcelona; writer on various 

2 Francis Henry Taylor. Babels lowei; the ' . 

„., r ., m^ J AT TVT \- 1 phases of Spanish art history. For the series 

Dilemma of the Modern Museum. New \ork, i . . ^ ' , , . , ,- , j ,, 

^, ,.^^. . „ ,„,., „„ Historia General de Arte, published Barcelona, 

Columbia Universitv Press, 1945, p. 26. ,„_^ , . .i i . ^u ^ ■ , c 

^ 1897, he wrote the chapters on the history ot 

The collectors: furniture and on textiles, embroideries and tap- 
D. Antonio Vives y Escudero, 1859-1925. Ar- estries which appear in Vol. 8. His house was a 
cheologist, numismatist, arabist, professor of the veritable museum and his collection of textiles 
Special School of Arabic Studies of the Ateneo of ^vell known to foreign specialists. The fore- 
Madrid. Among his many writings one, Monedas going, and additional information about Miquel 
De Las Dinastias Arabigo Espanolas, was highly y Badi'a, appears in: Jose Pasco, Catalogue of 
considered. An extensive biographical sketch is Textiles of D. Francisco Miquel y Badia, Bar- 
published in Enciclopedia Universal Illustrada celona, 1900. 

Europeo-Americana. Tomo 69. Concerning Stanislas Baron the Museum has 

D. Francisco Miquel y Badia, 1810-1899. Mem- at this writing no information. 

233 



'' Textiles from the Morgan Collection have 
been studied and published in many places. 
Probably the earliest of such publications was 
that by the late R. Meyer-Riefstahl: Early Tex- 
tiles in the Cooper Union Collection, Art in 
America, August, October, and December, 1915. 
^ Eleanor G. Hewitt. The Making of a Modern 
Museinn. Written for the Wednesday Afternoon 
Club. Read February 5, 1919. 
** Edith Wharton and Ogden Codman. The Dec- 
oration of Houses. New York, Scribners, 1897. 
■^ Percy Lubbock. Portrait of Edith Wharton. 
New York, B. Appleton-Century Co., 1947. 
^ Lace from the Cooper Union Museum Collec- 
tion has been published in the following num- 
bers of the Chronicle of the Museum for the 
Arts of Decoration of the Cooper Union: Vol. 1, 
No. 6, April 1940. Laces in the Museum's Col- 
lections, and The Lace Study Collection, both by 
Elizabeth Haynes. Vol. 1, No. II, December 
1945. Comparisons in Lace Designs, by Marian 
Hague. 

9 See Chronicle, Vol. 2, No. 6, June 1954, p. 185, 
for illustration of a fine Point de France lace 
from this gift, and present issue. Fig. 17. 

10 Illustrated, Chronicle, Vol. 2, No. 6, June 1954, 
p. 183. 

11 Illustrated, Fig. 20, and Chronicle, Vol. 2, 
No. 6, June 1954, p. 184. Of the set of six, two 
were acquired by the Victoria and Albert Mu- 
seum, London, four came to this country and 
were offered for sale to the Cooper Union Mu- 
seum. We shared our purchase with the Mu- 
seum of Fine Arts, Boston, each museum ac- 
quiring an example of the two techniques 
represented. Miss Gertrude Townsend, in the 
Bulletin of the Museum, of Fine Arts, Boston 
for December 1954, has published the two ac- 
c]uired by that museum in an article. Painted 
Cottons and Embroideries. For an earlier study 
of these hangings see: Journal of the Indian 
Society of Oriental Art, Vol. 17, 1949, article. 
The Commercial Embroidery of Gujerat in the 
Seventeenth Century, by John Irwin; and most 
recently, by the same writer. Origins of the 
'Oriental Style' in English Decorative Art, in 
The Burlington Magazine, Vol. XCVII, April 
I955,p. I06-n4. 

1^ Frances Morris. Exhibition of Printed Fab- 
rics, with Original Cartoons and Designs. Chron- 
icle, Vo\. l,No. 1, 1934-1935, p. 4-11. ' 
i^Wilhelm von Heyd. Histoire du Commerce 
du Levant au moyen-age. Edition fran^aise, 
refondue et considerablement augmentee par 
I'auteur; 2 Vols. Leipzig, 1923. Vol. 1, p. 49. 
Vol. 2, p. 670. 

Otto von Falke. Decorative Silks: third edi- 
tion. New York, Helburn, 1936, p. 22. 



i"! Heyd, Vol. 2, p. 707. 

i' Francis Henry Taylor. The Taste of Angels. 
Boston, Little Brown and Co., 1948; p. 41. 
16 Heyd, Vol. 2, p. 248-249. 
i'^ Heyd, Vol. 2, p. 252. 
1^ Falke, p. 34 and following, 
i** Otto Cartellieri. (Malcolm Letts, transl.) The 
Court of Burgundy. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 
1929. 

^° Cited by Francisque Xavier Michel. Recher- 
ches sur le Commerce, la Fabrication et I'Usage 
des Etoffes de Sole, d'Or et d'Argent. . . . Pendant 
le Moyen Age; 2 Vols. Paris, 1852 and 1854. 
Vol. 2, p. 131: "All the streets flower-strewn and 
dressed with herbs and all about adorned with 
cloth of gold." Charles VI, returning from Reims 
"^vhere he had been consecrated, dressed in a 
robe of silk, brilliant with fleur de lys of gold," 
foimd "all the streets and crossings hung with 
different tapestries, like temples." 
^1 H. Wescher. Foimdations of the Wealth of 
the Dukes of Burgundy. Ciba Reviexu, No. 51, 
July 1946, p. 1839. 

2- Eileen Power. Medieval People. Ne^v York, 
Doubleday Anchor Books, 1954. 
-^Samuel Eliot Morison. Maritime History of 
Massachusetts. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1921, 
pp. 79-89. 

24 Michel, Vol. I, pp. 16-17: "He made . . . one 
garment of cloth interwoven with gold, bearing 
a design of eagles." "He made . . . two garments 
of purple . . . with a design of elephants." 
Michel, while commenting upon the uncertain 
meaning of fundatum, inclines (p. 8) to the be- 
lief that the word refers to a precious fabric into 
which gold thread was woven. 
2^ Dorothy G. Shepherd. Hispano-Islamic Tex- 
tiles in the Cooper Union Collection. Chronicle, 
Vol. 1, No. 10, December 1943. 

Jean E. Mailey. Indian Textiles in the Mu- 
seum's Collection. Chronicle, Vol. 2, No. 5, 
June 1953. 

-6 Marian Hague. Notes on Some Fourteenth 
Century Embroideries in Judge LIntermyer's 
Collection. The Bulletin of the Needle and 
Bobbin Club. Vol. XVII, No. I, 1933, p. 39. 

Leonard Williams. The Arts and Crafts of 
Older Spain. 3 Vols. London, 1907. Vol. 3. 
p. 128. 
2-7 Falke, p. 40. 

28 Rene Grousset. (Catherine Alison Phillips, 
transl.) Civilization of the East; the Near and 
Middle East. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1931, 
p. 234. 

29 Jose Luis Sert. Address, Architecture and the 
Visual Arts, March 1954. Published in the News- 
letter of the Han>ard Foundation for Advanced 
Study and Research, December 31, 1954. 



234 



DONORS OF WORKS OF ART, 1954 



Mrs. H. \'. Alexander 

Anonymous Gift (7) 

Miss Helena D. Appleton 

Bay Riza Ataktiirk 

Mrs. Bert Atkins 

Miss Edith A. Bagg 

E. Mortimer Barnes 

Miss Alice B. Beer 

Miss Mary Beer 

Mrs. Evsei Beloussoff 

Michel N. Benisovich 

Martin Birnbaum 

The Estate of Leah Slater Black 

Jiidson S. Bradley 

Arthur L. Brandon 

Dr. Edwin S. Burdell 

Franklin S. Chace 

Robert Chafitz 

The Chicago Chapter of Artists Equity 

Louis Cohen 

Cole and Son, Ltd. 

Cooper Union Art School 

Cooper Union Art School Library 

Cooper Union Museum, 

Department of Exhibitions 
Cooper LTnion Museum Library 
Miss Dorothea Creager 
Mrs. Sarah S. Dennen 

A. L. Diament and Company 
William J. Donald 
Raymond B. Dowden 

*Mrs. Henry B. du Pont 
Eric A. Entwisle 
La Federation de la Sole 
Miss Berta Prey 
Eugene L. Garbaty 
Dr. Agnes Geijer 
Miss Mary S. M. Gibson 
Miss Mary S. M. Gibson (in Memory of her 

Sister Margaret Jane Gibson) 
Mrs. Benjamin Ginsburg 
Richard C. Greenleaf 
Guerlain, Inc. 
Miss Marian Hague 
Mrs. Montgomery Hare 
Mrs. Dorothy Harrower 
Whitney Hartshorne 
L. Boyd and Ann McQuarrie Hatch 

B. H. Hellman 
Hanley Henoch 

*Deceased 



Horace L. Hotchkiss, Jr. 

Miss Josephine Howell 

The Italian Government 

John Judkyn 

John Judkyn (in Memory of his Mother 

Florence Judkins) 
George Kates 

Katzenbach and Warren, Inc. 
George Kerr 
Mrs. Alexander Kreisel 
Edward A. Le Roy, Jr. 
W. H. S. Lloyd Company, Inc. 
Sigfrid K. Lonegren, Inc. 
Miss Jean E. Mailey 
Metropolitan Museum of Art 
R. Himter Middleton 
Mrs. Paul Moore 
J. Morley - Fletcher 
Miss Catherine Mulford 
Museum of New Mexico 
Mrs. Jerome Myers 
National Academy of Design 
Alexander Nesbitt 
Milton Richard Newman 
Shinzo Noguchi 
William R. Osmun 
Mrs. Florence Peto 
Piazza Prints, Inc. 
Miss Ina K. Pitner 
Mrs. Grafton H. Pyne 
H. Christian Rohlfing 
Mrs. Howard J. Sachs 
A. Sanderson and Sons 
Miss May Sarton 
Miss Bertha Schaefer 
Bertram Schaefer 
F. Schumacher and Company 
Harvey Smith 
Robert Sonin 
Mrs. Frederick Splint 
D. Stempel A. G. 
Mrs. Loreatha Stevens 
Miss Amy L. Stevenson 
J. H. Thorp Company, Inc. 
Mrs. John M. Tucker 
Mrs. A. Stewart Walker 
Leo Wallerstein 
Mrs. Elizabeth Bayley Willis 
Mrs. Constance Winde 
Miss D. Lorraine Yerkes 
Toshi Yoshida 



235 



PURCHASES IN MEMORIAM, 1954 



Elizabeth Hiiyiies (l)y her friends) 
The Misses Hewitt 
Sarah Cooper Hewitt 



Madame Raimiindo de Madrazo 
Georgiaiia L. McClellan 
Minna B. Patterson 



PURCHASES FROM FUNDS, 1954 



All I'anier Fiein i Fund with Gifts from 
Mrs. Howard J. Sachs and 
Richard C. Greenleaf 



All Panier Fleuri Fund 
Friends of the Museum Fund 
Pauline Riggs Noyes Fund 



DONORS TO THE MUSEUM LIBRARY, 1954 



Juan Ainaud de Lasarte 

Mrs. Lillian Smith Albert 

American Academy of Arts and Letters 

Anonymous 

Architectural Forum 

Art Institute of Chicago 

Miss Alice B. Beer 

Martin Birnbaum 

E. Maurice Bloch 

Francois Boucher 

Boymans Museum 

Ciba Company, Inc. 

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236 



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237 



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238 



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The Advisory Council of the Museum established in 1937 the following classes 
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239 



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CHRONICLE OF l^HE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 







Design tor a woven ^\'all-co\ering. Pencil and colored gouaches. Ailist iniknown. 
Fiance, probably Lvons, about 1780. Gi\en b\ the Misses Hewitt, 1920. 



VOL. 



NO • 8 



JUNE • 1956 



THE COOPER UNION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE AND ART 

T R U ST EES 

Irving S. Olds 
Hudson R. Searing 
Harrison Tweed 
Arthur A. Houghton, Jr. 
Frank W. Abrams 

OFFICERS 

Irving S. Olds, Chairman of Trustees 

Edwin S. Burdell, President 

Sheridan A. Logan, Treasurer 

Elizabeth J. Carbon, Secretary and Business Officer 



Albert S. Wright, Counsel 

MUSEUM FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

ADVISORY COUNCIL 

Richard F. Bach, Chairjnan 
Mrs. Neville J. Booker, Secretary 
Henry F. du Pont 
Richard C. Greenleaf 
Miss Marian Hague 
John Goldsmith Phillips 
Mrs. Grafton H. Pyne 
Mrs. Howard J. Sachs 
William C. Segal 

STAFF 

Calvin S. Hathaway, Director 

Richard P. Wunder, Keeper of Draxvings and Priijts 
Alice Baldwin Beer, Keeper of Textiles 
Jean E. Mailey, Assistant Keeper of Textiles 
Mrs. Hedy Backlin, Keeper of Decorative Arts 
William R. Osmun, Keeper of ExJiibitions 
Christian Rohlfing, Associate Keeper of Exhibitions 
Mary A. Noon, Recorder 



Mary S. M. Gibson, Curator Emeritus 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 

VOL . 2 • NO • 8 JUNE • 1956 

Some Observations on Textile Designs 
in the Cooper Union Museum 

CONCERNING DRAWINGS, Vasan iiiakcs the observation that the art of 
dra^ving is a spiritual process in the creation of a work of art which 
evolves out of the interplay of intellect and observation — in other 
words, of spirit and natine.^ A drawing originates in the intellect in the 
form of an idea, a conceptual image externalized by application of it to a 
form of nature. It is therefore the mutual abstraction, combined witli 
observation, which coalesce in the creation of a drawing. This fact holds 
true ^vith the designs for textiles: that the same general mental process of 
creation, though ever changing, is followed as in drawings of other categories. 
Throughout the various periods of art history, the names of a few great 
artists, who are known to have designed textiles, have come down to us, 
but the fame of these men seems to be based, rather, on their ^vork in or for 
other media of expression. We know, for instance, of textile designs by 
Jacopo Bellini (active in Venice from 1400 to 1470),- by the painter and 
sculptor of Verona, Pisanello (1380-1456),'' by the Florentine, Antonio 
Pollaiuolo (1426-1498),^ as well as by other artists of the Italian Quattro- 
cento.'" But the lasting fame of these men rests with their other drawings, 
their painted, engraved or scidptured works, rather than with their designs 
for textiles. 

Other than those for tapestries," textile designing did not emerge as a 
highly specialized art of its own in Western Europe until the 18th century, 
and then chiefly in France." But even in a period so comparatively recent, 
only a fe^v names seem to have come do^vn to us in this connection, Avith 
Philippe de Lasalle (1723-1805), Jean Pillement (1728-1808), Jean-Baptiste 
Huei (1745-1811) and Jean-Francois Bony (1754-1825) as th.e most famous of 

243 













^'1 



^ 



Figure 1. Project for the lelt side of a man's gilet. Pencil, pen and ink, with colored 
gouaches. By Mademoiselle Montalon (from the Fabrique de St. Ruf). France, probably 
Lyons, about 1785. Given by the Misses Hewitt, 1920. 



tliese. This anonymity, generally speaking, is not so much due to the fact 
that textile designers were inferior artists, but that their craft, a highly spe- 
cialized one, was limited by the complete dependence upon and subordina- 
tion to the manufactory luider which they worked. Thus it became the 
iiouse name with which we are more apt to associate a given textile and its 
design, than that of its creator. This inconspicuousness on the part of the 
designer persists to this day. Following the traditional pattern, a few names 
stand out in modern textile design, perhaps the most famous being Henri 
Matisse and |ean Liu'^at, ^vho will go down in history as designers, though, 
once again, not necessarily for textiles. 

Though the Cooper Union Museum possesses an outstanding collection 
of nearly two thousand textile drawings of many different categories, dating 
from the 18th century to the present day, it does not own any earlier ones. 
This is not a circumstance of particular embarrassment, however, consider- 
ing the relative paucity of such material prior to this period. The collection 
comprises designs for embroidered and brocaded silks, for carpets and 
other woven stuffs, such as shawls, and for printed cottons and silks. In 
some cases the pinpose for which the designs were intended is obvious, but 
in others, we cannot safely decide whether they were destined for woven or 
embroidered fabrics, and their ultimate purpose, either for dress or for 
household decoration, remains a mystery. The general bibliogiaphy that 
exists on the subject of these later textiles and their design is so slight and 
misleading, except in one or two special categories, that one must rely on 
the eye alone, and follow with great caution a tortuous and at times vague 
path. One of the principal difficulties in this endeavor is placing the textiles 
themselves in their proper period, country and locale; the ability to give them 
to a known artist is almost always the result of mere chance. 

We begin our study by just so fortunate a coincidence, for in the collection 
is a large block of a variety of designs for embroidery, many of unusually 
high quality, which in number come to upwards of three hundred, for gentle- 
men's vestes (or waistcoats) and gilets (abbreviated waistcoats), for ladies' 
overskirts and dress borders, and various other details intended as embellish- 
ments for wearing apparel. These drawings originated in a manufactory by 
the name of St. Ruf, whose sure identity remains unknown, but which most 
probably, because of stylistic similarity with other work of the region, was 
located in Lyons.- A positive clue to the existence of this factory is that many 
of the drawings have written upon them in ink, along ^vith the pattern 
number, "S.R.", "St. R.", or "St. Ruf", and on the verso of one drawing 
(a project for the left-hand pocket of a veste), "La fabrique de St. Ruf — 
Riche en Dessin de tout genre." By mere chance, it has been found that in 
the Print Room of the Metropolitan Museum of Art is a pattern record book,» 

245 




Figure 2. Project for the left lapel of a man's veste. Pencil and colored 
gouaches. By Mademoiselle Montalon (from the Fabrique de St. Ruf). 
France, probably Lyons, about 1785. Given by the Misses Hewitt, 1920. 



coming from this same factory, which contains many patterns, sketched in 
with ink, whose numbering corresponds with tiiat found in our drawings, 
and, as well, the names of the artists Avho conceived them. In some instances 
have l)een inserted the names of the embroiderers (always women), the prices 
recei\'ed for their Avork, the patron for whom the finished product was 
intended, and, in one instance, the date (30 November 1785) of completion 
of the Avork. Of the designs found in this record book, 128 are for waist- 
coats, 158 for buttonholes, 103 for waistcoat or dress borders, 40 for fields, 
17 for waistcoat lapels and 12 for skirt borders. In a few cases the use of the 
motif cannot be determined. Tiie numbering of these patterns runs from 
1437 to 1920, with some oddities in the nimibering. 

But the dra^vings in the Museum's collection cover a far wider numerical 
range, and the possibility of identifying them rests only with those corre- 
sponding patterns which appear with the designers' names in the record 
book. Perhaps all of these designers were women, but "Mile" appears only 
occasionally, and then Avith but three different names. On leafing through 
tliis valuable source material, one notices that certain artists were, more or 
less, specialists in a particidar design: one preferred doing waistcoat pockets, 
another buttonholes, and still another, exotic birds. It is unfortunate that 
no clue seems to exist which might hint at the provenance of these drawings. 
They were purchased in Paris by the Misses Hewitt, the Museum's founders, 
who presented them over the years, 1920 to 1925, along with many other 
textile drawings unrelated to this group. 

A particularly brilliant drawing in this lot is the project for the left side 
of a man's gilet (Fig. 1). In French dress of the late 18th century, the gilet 
can always be distinguished from the veste by its straight, rectangular front, 
cut at right angles along the bottom, as well as by the pocket, minus the 
flap, but featuring, instead, an elaborately embroidered welt. The creator 
of this gilet design is a certain Mademoiselle Montalon,^** one of the most 
productive and artistically distinguished designers of the group, whose 
specialty seems to have been waistcoat designs. She has cleverly conceived 
the welt as a flower box, from which sprouts a clump of meadow grass- 
Entwined about a palm frond in the upper part of the field is a runner 
of rose brambles, which also mingles among the grasses. From this "box" 
hangs a lavender lambrequin, strewn with daisies, from whose fringed 
border are suspended, in turn, clusters of little flowers. The outer edges 
of the garment are also set off Avith matching fringed lavender, and each 
buttonhole is accented by little vines and blossoms. Here, then, is a most 
carefully thought-out design for an article of wearing apparel, ^vhich has 
been given a touch of lightness and fantasy without removing any of the 
elements of its apparent utility. 

247 



Also by Mademoiselle Moiitalon is the project for the lapel of a veste 
(Fig. 2). Set off against a black ground edged in gold (probably intended to 
be carried out in velvet), which suggests the lining of the garment folded 
over a lighter outside surface, is a small cluster of pink and white flowers. 




Figure 3. Project for the left lower corner of a man's x'este. Colored gouaches. By Baulieu (from 
the Fabrique de St. Ruf). France, probably Lyons, about 1785. Given by the Misses Hewitt, 1921. 



possibly tuberoses, with a spray of blue cornflowers projecting from beneath 
the flap, while the buttonholes are edged with simulated ropes of pearls. 
Here the artist has left the field relatively unadorned, so that the tailored 
features may be given greater prominence. 

But it is the pockets and bottom edges of the veste which received the 
greatest amount of attention from the designer. One relatively complicated 
floral design, by the artist Baulieu, shows clusters of roses intermingling 
with little vines which loop here and there in a way to form occasional bows 
at the bases of the floral sprays (Fig. 3). With the natural bent for gardening 
traditionally attributed to the French, the ability to render flowers accu- 

248 



lately came easily to these designers, though artistic imagination sometimes 
makes difficult the identification of botanical forms. And whether or not 
the flowers are readily recognizable, we have no trouble in observing from the 
designs the demands made by their smallness of detail and delicacy of execu- 
tion upon the skill of the embroiderers who were destined to execute them. 
We do not know exactly how these colored drawings were translated into a 




B'^-'^^S^v^f'C?^" fT?JT "'i7^, 








Figure 4. Project for the left lower corner of a nran's veste. Pencil and colored gouaches, 
unknown. France, probably Lyons, about 1785. Given by the Misses Hewitt, 1920. 



Artist 



finished garment, but it is thought that they might first have been re-drawn 
in ink on another sheet of paper, which was then pricked for pouncing. 
A few colored embroidery drawings in the Museum's collection have been 
pricked, but apparently not pounced. However, one drawing for the pocket 
of a veste, rendered in pen and ink, uncolored, is pricked, and charcoal 
smudges, the result of pouncing, are to be found on its reverse. ^^ 

The creative abilities of these artists were by no means confined to floral 
designs, for in the Museum's collection of over 140 projects for embroidered 
waistcoats, we find all sorts of other subjects: classical ruins, motifs in the 
"style chinois," animals, birds, the fables of La Fontaine, vegetables, as well 
as many other subjects. One project of some interest, though it may not 
have come from the Fabrique de St. Ruf, shows ships being tossed about on 
a rough sea with flashes of golden lightning striking from the heavens (Fig. 4). 
Though we might conclude that this veste was designed for a gentleman with 

249 




%P «#if 



^ V|t-* ""^^ 





Figure 5. Project for the left lower part of the overskirt for a robe a la Irangaise. Pencil and 
colored gouaches. Artist unknown. France, probably Lyons, about 1785. Given by the Misses 
Hewitt, 1920. 



a nautical turn of mind — such as an admiral — it could, as well, allude to the 
victory of Alexei Orlov over the Turks in the naval battle of Cheshme in the 
Aegean Sea, which took place July 7, 1770, and Avhich was hailed in France 
as well as in Russia. Five years afterwards, Piiilippe de Lasalle designed a 
very important brocaded silk hanging, woven for Catherine of Russia by the 
firm of Pernon of Lyons, commemorating this event. ^- It is also of interest to 
note that tlie motif of an anchor forms part of the escutcheon of the Pernon 
family.^^ Even if this particular waistcoat design did not emanate from the 
house of Pernon, it illustrates the popularity elsewhere of nautical subjects 
in textile design, and, as seems always to be the case with such work as this, 
little flowers have been worked unobtrusively into the composition. 

The production of ^vaistcoats Avas not confined to Lyons, or even to France 
for that matter. In Krefeld, in western Germany, there was a very important 
factory, operated by the von der Leyens, a dynasty of Dutch textile manu- 
facturers, who made a specialty of ^vaistcoats, of the less expensive woven 
(that is, brocaded) type, rather than the far more costly embroidered ones. 
The Heimatmuseum at Krefeld preserves drawings for some of these. ^* 
But the brocading of waistcoats was also practiced in France, for the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art possesses a mise-en-carte (No. 27.104.3), coming from 
Lyons, for the pocket of a brocaded waistcoat, the drawing being rendered 
about twice the size of the intended finished product for the convenience of 
the weaver. 

Turning to ladies' dress design, the 18th-century embroiderers concen- 
trated their attention on the elaborate overskirts. But before discussing 
the designs themselves, mention must be made of certain peculiarities of 
late 18th-century French fashion. From early in the 1760's, women's 
dresses were made to part in a triangle above the waist, and over the loosely 
hanging pleated and ruffled skirt was another skirt, of simpler lines, though 
of richly embroidered or brocaded silk, made to spread out over the under- 
skirt, and slightly gathered at the sides; this was known alternately as the 
panier a la janseniste or the robe a la jrangaise. The dress of the Louis XVI 
period (from about 1770 on), the robe a la polonaise, exemplified the reac- 
tion against this earlier stiff and cumbersome coiut costume heretofore 
commonly worn. Dispensing with the wide panniers and trains, the polonaise 
(made from four lengths of cloth) is distinguished both by the cut of the 
bodice, which instead of fitting down closely at the waistline, slopes gently 
and loosely toward the back, and the draping of the overskirt (about four 
inches longer than the underskirt), Avhich at the back is drawn up into a 
bustle by buttons and loops of ribbon and puffed out at the hips. The 
polonaise was considered an informal dress both in England and in France, 
despite the elaborate workmanship often devoted to its embellishment, 

251 




^ Q. 



Figure 6. Project for the left lower part of the overskirt for a poluiiuise. Pencil and colored 
gouaches. Artist unknown (from the Fabrique de St. Ruf). France, probably Lyons, about 1785. 
Given by the Misses Hewitt, 1920. 



whereas until the Revolution, tlie rol)e a la fran^aise remained "la robe 
d'etiquette a la com-, et la robe de ceremonie dans toute societe qui se 
respecte an diner, an theatre et, saiif avis contraire, an bal." ^"^ 

One of the Miiseinii's twenty designs of overskirts for robes a la jrangaise 
sho^vs an tniadorned field with a large bunch of red poppies, l)lue cornflowers, 
lavender scabiosa, and a large shock of golden wheat (Fig. 5). Along the arc- 
like curved border of the lower edge are incltided more poppies and corn- 
flowers, growing in little bunches, which diminish progressively as the border 
curves to^vard the vertical. Because of the garment's shape, the arrangement 
of these Hoovers is regular and unimpaired. However, in designing the over- 
skirt of a polonaise the artist is confronted with somewhat more complex 
problems. Because of the rather tight gathers of the garment, the design can 
have free play only at the areas where the puffs occtn". In addition, the 
designer might want to draw some attention to the gathered areas. 

A drawing for a polonaise (Fig. 6), by an unknown designer of the 
Fabrique de St. Ruf,^*^ is still another instance of the skill and taste of this 
manufactory. The central motif is a moderately-sized cluster of red roses, 
blue cornflo^vers and feathers,^" wdiile at one side, issuing from what might 
be taken for an embroidered frog or loop, is a large stalk not unlike a huckle- 
berry, and around this is broadly looped a heavy, steel-blue and gold-wrapped 
chain, which also acts as the border motif, setting off, with a row of brown 
leaves, the ruffled edging of the garment. Entwined through the chain is a 
delicate huckleberry tendril and a garland of fantastic lavender flowers. The 
resourcefulness of the designer of this overskirt decoration is apparent in 
the way the various component parts are spaced, and in the course taken 
by the chain, which, as well as being the binding element between the 
various floral motifs, expresses the intended shape of the garment and acts, 
in simulated form, as the agent by which the garment is looped in the 
appropriate places. 

As opposed to embroidery designs are those drawings in the collection 
which relate to woven fabrics, the most popular in the 18th century being 
brocaded silks. A large and elaborate one (illustrated on cover), probably 
intended as a wall-covering, shows to what pains both designer and weaver 
were obliged to go in the creation of such a textile. These designs take on a 
somewhat different pattern than those for embroidery. Brocading, intro- 
duced as the cloth is woven, is not confined to certain set areas, but occurs in 
the form of repeats throughout a given piece of woven material. It was 
popular in dress material as well as in furniture and decorative adornment. 
The process by which a design was woven, however, was a far more com- 
plicated one, and required more steps between the original design and the 
intended finished product, than was the case with an embroidered work. For 

253 



i 


^'V'., 






' ' ■" ,\- 


m 
























'^ i 


IK' 


j 




'■ ■-'• *-" — t" 



i 



Figure 7. Projetl [or a biutaded silk. Fasiel over India inic squaring on blue-grey paper. Artist 
unknown. France, probably Lyons, about 1750. Given by the Misses Hewitt, 1914. 



a woven fabric, the artist made a drawing, which he then translated to a 
mise-en-carte, a much larger drawing, showing great detail, carefully ren- 
dered on squared, or point paper, whose lines represented the warp and weft 
threads of the loom. From this, either the designer or the weaver made a 
second mise-en-carte, which showed in a detailed way the point at which a 
given weft thread crossed the corresponding Avarp thread. It was from this 
last step that the weaver was able to set up his loom by tieing the colored 
threads in groups according to the indications dictated by the second mise-en- 
carte. By observing this exact order and rhythm in the raising and lowering 
of these harnessed threads, the weaver was able mechanically to translate 

254 



the design to the woven fabric as many times as he chose to do so.^^ Whether 
the first sketch was actually drawn to the cloth size or was done in miniature 
depended very much on the complexity of the design. When it was trans- 
ferred to the mise-en-carte (whose lines and spaces were made considerably 
larger in scale than the actual cloth, for the convenience of the eyesight) the 
more minute details suggested themselves and were then filled in, through all 
the while the designer focused his attention on the main constructional lines 
so as to keep them in harmony with his distribution of color. 

It is said that the earliest mises-en-carte of which we know date from the 
time of Jean Revel (1684-1751), who contributed much toward the advance- 
ment of the textile industry in Lyons, but it is quite unlikely that Revel 
was their inventor. Their first extensive use in France seems to have been 
by Philippe de Lasalle, in whose hands they were perfected, but it would 
be presumed that they were in use before his time, although this point has 
not been verified by any surviving earlier examples. The Metropolitan 
Museum of Art owns a mise-en-carte attributed to Lasalle, as well as the 
brocaded panel made from its design, which affords interesting and instruc- 
tive comparison.-*^ In our own collection is a project for a brocaded silk 
(Fig. 7) which may actually predate the more common form of mise-en-carte. 
It shows two repeats, one partially unfinished, of a meander of feathers and 
blue and white ribbon, with bunches of white flowers whose identity cannot 
be ascertained, the paper first being squared off by hand. The relative sim- 
plicity of the design, probably intended for a dress material, the color har- 
mony and the rather flat surface pattern, with little attempt to indicate a 
third dimension, all suggest a dating of about 1750. This design has a light- 
ness of touch and refinement, and is devoid of the gaudiness which is so 
indicative of an earlier style. 

A number of later, fully developed mise-en-carte floral designs are also in 
the Museum's collection. These are carried out at least twice the size of 
the intended woven fabric. On the basis of style and manner of technique 
they can be dated within the last quarter of the 18th century and were pro- 
duced, most probably, in Lyons.-^ A group of these are variations of a 
design showing bouquets of red roses and other brightly colored flowers witli 
a somewhat tortuous lace ribbon meander (Fig. 8). The paper on which 
these designs are rendered has first been printed from an engraved plate 
with large squares, each which contains a number of smaller squares. The 
horizontal (or weft) lines are divided by tens, and the vertical (or warp) 
ones by eights. The paper is thus designated "dix en huit," and so the 
weaver knows the proportions by which to set up his loom. The flo^vers of 
this mise-en-carte are rendered with great precision according to the tiny 
squares, with the indications of shading being very carefully worked out from 

255 




Figure 8. Mise-en-carte for a brocaded silk. Colored gouaches on engraved squared paper. Artist 
unknown. France, probably Lyons, about 1780. Given by Miss Josephine Howell, 1939. 



one tone to another, but the over-all color effect is rather harsh, perhaps 
overly vivid, which, in the finished woven cloth, would be compensated some- 
what by a brightly colored ground. In order to keep the weaving as simple as 
possible there were, generally speaking, but three tones to a single color, 
though in designing these brocade patterns a three-dimensional effect was 
often created by pattern-on-pattern and tone-on-tone manipulations, with 
the heightened light and shade treatment of the flowers harmonizing with 
the under-pattern of contrasting color. In the mise-en-carte here shown, it is 
the brick-red ribbon that tends to create this illusion. Fancy ground weaves 
were more commonly used to enhance this three-dimensionality, however. 

256 



Other mises-en-carte in the Museum's collection demonstrate this very point. 

No examples ot the final-step mises-en-carte exist in the Museum's collec- 
tion of drawings, but in the textile department are housed various manu- 
script "theses" of weavers, both French and German, dating from the 
1840's to the 1860's, in which are incorporated numerous examples of tiiis 
type, side by side with the diagrams for setting up the loom, and samples ot 
the fabrics woven therefrom (Fig. 10). Although not artistic in their own 
right, these drawings sho^v the manner of detailed work necessary before 
a given design could be put into execution on the draw-loom. 

Like Lasalle, one of the greatest original designers that the French textile 
industry has ever known was Jean-Francois Bony.-- Gaining fame first by 
his floral designs which were carried out both in embroidery and on the 
loom, after the Revolution, when the Lyons silk industry was temporarily 
revived by orders from Napoleon and his court. Bony was called upon to 
design the silk coverings, in the popular Greco-Roman style, for the walls 
of the chateau of St. Cloud (now destroyed). The house of Pernon executed 
this coinmission at a cost of 25,000 francs, a tremendous suin for such work 
in those days. Later, Bony also designed the wall-coverings for Malmaison 
(^vhere the ill-fated Empress Josephine lived and died), and, with the 
Lyonnais house of Bissardon, the hangings for the bedroom of Marie-Louise 
at Versailles, carried out in velours cisele. Even if these works were not 
destined to bring everlasting fame to Bony, he would be remembered for 
his inventiveness, range and skill as a designer of floral motifs. Unfortu- 
nately, Bony apparently never signed a single drawing, so that we must act 
on conjecture when attributing works to him. In the Bibliotheque de 
rUnion Centrale des Arts Decoratifs, in the Louvre, are a number of draw- 
ings in white or colored gouaches on oiled paper which bear a traditional 
attribution to him,-^ and in the Museuin is a similar block, of roughly three 
hundred drawings, which are carried out in the saine medium on the same 
kind of paper, and which exhibit the same sure touch and decisiveness of 
line as do those of the Paris group. The former history of these drawings 
is an absolute mystery, beyond the fact that they were purchased through 
the Misses Hewitt, probably in France, and entered the Museum's collection 
over the years 1914 to 1925. Some of these dra^vings were first reproduced 
in color in those curious pictorial portfolios edited by Armand Guerinet, 
of Paris, -^ but no indication of owner is given in the picture captions, and, 
in fact, none of Guerinet's publications bears the date of issue. It is hoped 
that some day a clue might lead us to the pre-Cooper Union history of these 
interesting drawings. 

One drawing in this group (Fig. 9), probably a detail intended for 
an embroidered dress border, is of such high quality that an attribution to 

257 




Figure 9. Project for a brocaded or embroidered dress border. Colored 
gouaches on oiled paper. Attributed to Jean-Fran(;ois Bony. France, Lyons 
(?), about 1790. Given by the Council, 1925. 




/ /■ 



v..,.^>^. 



x. 



■ ^-. 









, ^i-_.H- 


«-- t . 




e> 


( 




1^^ - 

f 


J f ■ — 






—zt: * 


— ir ^^-- 

^ 

— T>-J '.(--- 


— i 








l-l-t> *-• '!- 







Figure 10. Page from a weaver's "Thesis," showing a cross-section type of mise-en-carte, together 
with the indications for tieing the loom and a sample of the textile woven therefrom. France, 
Lyons, about 1860. Purchased, 1939. 



Bony would seem entirely possible. It shows a fantastic flower, half-daffodil, 
half-tiger-lily, brilliantly colored red, yellow and orange, set off against 
colored leaves and smaller, equally fantastic flowers. This detail must 
surely have produced a most striking effect on the article of clothing for 
which it was intended. 

One of a number of Napoleonic decorative motifs (Fig. 11), also most 
probably by Bony, or at least by an associate, shows the Imperial eagle, 
wings outstretched, encircled by the laurel and oak wreaths, while suspended 
below is the medal of the Legion d'Honneur, founded by Napoleon in 1802. 
Such a design as this no doubt was intended for the covering of a piece of 
furniture, possibly a chair back, and is carried out in "Napoleonic blue" 
and white, and its simple, bold pattern suggests that it was to be executed 
either in a damask Aveave or in simple brocading. Similar drawings in this 
group include in the design the monograms "N J" (for Napoleon and 
Josephine), "N L" (for Napoleon and his second wife, Marie-Louise), or 

259 




Figure II. Project for a woven silk furniture covering. Blue and white gouaches on oiled paper. 
Attributed to Jean-Francois Bony. France, Lyons (?), about 1805. Given by the Misses Hewitt, 1923. 




Figure 12. Project for a pile carpet. Pencil and colored gouaches, .\rtist unknown. France, prolv 
ablv Paris, about 1805-lHlO. Given by the Misses Hewitt, 1909. 



simply "N", all of which may have come from the hand of Bony or an 
assistant.--^ 

Also relating to this period are a number of French carpet designs in the 
Museum's collection. In tlie history of European carpet designing, two 
distinct tendencies occur: the geometrical patterns,- of Oriental origin, and 
the naturalistic renderings, of strictly Western invention. In the 19th cen- 
tury, these two types enjoyed equal popularity. Our collection illustrates 
two cateoories of this second trend. 

o 

The first category consists of a group of dra^vings of ornamental ara- 
besques, rendered in golden-yellow, white and lavender gouaches on a 
black ground (Fig. 12). Unlike the 18th-century Savonnerie designs, the 
carpets of the 19th were no longer conceived to reproduce plastic effects. 
The designs here mentioned, drawn to scale smaller than the finished prod- 
uct, seem very close to those which the Savonnerie factory turned out to 
embellish the chateaux of Malmaison and Compiegne.-'^ Such carpets as 
these were of the expensive knotted type, which could be had only by the 
court and the very rich; the middle classes had to content themselves with 
moquettes and pile-less carpets, of which the best were made by the 
Aubusson factory.-^ 

The other category of carpet designs in the Museum's collection is made 
up of about forty cartoons, some full size, others drawn smaller to scale, 
which depict vividly, often garishly colored floral patterns. Some of these 
cartoons are signed by the artist and bear the name of a Parisian factory 

261 




Figuic Ki. Caiiooii (. smaller lo scale) lui a \\o\en carpet. Colored gouaches on 
heavy paper. By Virolet. France, Paris, 1848. Given by John Judkyn, 1954. 



(which also evidently had London affiliations, as indicated by these inscrip- 
tions), and in two cases appear the dates 1847 and 1848. The daring use of 
color (dark bro\vn, light chocolate and orange-yellow, often juxtaposed one 
against the other), the shamelessly borrowed but misunderstood 18th-century 
arabesque and the heavy overcrowded compositions all bespeak the rather 
undistinguished Louis Philippe period (Fig. 13). The principal interest of 
these designs lies in the fact that they were produced at a turning point in 
French carpet manufacture, for the Revolution of 1848 brought to an end 
the demand for expensive hand-woven carpets. Jacquard carpet looms were 
imported from England, where they had been in use for some years, and 
were featured in the Exposition of 1849. By the time of the Great Exhibition 
of 1851, in London, French machine-made carpets were widely known in 
England.-^ 

These cartoons, of variotis and contrasting types of design, form an inter- 
esting sidelight in the general field of textile design and manufacture, for 
although more boldly rendered than those for clothing or furniture, they 
carry with them the identical peculiarities of the periods to which they 
belong, as do the textile designs of other categories. 

Returning to earlier textile drawings, a category in which the Museum 
is particidarly rich is that of printed cottons.-^ Developed from the painted 
and dyed cottons imported from India, printed cottons gained wide popu- 
larity in France and England by the middle of the 17th century. The growth 
of French manufacture, however, was restricted for some decades by a series 
of impediments. First, in 1685, the country was deprived, by the revocation 
of the Edict of Nantes, of the Huguenots in whose hands the new craft had 
been developing; fleeing their homeland, they took their skills to Switzer- 
land, Holland and Ens^land. Then in 1686, a decree that remained in force 
until 1702 forbade the importation from India of fine cotton fabrics that were 
so useful for printing. Only toward the middle of the 18th centmy did 
cotton printers succeed in reestablishing the business throughout France; 
and at this moment the Bavarian, Christophe-Philippe Oberkampf (1738- 
1815), appeared on the scene with skills and helpers developed in Switzerland. 
Setting up his factory at Jouy, near Versailles, he soon took the lead. Jouy 
contintied on into the 19th century, but began to decline after the Napoleonic 
era, finally closing its doors in 1843.^*^ 

Because of their artistic merit and the appeal of their rich range of subject- 
matter, inuch research has been expended on the history of French printed 
cottons; ^^ but we are still far from knowing the origin or even the subject 
of every separate design that has been preserved. 

That of the painted "indiennes" was traditionally floral or geometric. 
Western ingenuity, however, discovered the opportunities afforded by sub- 

263 



stituting copper-plate engraving as a means of reproduction.-^- This increase 
in the size of the stamp gave the designer the chance to invent new and 
more varied designs, the resuk being a change to motifs of greater pictorial 
content. Thus, scenic matter was easily introduced into printed cotton 



design. 



Of the forty-odd sketches, full-sized cartoon drawings and trial proofs for 




Figure 14. Project for a woven shawl. Pen and ink, with water colors. 
Artist unknown. Scotland, Paisley, about 1840. Purchased, 1940. 



printed cottons in the Museum's collection, at least four relate to the Ober- 
kampf factory. Others come from Bolbec and Nantes, both in Normandy, 
from Montpellier, and the largest group, from the firm of Hartmann, of 
Munster, in Alsace (at that time, coming under French sovereignty). The 
provenance of these drawings is again unknown. A few were given in 1896 
by Miss Mary A. Peoli (the Museum's first curator), as coming from the 
collection of her father.^*'' Two years later, the bulk of the cartoons and 
trial proofs were given through the generosity of Miss Bridget Mahon. 

264 



These, therefore, were among the first textile designs to enter the Museum's 
collection — a ^vorthy beginning, indeed! Because of their docimientation 
and interest, individually as well as collectively, a clnonological listing of 
them is given in catalogue form at the end of this article, since space pro- 
hibits a more lengthy discussion of each example. 

Except for one. La route de Jouy, all of these cartoons are executed in 
pen and ink, usually with additions of brown and grey watercolor washes, 
and white chalk highlights. Some examples show the paper squared off after- 
\vards, and in many cases the drawings are on more than one sheet of paper, 
pasted together. As would be expected, their quality and interest vary 
according to the individual talent of the designer. The trial proofs show 
that the copperplates have been boldly engraved or etched, sometimes in 
reverse and at others the composition goes the same way as in the drawing, 
so that each detail will stand out clearly when printing takes place on the 
textile itself. 

As for later 19th-century textile designs, this Museum has a less numer- 
ous,^^ though no less interesting, selection than the earlier examples already 
discussed. Two categories which may be singled out for mention are the 
designs for woven shawls, made in Paisley, Scotland, and in France, possibly 
in Alsace. Of the first type, our collection can boast of three examples 
(Fig. 14). Paisley shawls were manufactured according to the same principles 
as employed for brocaded silks.^^' A sketch (like those shown in the illus- 
tration) was first drawn in miniature, detail by detail, so that the designer 
was able to focus his attention upon separate decorative motifs constituting 
the pattern, keeping these in harmony with his choice of color distribution. 
The drawing was next transferred to a mise-en-carte, and finally, to a more 
detailed mise-en-carte before it was woven on the draw-loom. Only the 
materials used and the manner in which the loom was tied determined the 
difference between the finished Paisley shawl and a brocaded silk. The early 
Paisley shawls (that is, before about 1810) had plain centers with narrow 
borders, often woven separately and sewed on. These narrow border designs 
were a curious mixture of small florid figures surrounded by lines in 
arabesques on feathery stems. As time went on, these feathers evolved into 
the pine-cone motif, which had its full flowering in the 1840's. It is from 
about this time that our drawings come, and one, in fact, shows this motif 
before the tip of the cone had reached absurd, tendril-like proportions. 

The dozen or so drawings of details of French shawls in the collection 
can be dated toward the middle of the 19th century. They entered the 
Museum with certain of the designs attributed to Bony, but first, had been 
reproduced in one of Guerinet's portfolios.^^ Some of these drawings show 
debased turkey-carpet motifs; others include garishly colored roses, placed 

265 



against a field of brilliantly contrasting color, whose shape resembles, in a 
modified way, the same pine-cone motifs found in Paisley shawls (Fig. 15). 
Such designs as these, which seem so contrary to present-day taste, gained 
great popularity in France, and were reproduced in printed as well as in 
woven fabrics of the day. But, like most fads that strike public fancy, within 
a few years these highly colored, brightly patterned shawls were replaced 
by plain, softly colored ones, entirely devoid of pattern. These drawings, 
therefore, represent another passing phase in the constant evolution of 
textile manufacture and fashion design, which is carried right along in our 
collection down to the present day. 

The variety of contemporary textile designs in the Museum's collection 
is limited to two categories: two designs for ballet dress material by Leon 
Bakst and over eight hundred for French printed silks. Despite the sharp 
numerical difference between these two types, the interest of one is as great 
as that of the other. Bakst's desigrns bear on them the notations, "Schehera- 
zade" and "Teheran," respectively, which relate to his famous productions 
of the early years of our century. The designs for dress silks, products of a 
number of Paris ateliers, by their quantity, show the infinite variety possible 
within a fairly limited range, for almost all of the patterns are of abstract 
designs. It is hoped that this branch of the Museum's collection, in particu- 
lar, will continue to grow. 

In this brief survey the attempt has not been made to cover all categories of 
textile drawings in the Museum's collection, but, rather, to focus upon 
certain of the more interesting types which deserve attention. In speaking 
of the purposes for which these designs serve. Miss Eleanor Garnier Hewitt, 
the Museum's co-founder, stated that "the value is beyond words, . . . not 
one atom of the work of an artist should ever be destroyed since the study 
of the change of style, manner, technique and character of work and composi- 
tion from youth to age, often adds valuable instruction, higher inspiration 
and more lofty conception to the years of student work.^'^ It was for these 
very reasons that our collection of textile designs has been carefully gathered; 
and not only for students, but for designers and any others who find them 
useful, the collection is maintained and developed as our facilities and 
generous donors permit. 

Richard Paul Wunder 



266 




Figure 15. Project lor a motif in 
a printed or woven shawl. Col- 
ored gouaches on oiled paper. 
Artist unkno\vn. France, about 
1850-1860. Given by the Coini- 
cil, 1924. 



NOTES 

^ Giorgio Vasari, Opere (ed. Milanesi, 1878-85), 
Book I, p. 168. 

^ Such as those precious designs in the Louvre 
sketchbook, of about 1450 (reprod. in: Victor 
Goloubew, Les Dessins tie Jacopo Bellini, etc., 
Bruxelles, 1908, Vol. II, pi. XCV). 
^ In the Codex Vallardi, also dating toward the 
mid-15th century (reprod. in: Antonio Degen- 
hart, Antonio Pisanello, Vienna, 1945, pi. 136 
and 137), and costume designs in the Ashmolean 
Museinii, at Oxford (ibid., pi. 78), and in the 
Musee Bonnat, at Bayonne {ibid., pi. 81). 
■* Reproduced in: Sergio Ortolani, 11 Pollaiuolo, 
Milano, n.d. [1948], pi. 44 to 57. 
^ Two particidarly beautiful textile drawings by 
an imknown 15th century Lombard hand are 
preserved in the Fogg Museum of Art, Harvard 
University (reprod. in: Agnes Mongan and Paul 
J. Sachs, Drawings in the Fogg Museum of Art, 
Cambridge, Mass., 1946, Vol. I, p. 18, No. 23, 
and Vol. II, fig. 23 and 24). 

^ Tapestry design, being so distinct a subject of 
study, is omitted from consideration in the pres- 
ent article. 

"^ A few scattered earlier designs exist, however, 
such as those for late 17th and early 18th-century 
Spitalfields silks (reprod. in: J. F. Flanagan, 
Spitalfields Silks of the 18th and 19th Centuries, 
Leigh-on-Sea, 1954, fig. 63 ff.). 

^ Lyons, the silk center of France, by 1783, con- 
tained some 15,000 embroiderers and weavers 
(Henri Clouzot, Le Metier de la Sole en France, 
Paris, n.d. [1914], p. 96). 
9 No. 49.50.206; measures 15% x 9% inches. Of 

68 leaves, it originally contained 98, but leaves 

69 to 98 (probably blank) have been cut out. 
Some of the numbers have been repeated, one 
is missing, and there is a gap between numbers 
1490 and 1500, probably accounted for by miss- 
ing pages. The names of 16 different designers, 
some spelled various ways, accompany the pat- 
terns. This book was purchased in Paris in 1949. 
^° The design is to be found in the pattern 
record book on p. 57 verso. There is an alter- 
nate of this design, also by Mademoiselle Mon- 
talon, in the Museum's collection. 

" Charles-Germain de Saint-Aubin (in: L'Art 
du Brodeur, Paris, 1770) describes the methods 
by which a design was prepared for the em- 
broiderer. 

^^ Belle M. Borland, Philippe de Lasalle, Chi- 
cago, 1936, pp. 40 and 41, reprod., pi. IV (a 
better reproduction of this textile is to be found 
in: Musee Retrospectif de la classe 83 soies et 

267 



tissiis de sole, Rapport de comite d'Installation, 
Paris, 1900, facing p. 12). 

'^ Reproduced in: Alexandre Poidebard and 
Jacques Chatel, Camilie Pernon, Lyons, 1912, 
p. 32. 

1'' H. Wescher and R. Zeller, The von der Leyens 
of Crefeld, in Ciba Revieiv, Basle, No. 83, De- 
cember, 1950, p. 3011. 

^^ Galerie des modes et costumes fran(;ais des- 
sine d'apres nature, Paris, 1778-1787 (repub- 
lished, Paul Cornu ed., Paris, 1911-1912), Vol. 

1, p. XII. 

^^ Because the pattern number on the drawing 
precedes the first in sequence of the pattern 
record l^ook, the name of the artist cannot be 
determined. 

" In the Museimi's textile department is an 
overskirt of about the same period on which 
actual feathers, caught under galloon, form an 
important decorative adjunct. 
^^ This helpful enlightenment about weaving 
techniques has been graciously given by Miss 
Lois Clarke and Miss Berta Frey. 
^^ Herman A. Elsberg, The Textiles of Lyons, 
Their Designs and Their Designers, in Bulletin 
of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Vol. XXX, 
No. 178, April, 1932, pp. 28-33. 
^° A full-sized colored reproduction of a detail 
of one such mise-en-carte, attributed to Lasalle, 
appears in: Clouzot, op. cit., pi. XLIII. The 
Metropolitan Museum of Art's Lasalle mise-en- 
carte is discussed in: Frances Morris, A "Mise en 
Carte" of Philippe de Lasalle, in Bulletin of the 
Needle and Bobbin Club, New York, Vol. IV, 
No. 2, October, 1920, pp. 18-25; and John Gold- 
smith Phillips, Acquisitions of Eighteenth Cen- 
tury French Silks, in Bulletin of the Metropoli- 
tan Museum of Art, New York, Vol. XXIX, No. 

2, February, 1934, pp. 26 and 27. 

2' In the Metropolitan Museum of Art is a mise- 
en-carte (No. 28.40.21), relating to this same 
general group, which comes from a Lyonnais 
factory and is dated 1780 on the verso. 
2^ The best account of Bony's activity is: Henri 
Algoud, Jean-Fran<:ois Bony, Decorateur de 
Soierie, in Revue de I'Art, Paris, Vol. 41, 1922, 
pp. 131-143. 

^3 One drawing carries the inscription: "Bro- 
derie 420 depuis le no. 72 Bonny {sic.)" (Algoud, 
op. cit., p. 143). 

24Armand Guerinet (ed.), Indiennes Etoffes 
chinoises. Toiles de Jouy, Paris, n.d. [ca. 1900], 
Ire Serie, 2e Serie, 4e Serie and 6e Serie; and, by 
the same publisher, Recueil de Vieilles Etoffes 
et de Dessins de Tissus anciens et modernes, 
Paris, n.d. [ca. 1900]. The dating of Guerinet's 

268 



publications is complicated by the fact that the 
Library of Congress has never issued cards on 
them. 

^^ Bony also made the embroidery designs for 
the coronation robes of the Empress Josephine, 
in 1804. The Museum's textile department pos- 
sesses a large number of merchants' samples of 
embroidery for gentlemen's coats and waistcoats 
which bear a traditional attribution to Bony. 
2^ Similar examples reproduced in: Armand 
Guerinet (ed.). Les Nouvelles Collections du 
Musee de I'Union Centrale des Arts Decoratifs, 
Paris, n.d. [ca. 1900], 19e Serie, pi. 87-103; and 
in current illustrated guide books on Malmaison 
and Compiegne. 

2^ A. Varron, The Beginning of the Modern 
Carpet Industry, in Ciba Revieic, Basle, No. 23, 
July, 1939, pp. 816-820. 

2^ Ibid., The Technique of Modern Carpet 
Manufacture, pp. 822-825. 

^^ Printed cottons are often erroneously referred 
to as toiles. A toile, technically speaking, is any 
cloth made of flax, hemp, cotton or horse-hair 
(the word is also loosely used in France to desig- 
nate the canvas on which an oil painting is 
made). It is hoped that with growing knowledge 
the vague use of this word as the designation 
for a French or English printed cotton will be 
abandoned. 

^° A. Juvet-Michel, The Great Textile Printing 
Factories in France, in Ciba Revieiu, No. 31, 
March, 1940, pp. I098-1I06. 

^^ Armand Guerinet (ed.), op. cit., 9e Serie; 
Henri Clouzot, La Manufacture de Jouy et la 
toile imprimee au XVIIIe siecle, Paris et Bru- 
xelles, 1926; Clouzot and Frances Morris, Paint- 
ed and Printed Fabrics: The History of the 
Manufactory at Jouy and Other Ateliers in 
France, 1760-1815, New York (The Metropolitan 
Museum of Art), 1927; The Metropolitan Mu- 
seinn of Art, Catalogue of a Retrospective Ex- 
hibition of Painted and Printed Fabrics, New 
York, 1927; Clouzot, Histoire de la Manufacture 
de Jouy et de la Toile Imprimee en France, 
Paris et Bruxelles, 1928 (2 vols.); Hermann Ger- 
son (ed.), Ausstellung von Antiken, Bedruckten 
Stoffen, Berlin, 1929; Morris, Exhibition of 
Printed Fabrics, with Original Cartoons and De- 
signs, in Chronicle of the Museum for the Arts 
of Decoration of Cooper Union, New York, Vol. 
I, No. I, Winter, 1934-35, pp. 3-II; Henry-Rene 
d'Allemagne, La Toile Imprimee et les In- 
diennes de Traite, Paris, 1942 (2 vols.); Bernard 
Roy, Une Capitale de I'lndiennage: Nantes, 
Nantes, 1948; Jacques-Henry Gros, Le Musee de 
rimpression — Exposition de I'Ete 1952, in Bui- 



Ic'lin de la Societe Industrielle de Mulliouse, 
Mulhouse, Nos. Ill and IV, 1952, pp. 1-13; 
Socicle Industiiellc de Mulliouse — Musce de 
rinipression, Presentation de la Colletlion Louis 
Becker, Mulhouse, 20 juin — 29 aoiU 1954. 
^^ France did not adopt the copperplate print- 
ins^ of cottons until about 1770, though this 
process was already much used in England, Ire- 
land and Holland prior to this date (Victoria 
and Albert Museimi (Gerard Brett), European 
Printed Textiles, London, 1949). Later, the 
roller took the place of the copperplate as the 
means of reproduction. 

^^ These cartoons were evidently held apart 
from the drawings of the John J. Peoli collec- 
tion, which was sold, American Art Association, 
New York, May 8th (and follo^ving days), 1894. 
^■* The reason for this apparent earlier disin- 
terest is explained by Miss Eleanor Garnier 
Hewitt: ■'0\ving to its restricted space, the Mu- 



seum must make a general rule not to accept 
nor exhibit objects later than the first cjuartcr of 
the 19th centiuy . . ." (Eleanor G. Hewitt, The 
Making of a Modern Museimi, lecture given be- 
fore the Wednesday Afternoon Club, New York, 
1919 (privately printed), pp. 16 and 17). 
'■^^ Matthew Blair, The Paisley .Shawl and the 
Men Who Produced it, Paisley, 1901; A. M. 
Stewart, I'lie History and Romance of the Pais- 
ley Shawl, Gla.sgow, n.d. [ca. 1939]; and John 
Irwin, Shawls — a Study in Indo-European In- 
fluences, London, 1955. 

^^ Armand Guerinet (ed.), Recueil de Vieilles 
Etoffes et de Dessins de Tissiis Anciens et Mo- 
dernes, Paris, n.d. [ca. 1900], pi. 7 (in color); and 
Guerinet, Indiennes Etoffes Chinois, Japonaise, 
Mexique Toiles de Jouy, Paris, n.d. [ca. 1900], 
5e Serie, pi. 5, 11 and 13 (all in color). 
^'^ Eleanor G. Hewitt, op. rit., p. 17. 



DESIGNS FOR PRINTED COTTONS IN THE MUSEUM'S COLLECTION 



1. Pastoxd scene with peacocks and poultry 
(trial proof; two plates). Designer unknown. 
Manufactory unknown (French ?) (after Robert 
Jones, of Old Ford, River Lea, north of London). 
Dated after 1761. It is possible that these proofs 
come from a French manufactory that pirated 
Jones's designs. The original version shows on 
the side of the stone on ^vhich the flutist sits, 
"R. Jones 1761." An example of this later 
(French) version is the Museum's textile de- 
partment, as is also a fragment of Jones's origi- 
nal. The scene is taken from an etching dated 
1652, by Nicolas Berchem, the peacocks and 
poultry from an engraving of 1740 by Josephiis 
Sympson, after the painting by Marmaduke 
Cradock, and the dog and stag come from Fran- 
cis Barlow's book. Animals of Various Species, 
etc., ca. 1671, pi. 18. Reference: Frances Morris, 
Exhibition of Printed Fabrics, with Original 
Cartoons and Designs, in Chronicle of the Mu- 
seum for the Arts of Decoration of Cooper 
Union, New York, Vol. I, No. 1, 1934-35, No. 1 
(as ca. 1770); Henry-Rene d'Allemagne, La Toile 
Imprimee et les Indiennes de Traite, Paris, 
1942, reprod. textile. Vol. II, pi. 37 and 38; 
Societe Industrielle de Midhouse — Musee de 
rimpression. Presentation de la Collection Louis 
Becker, Mulhouse, 20 juin — 29 aout 1954, p. 13, 
No. 416TP; Victoria and Albert Museum (Peter 
Floud), English Chintz: Two Centuries of 
Changing Taste, London, 1955, p. 8, No. 2. 



2. Le Tom beau de Jean-Jacques Rousseau 
(trial proof). Designer: Jean-Baptiste Huet. 
Manufactory: Oberkampf, of Jouy. Dated 1780. 
This same subject was also brought out by 
Gorgerat, of Nantes, in 1782 (textile reprod. in 
AUemagne, Vol. II, pi. 89), and by Favre, Petit- 
pierre et Cie., of Nantes (mentioned, ibid., Vol. 
I, p. 114). Reference: Morris, op. cit., No. 3 
(as ca. 1800). 

3. Le Tombeau de Jean-Jacques Rousseau (car- 
toon). Designer unknown (imitator of Huet). 
Manufactory unknown (probably not Ober- 
kampf). Dated after 1780. Similar to preceding, 
though with positions of the islands changed. 
Possibly a pirated design. Reference: Morris, 
op. cit., No. 3. 

4. Don Quixote (cartoon and trial proof). De- 
signer: Lagrenee (?). Manufactory: Oberkampf, 
of Jouy. Dated 1780. Reference: Armand Gue- 
rinet (ed.), Indiennes Etoffes chinoises, Toiles 
de Jouy, Paris, n.d. [ca. 1900], 9e Serie, reprod. 
textile, pi. 14; Morris, op. cit.. No. 2 (reprod. 
with textile, p. 4); Henri Clouzot, Histoire de 
la Manufacture de Jouy et de la Toile Imprimee 
en France, Paris et Bruxelles, 1928, textile re- 
prod.. Vol. II, pi. 4, and mentions (Vol. I. p. 42) 
that this subject was repeated in 1813 by Hem 
for Oberkampf; AUemagne, op. cit., reprod. tex- 
tile. Vol. II, pi. 160 (as by Gorgerat, of Nantes, 
dated 1785); Bernard Roy, Une Capitale de 
rindiennage: Nantes, Nantes, 1948, textile re- 

269 




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prod., facing p. 66 (as Ijy Gorgerat). It is not 
known wiiclher Lagicncc was working lor OI)er- 
kanipf as early as 17S0. 

5. La course an sanglicr (iragnients ol an in- 
complete cartoon). Designer iniknown. Manu- 
factory: Lafosse, Lionnet et Medard Cie., of 
Montjjellier. Dated 1785. Reference: Morris, 
op. cit.. No. 4 (as ca. 1800); Clouzot, La Manu- 
facture de Jouy et la toile imprimce au XVI lie 
siecle, Paris et Bruxelles, 1926, textile reprod., 
pi. XXII; ibid., 1928, textile reprod.. Vol. II, 
pi. 63; Societe Industrielle de Mulhouse, op. cit., 
p. 19, No. 473Tr (possibly misnunibered, since 
the same nmnber appears for two different 
items in the catalogue). 

6. La course aiiglaise (two fragments of an in- 
complete cartoon). Designer iniknown. Manu- 
factory: Favre, Petitpierre et Cie., of Nantes. 
Dated 1789. On the reverse of both drawings 
is written (in pencil in a later hand): "Desrais 
ft.," possilily referring to Claude-Louis Desrais 
(1746-1816), an illustrator, though no evidence 
can be foinid ^vhich might indicate his connec- 
tion ^\'ith this manufactory. These fragments 
are parts of three large islands. Reference: 
AUemagne, op. cit., textile reprod.. Vol. II, 
pi. 151. 

7. Neptune, or L'Einpire cles Mers (fragment 
of a cartoon). Designer: possibly Belorge or 
Cholet. Manufactory: Favre, Petitpierre et Cie., 
of Nantes. Dated 1794. This drawing is for one 
of eight islands found in the textile. Reference: 
Guerinet, op. cit., textile reprod., pi. 51; AUe- 
magne, op. cit., lists textile. Vol. I, p. 114, textile 
reprod., pi. XX; Roy, op. cit., textile reprod., 
facing p. 136. 

8. La fete champetre (cartoon). Designer: Be- 
lorge or Cholet. Manufactory: Favre, Petitpierre 
et Cie., of Nantes. Dated about 1805. Refer- 
ence: attribution made by M. Philippe Bezault, 
Conservateur du Musee de I'lmpression sur 
Etoffes, Mulhouse (in a letter to this Museum, 
dated January, 1956). 

9. Chasse et peche dans la vallee de la Wornisa 
(unfinished cartoon). Designer: J. L. Lebert, 
I'aine. Manufactory: Hartmann, of Munster. 
Dated 1810. A slightly different version of this 
subject, called La chasse Suisse, was brought out 
by Belloncle et Malfeson, of Rouen, about 1820 
(Societe Industrielle de Mulhouse, op. cit., p. 12, 
No. 452TP). Reference: Guerinet, op. cit., tex- 
tile reprod., pi. 17; identification made on basis 
of Bezault's letter. 

10. Les Monuments de Paris (cartoon). Designer 
unknown. Manufactory: Hartmann, of Mun- 
ster. Dated about 1810. The dating of this car- 
toon is based on the facts that the triumphal 



arch of the Place du Carrousel was erected by 
Percier and FoiUainc in 1H06, while the Chappe 
telegraph, which surmounted the towers of the 
church of St. Sidpice (and which appears in 
this drawing) was put into operation about 1810 
(observations made by Bezaidt). In the textile 
the arrangement of the islands differs slightly. 
A similar subject was brought out by Ober- 
kampf, after the designs of Hippolyte Lebas, 
in 1816 (textile reprod. in Clouzot, op. cit., 1926, 
pi. XVIII). In the Museum's textile collection 
is still another version which may have been 
produced in Nantes. Reference: Morris, op. cit.. 
No. 7 (as ca. 1820); AUemagne, op. ciL., textile 
reprod.. Vol. If, pi. 95. 

11. Fauchon la VieUeuse (cartoon). Designer 
unknown. Manufactory: possibly F. Keittinger 
et Cie., or Le Maitre, of Bolbec. Dated about 
1811. Reference: AUemagne, op. cit., textile 
reprod.. Vol. II, pi. 189; Societe Industrielle de 
Mulhouse, op. cit., p. 11, No. 107TP (where it 
is called: Nantes, ca. 1800). 

12. Unidentified subject (an infant being suck- 
led by a she-goat) (cartoon, cut off along left 
margin). Designer unknown. Manufactory un- 
known (possibly of Bolbec). Dated about 1811. 
The style of draftsmanship reveals that this 
cartoon is by the same artist who executed 
Fauchon la VieUeuse. An example of this tex- 
tile is in the Museum's textile collection. 

13. Anais et Numa (?) (incomplete cartoon). 
Designer unknown. Manufactory imknown 
(possibly of Bolbec). Dated about 1811. This 
drawing also is probably by the same artist who 
executed the above two cartoons. The sidjject 
might also be Apollo and the Muses (compare 
with textile reprod. in AUemagne, op. cit.. Vol. 
II, pi. 113, and mentioned. Vol. I, p. 112, as 
coming from Favre, Petitpierre et Cie., of Nan- 
tes, dated 1818). 

14. LInidentified subject (Diana seated in a 
landscape with a dog). Designer unknown. 
Manufactory unknown. Dated probably about 
1810. This fragment, probably comprising one 
island of a much larger composition, shows a 
pseudo-classical landscape at the left, and a 
mountainous, partially wooded landscape at the 
right. 

15. Scenes from a classical comedy (cartoon). 
Designer unknown. Manufactory unknown. 
Dated about I8I0-I820. It is quite possible that 
this cartoon was never carried to final execution. 
The subject, traditionally identified as Moliere's 
Sganarelle, and not opposed by Bezault, seems 
not to relate to this play, but may have been 
taken from some other work by this author. 

16. Les quatre elements (cartoon and one pre- 



271 



liniinary drawing). Designer: J. L. Lebert, 
I'aine. Manufactory: Hartmann, of Munster. 
Dated about 1820. The allusions represented 
are: Jupiter for Fire; a river god for Water; 
Apollo and Daphne for Air; and Deucalion and 
Pyrrha for Earth. Described along the lower 
margin by the artist, and signed: "L . . . f . . ./." 

17. Les quatre elements (three alternate unfin- 
ished cartoons). Designer: J. L. Lebert, I'aine. 
Manufactory: Hartmann et Fils (successors to 
Soehnee et Cie.), of Munster. Dated about 1820. 
These studies represent a second version of this 
same subject, with the same emblematic allu- 
sions. Reference: Guerinet, op. cit., textile re- 
prod., pi. 20; composition and textile discusseci 
in: Clouzot, La Tradition de la Toile imprimee 
en Alsace, in La Renaissance, Paris, Vol. 2, 1919, 
pp. 284-289; Jacques-Henry Gros, Le Musee de 
rimpression — Exposition de I'Ete 1952, in Bul- 
letin de la Societe Industrielle de Mulhouse, 
Mulhouse, Nos. Ill and IV, 1952, pp. 10 and 11, 
textile reprod., fig. 9. 

18. Les quatre saisons (cartoon; two parts). De- 
signer: J. L. Lebert, I'aine (?). Manufactory: 
Hartmann et Fils, of Munster. Dated about 
1818-1820. In 1818 the House of Hartmann 
changed its name to "Hartmann et Fils" (Clou- 
zot and Morris, Painted and Printed Fabrics: 
The History of the Manufactory at Jouy and 
Other Ateliers in France, 1760-1815, New York 
(The Metropolitan Museum of Art), 1927, p. 56). 
The allusions represented are: Flora and Zephyr 
for Spring; Ceres for Summer; Bacchus and 
Silenus for Autumn; and Aquilon for Winter. 
Reference: cartoon identified by Bezault. 

19. Les allegories: Musique, Peinture, Sculpture 
et Architecture (sketch for a cartoon). Designer: 
J. L. Lebert, I'aine (?). Manufactory: Hartmann 
et Fils, of Munster (?). Dated about 1815-1820. 
Bezaidt suggests that this composition might be 
inspired by Pillement, though the drawing is 
certainly not by him. 

20. Les Frangais en Egypte (cartoon). Designer 
unknown. Manufactory unknown (possibly of 
Alsace). Dated 1815. Bezault suggests that this 
subject may have been inspired by a Restoration 
play or novel. Reference: Guerinet, op. cit., 
textile reprod., pi. 32 (as by Huet, for Over- 
kampf); Morris, op. cit.. No. 8 (as ca. 1825); 
Allemagne, op. cit., textile reprod.. Vol. II, pi. 
195. 

21. La route de Jouy, or La chasse au cerf (car- 
toon). Designer: Horace Vernet; engraved by 
George Lemeunnie. Manufactory: Oberkampf, 
of Jouy. Dated 1815. This drawing (in sanguine 
and red chalk), which might be a study for the 
actual engraving, bears the inscription along the 



top margin: "M.M. Laveissiere et Chamont, ' 
which may be the name of a later manufactory. 
A change between this drawing and the textile 
occurs in the inscription on the signboard; in 
the cartoon it reads: "Ligne du Grand Maitre 
. . . Rond de Nagu . . . Rond Victor," whereas 
in the textile (example in the Musee de I'lmpres- 
sion, at Mulhouse) are found the names of de- 
signer and engraver. However, in that example 
reproduced in Allemagne (Vol. II, pi. 152), the 
signboard is shown blank. These discrepancies 
are explained in: The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, Catalogue of a Retrospective Exhibition of 
Painted and Printed Fabrics, New York, 1927, 
p. 29 that: "there are several versions of this 
plate, some of which are imsigned and poorly 
copied." The small building by the bridge is 
the celebrated "Maison du Pont de Pierre" 
(identified by Bezault), where Oberkampf print- 
ed his first textile (ca. 1760), before the construc- 
tion of his factory at Jouy; this famous house 
also appears in the textile by Huet, Les travaux 
de la manufacture (textile reprod. in Allemagne, 
op. cit., Vol. I, fig. I). It is possible that this 
cartoon is not the original one for Oberkampf's 
textile. 

22. Jeanne cl'Arc (cartoon). Designer: Charles 
Chasselat, Paris. Manufactory: Hartmann, of 
Munster. Dated 1817. Another version of this 
subject was done by F. Keittinger, of Bolbec, 
about 1820 (textile reprod. in Allemagne, op. cit.. 
Vol. II, pi. 133). This drawing is signed and 
dated by the artist. Reference: Morris, op. cit.. 
No. 6 (reprod. with textile, p. 10); Clouzot and 
Morris, op. cit., textile reprod., pi. XXVII. 

23. Scenes from Voltaire's "Henriade" (cartoon 
and four preliminary drawings). Designer: F. 
Peters. Manufactory: Hartmann et Fils, of 
Munster. Dated about 1820. Quotations from 
Voltaire's text accompany the scenes represent- 
ed, and are as follows: upper left: Chant 1, lines 
229-232; upper right, Chant 10, lines 512-514; 
center, unknown (King Henri IV in battle); 
lower left. Chant 10, lines 48-49; lower center, 
Chant 8, lines 180-181; lower right, Chant 9, 
lines 344 and 348. This subject was repeated 
by Favre, Petitpierre et Cie, of Nantes, about 
1820 (mentioned in Allemagne, op. cit.. Vol. I, 
p. 113), and at Rouen, about 1825, after the en- 
graving of Henry (textile reprod., ibid.. Vol. II, 
pi. 138). Reference: Morris, op. cit.. No. 10 (as 
scenes from the life of Philippe de Mornay, 
dated 1820-1830). 

24. La vie de Belisaire (cartoon and one unfin- 
ished alternate scheme). Designer unknown. 
Manufactory: Hartmann et Fils, of Munster. 
Dated about 1820. No textile has yet been found 
to correspond with this cartoon. 



272 



25. Unknown subject (scenes from ihe life of 
an imaginary or legendary hero) (cartoon). De- 
signer unknown. Manufactory: possihly Hart- 
mann et Fils, of Munster. Dated about 1820. 
This cartoon, wiiich shows five islands, was 
probably executed by the same artist as did 
La vie de Bcllsaire. The subject may be one 
taken from French literature. It is possible that 
a textile was never made from this composition. 

26. Les fables de La Foulaine (cartoon) (Fig. 16). 
Designer unknown. Manufaclor>: Hartmann et 



Fils, of Minister. Dated about 1820. The islands 
re|)rcsent: upper left. The Oak and the Reed 
(liook I, No. 22): center right. The Shepherd 
and Ihe Lion (Book VI, No. 1); lower left. The 
]{al and Ihe Elephanl (Book VIII, No. 15); lower 
right, 'The Dairy-Maid and Ihe Pot of Milk 
(Book VII, No. 10). Another version of the 
fal)les of La Fontaine was ijrought out by a 
Rouen firm about 1820 (Allemagne, op. cil., 
textile reprod.. Vol. II, pi. 165). No textile has 
vet been iotuid to correspond with this cartoon. 



DONORS OF WORKS OF ART, 1955 



Achenbach Foimdalion for Graphic Arts 

.American .^.cadeni) of Arts and Letters 

Antiquarian Guild 

Arditti & Mayorcas 

J. L. Arnemann 

Mrs. Hedy Backlin 

Miss Edith A. Bagg 

Miss Edith A. Bagg (in memory of her sister 

Edna Bagg) 
Martin Battersby 
Arthur Beir &: Company 
Michel N. Benisovich 
Martin Birnbaum 
E. Maurice Bloch 
Judson S. Bradley 
Miss Emily H. Chauncey 
Miss Mabel Choate 
Mrs. William H. Clarke 
Louis Cohen 

Cooper Union Art School Library 
Miss Daphne Cox 
Mrs. Morris D. C. Crawford 
Deutsches Tapetenmuseum 
Herbert Emken 
Oreste J. Falciglia 
Mrs. Max Farrand 
Sol F. Feinstone 
Mr. & Mrs. Edward H. Fitch 
Mrs. Henry N. Flynt 
Folly Cove Designers 
Miss Estelle Frankfurter 
Miss Berta Frey 
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P. Jean Germain 
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Mrs. Wilhelmine von Godin 
Mrs. William Ford Goulding 
Charles R. Gracie and Sons 
Mrs. Carola R. Green 
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Miss Marian Hague 



Miss Marian Hague (in memory of 

Frances Morris) 
Mrs. Robert Halsband 
Miss Virginia Hamill 
Mrs. Montgomery Hare 
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Mrs. Dorothy Harrower 
L. Boyd Hatch 
Miss Mabel Haynes 
Mrs. William Randolph Hearst, Jr. 
*Dr. Walter L. Hildburgh 
F. Burrall Hoffman 
Miss Josephine Howell 
Charles Ikle 
David James 
Mrs. A. Jannapolis 
Jones and Erwin, Inc. 
John judkyn 
Miss Teresa Kilham 
S. Kravet and Son, Inc. 
Dr. J. Langewis 
Jack Lenor Larsen, Inc. 
The Estate of Carl M. Loeb 
Mrs. Francis B. Lothrop 
Miss Jean E. Mailey 
Lester Margon 
Mrs. Vera Maxwell 
Robert McCombe 
J. J. Mendelsohn 
Mrs. H. A. Metzger 
Mr. & Mrs. William Franklin Mitchell 
Mrs. Olive Montel 
H. O. Morgan 
J. B. Neumann 
Museum of New Mexico 
The New York Public Library Picture 

Collection 
Wilton E. Owen, Inc. 
Mrs. Florence Peto 
Miss Amy Pleadwell 

*Deceased 



273 



Cole Porter 

Provident Securities Co. (From the collection 
of the late Mr. and Mrs. William H. Crocker) 
Mrs. Dexter J. Purinton 
Mrs. Stanley Burnet Resor 
Mrs. Robert Ridgway 
Mrs. Philip Robertson 
Christian Rohlfing 
Mrs. L. Earle Rowe 
Mrs. Ho\vard J. Sachs 
Mrs. Hannah D. Schilling 
Mrs. Charlotte Schreiber 
Mrs. Vivann G. Schroeder 
Mrs. Allen E. Smith 
S. Stanley Sogg (through Mr. B. H. Hellman) 



David Stockwell 
Miss Sylvia Such 
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Roger Warner 
Henning Watterston 
Mrs. Erhard Weyhe 
Forsyth Wickes 
Mrs. A. U. Wilcox 
Mrs. Elizabeth B. Willis 
Richard P. Wunder 
Miss D. Lorraine Yerkes 



PURCHASES IN MEMORIAM, 1955 



Mary T. Cockroft 

Erskine Hewitt 

Sarah Cooper Hewitt 

Madame Raimundo de Madrazo 



Georgiana L. McClellan 
Henry Frederick William Rave 
Jacob H. Schiff 
Mrs. A. Murray Yoimg 



Au Panier Fleuri Fimd 
Friends of the Museum Fund 



PURCHASES FROM FUNDS, 1955 

Pauline Riggs Noyes Fund 



DONORS TO THE MUSEUM LIBRARY, 1955 



Addison Gallery of American Art 

Akron Art Institute 

Albertina 

J. Q. Regteren Altena 

Anonymous 

Art Association of Indianapolis 

Art Institute of Chicago 

Mrs. Hedy Biicklin 

Miss Alice B. Beer 

Dr. Rudolf Berliner 

Birmingham Museum of Art 

Martin Birnbaum 

E. Maurice Bloch 

Walter Boll 

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Francois Boucher 

Boymans Museum 

W. T. Brewster 

Brooklyn Museum 

California Palace of the Legion of Honor 

Carnegie Institution of Washington 

Columbus Gallery of Fine Arts 

Contemporary Arts Association, Houston 

Dallas Museum of Fine Arts 

Danske Kunstindustrimuseum 

274 



Detroit Institute of Arts 

Deutsche Akademie der Ktinste, Berlin 

DeZan, Rudy M. 

Mrs. Estelle Doheny 

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French Cultural Services, New York 

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Mr. and Mrs. Campbell Geeslin 

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Miss Josephine Howell 

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Library of Congress, Prints !l- IMiotographs 

Division 
Linotype (l.m.b.H., Frani<fiut a. M. 
Estate of Carl M. Loeh 
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Malnui Miiseiuii 

Mariners' Museum, Newport News 
Metropolitan Mnseinn of Art 
Whitney N. Morgan 
*Miss Frances Morris 
Dr. Gerd Nriiehsani 
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Miisee de I'lmpression, Miilhoiise 
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Kimst 
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* Deceased 



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Miss Harriet E. Waite 

Mrs. A. Stewart Walker 

Leo Wallerstein 

Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore 

John Wanamaker 

Wenham Museum 

Whitney Museinn of American Art 

William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art 

Charles C. Withers 

Wool Bureau, Inc. 

Worcester Art Museum 

Yale University Art Gallery 



DONORS OF EQUIPMENT AND SERVICES, 1955 



Anonymous 
R. Kirk Askew 
Miss Lois V. Barrington 
Miss Irmgard Doering 
Miss Lois Clarke 
Mrs. Teresa Cohen 
Freeman G. Craw 
Sheldon Keck 



Life 

Miss Serbella Moores 
Mrs. Robert M. Petti t 
Mrs. Howard J. Sachs 
Richard Sandfort 
Irwin I. Schwartz 
Harry Sperling 



275 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM, 1955-1956 



HONORARY BENEFACTORS 

Miss Susan D^vight Bliss 
Miss Marian Hague 
Mrs. Montgomery Hare 
Miss Edith Wetmore 

BENEFACTORS 

Richard C. Greenleaf 
*Archer M. Huntington 
R. Keith Kane 
Leo Wallerstein 

LIFE MEMBERS 

Werner Aljegg 
Mrs. Robert Woods Bliss 
Miss Adelaide Milton de Groot 
James Hazen Hyde 
Clarence McK. Lewis 
Katzenbach & Warren, Inc. 

SUSTAINING MEMBERS 
Mrs. Neville J. Booker 
Charles of the Ritz 
Mrs. Walter W. Hitesman, Jr. 
Edgar Kaufmann 
Mrs. Russell C. Leffingwell 
Miss Elinor Merrell 
Irving S. Olds 
Rudolph J. Schaefer 
Summerhill Foundation 

SUBSCRIBING MEMBERS 
George A. Bomann, Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Elisha Dyer 
Richard C. Greenleaf 
Mrs. Montgomery Hare 
Miss Gertrude M. Oppenheimer 
Thomas J. Watson 
Mrs. Forsyth Wickes 

CONTRIBUTING MEMBERS 

Miss Amey Aldrich 

Mr. & Mrs. Edward C. Anderson 

Anonymous 

Mr. R: Mrs. Arnold A. Arbeit 

Miss Josephine Atterbury 

Anton Bailer 

Louis G. Baldwin 

Mrs. Charles K. Beekman 

Arthur Beir & Co., Inc. 

Mrs. Henry J. Bernheim 

Mrs. William A. Berridge 

Martin Birnbaum 

Mrs. Albert Blum 

*Deceased 

276 



Mrs. 7 heodore Boettger 
Mrs. Kenyon Boocock 
Mrs. Adolphe Borie 
Mrs. C. B. Borland 
James C. Boudreau 
Dora Brahms, Inc. 
Mrs. Abner Bregman 
Mrs. Roger E. Brunschwig 
Einar A. Buhl 
Alfred G. Burnham 
Mrs. W. Gibson Carey, Jr. 
Miss Bonnie Cashin 
Miss Fannia M. Cohn 
Kenneth M. Collins 
Miss Kate T. Corey 
Mrs. Lincoln Cromwell 
George H. Danforth 
Mrs. Sidney G. de Kay 
Miss Freda Diamond 
Mrs. Dorothy Draper 
Miss Esther H. Dunn 
Miss Florence S. Dustin 
H. G. Dwight 

Ecole des Beaux-Arts de Montreal 
Mrs. Maximilian Elser, Jr. 
Mrs. A. W. Erickson 
Mrs. Max Farrand 
Malcolm G. Field 
Mrs. Oliver D. Filley 
John C. Frear 
Miss Frances Gandolf 
Eugene L. Garbaty 
Eva Gebhard-Gourgaud Foundation 
Mrs. R. W. Goelet 
Mrs. William Greenough . 
Mrs. F. T. Hafendorfer 
Anthony Harding 
Mr. &: Mrs. Michael M. Hare 
Mrs. Pascal R. Harrower 
R. Curt Hasenclever 
Mrs. James W. Hatch 
Walter Hauser 
Mrs. James Hays 
Miss Bertha Hernstadt 
Miss Rebecca Hernstadt 
Miss Anne Herman 
*Dr. Jacob Hirsch 
Miss Josephine C. Howell 
J. A. Lloyd Hyde 
Charles F. Ikle 
Mrs. Mabel S. Ingalls 
Miss Louise M. Iselin 
Mrs. Oliver Goidd Jennings 
Mrs. Charles F. Johnson 
John Judkyn 
Ely Jacques Kahn 



Mrs. W. Thorn Kissel 

Mrs. Bella C. Laiuiauci 

Miss Minncltc Lan!* 

Miss Eleanor Ic Maire 

Mrs. Francis HeIn^ LcnNt^on 

Julian Clarence Lc\ i 

Mrs. Dorolhv I.iehcs 

Mrs. William N. Liule 

.\clol])h LocAvi 

Ra\nioncl Loewy .^ssociates 

Miss Harriet Marple 

Mrs. Joseph M. May 

Francis G. Maver 

Mrs. Walter Mavnard 

Earl Hart Miller 

Mrs. H. O. Milliken 

Dr. William Matheuson Milliken 

Mrs. J. F. B. Mitchell 

Mrs. George P. Montgomery 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles ^ioran, Jr. 

Joseph Moreng 

Mr. &: Mrs. Roger Morton 

Mrs. Matilde K. Muller 

National Federation of Textiles, Inc. 

Miss Catharine Oglesby 

William C. Pahlmann 

Charles Parkhinst 

Miss Katharine de B. Parsons 

Miss Eleanor Pepper 

Mrs. Gifford B. Pinchot 

Mrs. A. Kingsley Porter 

Mr. & Mrs. J. Warner Prins 

Mrs. Grafton H. Pyne 

Mrs. Henry C. Quinby 
Rambusch Decorating Co. 

Mrs. Henry S. Redmond 

Jens Risom 

Mrs. Beverlev R. Robinson 

James G. Rogers 

Nelson Rowley 

Paul J. Sachs 

Mrs. Victor Salvatore 

Miss Gertrude Sampson 

Ted Sandler 

Miss Martha Schalielitz 

Miss Edith Scoville 

James Seeman 

Mrs. Irving M. Snow 

Hans Stiebel 

Joseph Stolfi 

Mrs. J. G. Phelps Stokes 

Mrs. Herman Foster Stone 

Stroheim &.- Romann 

Harold Susser 

Walter Dorwin Teague 

Mills Ten Eyck, Jr. 

Mrs. Roy E. Tomlinson 

Miss Gertrude Townsend 



Mrs. John B. Frevor 

Hairison Fweed 

Kennelh R. \'ol/ 

\\'ail|)aper Council, ln< . 

File John B. Watkins Company 

Mrs.'\anderl)ilt Wcbl) 

Henry H. \Verner 

Dr. c^- Mrs. Da\enport West 

Mrs. Florence Wilkes 

Mrs. Elizabeth Bavley Willis 

Mrs. Lucius AVilmerding 

Miss Adeline F. Wing 

Miss Caroline R. Wing 

Miss Mary C. Wing 

John B. AVisner 

Miss Lelia \'. Wittier 

Edward J. ^Vormley 

Albert S. Wright 

ANNUAL MEMBERS 
Dr. Phyllis Ackerman 
Mrs. Eduard H. Ahrens 
Mrs. Alphaeus H. Albert 
Miss Rosalind Allan 
Marshall C. Anderson 
Alfred Andrews 
Anonymous 
Alfons Bach 
Miss Elsie G. Bell 
Jiniius Bird 
Countess E. Bismarck 
Miss Lili Blumenau 
Mrs. Edmond C. Bonaventure 
Mr. & Mrs. Peter Borie 
Charles Boyer 
Miss Helen Brehm 
Miss Marion Bridgman 
Miss Ida E. Brophy 
W. S. Budworth &: Son, Inc. 
Mrs. Ludlow S. Bull 
Mrs. Thomas E. Bullard 
Mrs. Rebecca Caiola 
Miss Alice Callan 
Miss Eli/a Campbell 
Mrs. L. E. Campbell 
Mrs. Alfred B. Carb 
Hugh Carney 
Robert Chafitz 
Mrs. Louise Cable Chard 
Miss Lois Clarke 
Mrs. Edward B. Cole 
W. Arthur Cole 
Mrs. W. P. Col ton 
Frank E. Comparato 
Doda Conrad 
John Coolidge 
Mrs. Adelaide T. Corbett 
Mrs. Jameson Cotling 



277 



Stanley Cowiiiaii 
Robert Ciowningshlekl 
Edward M. Dainze 
Mr. & Mrs. Gaston Dal by 
Mrs. Walter T. Daub 
Ben Davis 
Geori;;e de Batz 
Benno de Terey 
Mr. R: Mrs. Dikran Dingilian 
George E. Dix 

Senator John A. K. Donovan 
Miss )anet H. Douglas 
Paul Drethsler 
Mrs. Audrey H. Dunn 
Tony Duquette 
Tom Durkin 
Miss Eleanor O. Eadie 
Miss Beatrice Ecclesine 
Mrs. Walter L. Ehrich 
Mrs. John A. Ely 
Miss Alice S. Erskine 
Miss Janet Eurengy 
Dr. Royal Bailey Farnuna 
The Fashion Group 
Carl F. Ficken 
Mrs. Robert L. Frey 
Miss Henriette J. Fuchs 
Miss Frances B. Fox 
Mrs. William G. Eraser 
Mrs. Samuel Friedman 
Thomas L. Gallaway 
Mrs. Emma M. Gibhs 
Mrs. Elsie Glass 
Mrs. Alice Glick 
Dr. Oswald Goetz 
Mrs. John Gregory 
Mrs. Marian Powys Giey 
Harry D. M. Grier 
Philip Grushkin 
Mr. & Mrs. George F. Gutjahr 
Miss Yvonne Hackenbroch 
Miss Gertrude Hagelberg 
Mrs. Marie-Helene Hallgarten 
Miss Mary Ellen Hanley 
J. M. Harney 

Miss Katliarine B. Hartshorne 
Miss Mabel Haynes 
William W. Heer 
George S. Hellman 
Miss Gertrude Hill 
Miss Lillian Hirschmann 
Miss Eli/abelh Holahan 
Hubert T. Holland 
H. Maxson Holloway 
Mrs. John Gregory Hope 
Miss Florence House 
*Mrs. Theodore F. Hiunphrey 
Miss Helen Hutchins 



Judge & Mrs. Jidius Isaacs 

Miss Frances H. Ives 

Mrs. W. H. Jackson 

Horst W. Janson 

Mrs. Robert Irving Jenks 

Mrs. Charles F. Johnson, Jr. 

Alfred S. Kahn 

Morris Kantor 

Maxim Karolik 

Francis Keally 

Mrs. Nell M. Kessler 

William D. King 

Miss Charlotte E. Kizer 

Max Knoecklein 

Mrs. G. M. W. Kobbe 

Mrs. Agnes Kremer 

Mrs. Alexander Kreisel 

Mrs. Anna H. Laessig 

Mrs. E. B. Lang 

Otto F. Langmann 

Mrs. Sidney Lanier 

Bernard Levy 

Miss Ruth Lieb 

Simon Lissim 

Miss Helen I'ippa Longo 

Miss Helen Lyall 

Mrs. Eugene Mabeau 

Roger W. MacLaughlin 

Miss Millicent McLaughlin 

Shelley Marks 

Dr. Joseph Mann 

Lester Margon 

Mrs. Philip A. Means 

J. J. Mendelsohn 

Miss Gladys Miller 

John C. Milne 

Dr. Alice Muehsam 

Alexander Nesbitt 

Mrs. Florence Nicholls 

Donald M. Oenslager 

Miss Frances L. Orkin 

Count Alexandre Orlowski 

Miss Barbara Peart 

Miss Pauline M. Peterson 

Miss Ina K. Pitner 

Miss Evelyn A. Pitshke 

Miss Amy Pleadwell 

Mrs. J. M. Price 

Miss Mary Turlay Robinson 

Miss Ruth D. Robinson 

Professor Herbert F. Roemmele 

E. Kendall Rogers 

Mrs. C. H. Russell 

G. Byron Sage 

Mrs. Louise Sanders 

H. S. Schaefter 

*Deceased 



278 



Walter Schat/ki 

Miss Kathiyn Scott 

Mrs. Harriet Scj^csscmann 

Cyrus ScMiioiir 

Miss Mar\ J. Sliaiinon 

Miss Dorotlica C. Shipley 

Mrs. Dido Smith 

Miss Miriam Snnth 

Miss F.cUth .\. Staiulcn 

Ktiward Sleesc 

na\i(l Stockwell 

Miss Susan W. Street 

Miss Hariet Stiirte\ant 

Mrs. Joseph A. Sukaskas 

Dr. Helen H. Tan/er 

.'\llen lowiisend Terrell 

Mrs. George H. Thomas 

Miss Marguerite B. Tiffany 

John Kent Tilton 

Harold Tishler 

Mrs. Willis W. Tompkins 

Reinhard C. B. Trof 



Mrs. Muriel King lUefferd 

Mrs. Muriel I', luroll 

Mrs. Andrew llnderhill 

Mrs. N. 1'. Van Buskirk 

Mis. Paid Van Doren 

William B. \'an Nortwick 

Baroness Wilhelmine von Goch'n 

Miss A. Kli/ahcth Wadhams 

Mrs. Douglas Warner 

Mr. ;;; Mis. Harry E. Warren 

Mrs. Lionel Weil 

Paul Wescott 

Major &: Mrs. Morrison V. R. Weyant 

Mrs. Nelson C. White 

Miss Isal)el L. Whitney 

Mrs. Arnold Wilson 

George Wittenhorn 

Russel Wright 

Mrs. Dorothy "^'epez 

Phineas Zolot 

Dr. Paul Zucker 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM 

The Advisory Council of the Museum established in 1937 the following classes 
of membership: 

Benefactors who contribute 1 1,000 or more 

Life Members who contribute $500 or more 

Sustaining Members who contribute $100 annually 

Subscribing Members who contribute |50 annually 

Contributing Members .... who contribute $10 annually 

Annual Members who contribute $5 annually 

Checks should be drawn to The Cooper Union Museum Fund, and sent in care of 
The Business Officer, The Cooper Union, Cooper Square, New York 3, New York. 



279 



THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM 

COOPER SQUARE and SEVENTH STREET 

iS served hy these Hues of transporlation 

B.-M. T. SUBWAY Bioadwa) -Seventh y\veniie Uine -8th Street Station 
I. R. T. SUBWAY Lexington-Fourth Avenue Line — Astor Place Station 
INDEPENDENT SUBWAY West 4th Street - Washington Square Station 



HUDSON-MANHATTAN TUBES 



9th Street Station 



BROADWAY BUS, Route 6 



THIRD AVENUE BUS 



LEXINGTON AVENUE BUS 



Route 4 



MADISON-EOURTH AVENUE BUS 



Routes I and 2 



EIGHTH-NINTH STREET CROSSTOWN BUS 



Route 13 



Printed by The John B. Watkins Ccj.xu'anv, New Vork 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 



Sixtieth 

Anniversary 

Jubilee 



1897-1957 



VOL • 2 ■ NO • 9 AUGUST • 1957 



THE COOPER UNION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE AND ART 

TRUSTEES 

Irving S. Olds 
Harrison Tweed 
Arthur A. Houghton, Jr. 
Frank W. Abrams 

OFFICERS 

Irving S. Olds, Chairman of Trustees 

Edwin S. Burdell, President 

John W. Graham, Jr., Vice-President 

Sheridan A. Logan, Treasurer 

Elizabeth J. Carbon, Secretary and Business Officer 



Albert S. Wright, Counsel 

MUSEUM FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

ADVISORY COUNCIL 

Richard F. Bach, Chairman 
Mrs. Neville J. Booker, Secretary 
Henry F. du Pont 
Richard C. Greenleaf 
Miss Marian Hague 
Mrs. Howard J. Sachs 
William C. Segal 

STAFF 

Calvin S. Hathaway, Director 

Richard P. Wunder, Keeper of Drawings and Prints 
Alice Baldwin Beer, Keeper of Textiles 
Jean E. Mailey, Assistant Keeper of Textiles 
Mrs. Hedy Backlin, Keeper of Deccjrative Arts 
David Johnson, Assistant in Decora I ixie Arts 
Christian Rohlfing, Acting Keeper of Exhibitions 
Mary A. Noon, Recorder 



Mary S. M. Gibson, Curator Emeritus 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 

VOL • 2 • NO • 9 AUGUST • 1957 



THE INTEREST AND ENTHUSIASM of the Museum's frieiids who 
joined in celebrating its sixtieth anniversary have determined 
the contents of the present issue of the Chronicle. The anni- 
versary exhibition. "Ends and Beginnings," is to some extent recorded 
in the newly-published picture-book, An Illustrated Survey of the 
Collections; the Anniversary Jubilee in May, attended by the largest 
audience yet to assemble at the Museum, produced a demand for a 
similar record. The Chronicle therefore prints the text of the addresses 
made at the anniversary celebration on 22nd May, 1957, in which the 
Museum's distinguished guests shared their thought and experience of 
man's perpetual aspiration toward the improvement of his surroundings. 

In publishing these addresses to a wider audience, the Museum grate- 
fully renews its thanks to these speakers, ^vhose generous participation 
in the sixtieth anniversary celebration was an indispensable element in 
its success. 

To round out the record of the anniversary, the Chronicle adds a 
backward glance, into the recent past, for the benefit of those to follow 
who may be interested in the record of the Museum's evolution. 



283 



SIX DECADES 

Remarks by Mr. Richard F. Bach 

Chairman, The Advisory Council 

Ladies and Gentlemen: Recently I was on a long-distance train, running 
parallel to a roadway, going at reduced speed because of track repairs. At an 
opening in a nice white fence, behind which there was a nice white church, 
I noticed a bulletin board; it was big enough for me to read some of its an- 
nouncements from the car window. At the top in large letters was the title 
of the next Sunday's sermon: "Do you know what Hell is?" At the bottom 
of the sign, in the same size rubber-stamped letters, was another message: 
"Come and hear our new organist." If you will accept me on the same terms, 
simply changing 'organist' to 'chairman', I will try to compete with the non- 
acoustic interior in which you sit and of which you are the victims because 
you are so numerous. (Thank goodness for that.) I am also told that a chair- 
man had better say his piece at the beginning, because there will be no chance 
at the end. 

Like so many of us, I find myself at this anniversary gathering, doing some- 
thing that I could not have foreseen, yet something that now seems most 
natural. Even before I knew this Museum, founded by the grand-daughters 
of Peter Cooper, I had the pleasure of knowing the ladies themselves. And 
so I knew how natural it was that their unusual combination of qualities — 
knowledge, taste, flair for the beautiful, zeal for the thoroughly practical — 
should have led them to add to their grandfather's educational institution 
one more very instructive division. 

From its inception this Museum, a pioneer in its field, has followed the 
paths marked out by its founders, a path included in Peter Cooper's own 
plans for this unique institution which he founded. As the grandfather 
wrote: "I desire to make this institution contribute in every way to aid the 
efforts of youth to acquire useful knowledge, to find and fill that place in the 
community where their capacity and talents can be usefully employed with 
the greatest possible advantage to themselves and to the community in which 
they live." It is also of interest to recall that in 1859, in the same Letter 
Accompanying the Trust Deed, Peter Cooper proposed to display, around 
the gallery above this Library where you sit, collections of "the works of art, 
science and nature." The balcony disappeared with the flooring-over of the 
open space of this room; and the Museum, no longer a gallery onlooker of 
the Library, stands in its own parterre. I have been told, on good authority, 
that before the view was thus interrupted a Romeo of the Library staff suc- 

284 



cessfully wooed and won a Juliet of the Museum. However, I lionestly 
believe the flooring-over was not designed primarily to set impassable ob- 
stacles in the way ot such interdivisional romance. There is still the stairway; 
the Fire Department insisted on that. 

When I spoke of thoroughly practical aims of the Museum I was thinking 
of services it offers to members of the public ^vhose interests in work or in 
study lie in the arts of design. The day has long since departed when copying 
of stylistically pure design motives could be considered adequate to meet 
the needs of contemporary society. Although refinements of classical orders 
of architecture no longer limit the design vocabulary of today's architects, it 
seems clear that design in its broad lines of developmetit today, and as already 
promised for tomorrow, finds its main hope in the harmonies of form, mass, 
line, color, that have been sung from time to time in the history of design. 

Mr. Hathaway once told me of a pleasant occasion when he was showing 
the Museimi collections to the Franco-Swiss architect Le Corbusier, then 
paying his first visit to our country. The distinguished visitor, confronted 
with a gallery in which were displayed a hundred French architectural draw- 
ings of the eighteenth century, nodded sagely, saying: "C'est bon. I am glad 
you have these drawings, for your students' sake. You know, I cut my teeth 
on such designs." Since Corbusier woidd rarely admit that he had cut his 
teeth on anything, this remark in itself was a grand admission. 

Beside this I place a statement by another gentleman, whose name and 
work you know well, namely Charles Kettering — of General Motors. He 
works w^onders in another field of design. Quite simply, and it applies here 
directly, Mr. Kettering said: "Research is a high-hat ^vord that scares a lot 
of people. It needn't; it's rather simple. Essentially, it is nothing but a state 
of mind, a friendly and welcoming attitude toward change. In the automo- 
bile industry, of all places, you don't need to emphasize change. You go out 
to look for change, instead of ivaiting for it to come. Research, for practical 
men, is an effort to do things better, and not to be caught asleep at the s^vdtch. 
The research state of mind can apply to anything: personal affairs or any 
kind of business, big or little. It is the problem-solving mind as contrasted 
with the let-well-enough-alone mind. It is the composer mind instead of the 
fiddler mind. It is the 'tomorrow' mind instead of the 'yesterday' mind." 
HoAv ^vell this fits our Museum here. 

Collections — not overwhelming in size, but collections of good work of 
the past and of the present — must remain the primary element of the Mu- 
seum's facilities. Collections need not be looked at only through plate glass; 
they can be seen close up, handled, spread out on tables and screens for close 
study. It is as a working tool that the Cooper Union Museum primarily 
functions, rather than a gallery for the casual viewer. 

285 



In this connection may I refer to statements by James Laver, in his fine 
book Taste and Fasliion, which will touch a good many of you very closely. 
While the book limits itself to costume, Mr. Laver's comments could apply 
to all other forms of design that so many of you favor and practice. He com- 
ments that the design of a costume, depending on its age — let us say, ten or 
even five years before it is actually due in the development of current design 
— might be called shameless. Next, about a year or two before it matures, the 
word will be, daring or outre. Finally it arrives at the high point where 
women will clamor for it and it will be classed as really smart. But bear in 
mind, someone had to start this sequence ten years earlier. Then, a year 
after its stagefront fashion spell, and when the magazines write it up in 
retrospect, while guessing at the future, they will describe it as dowdy. Ten 
years after, the word is ridiculous; and then twenty years later, hideous. 
Thirty years after its cue date, the comment will be: How amusing. But 
fifty years later: You know, that's really quaint. Seventy-five years later: Why, 
how charming. At the century mark: You know, that's really romantic, 
isn't it! Finally one hundred and fifty years later, it is in a museum and we 
can safely call it beautiful! 

Wasn't it beautiful all the time? Or did the viewers change too? Did it 
cease to be a document later on? It must have been a document to start with. 
These are among the things museum collections can reveal. 

You will see this evening a select exhibition that shows the kinds of 
material accumulated in the Museum's collections. You will also see the 
facilities provided for work and study by visiting consultants, whether stu- 
dents, independent designers, industrial designers, or others making prac- 
tical use — workaday, earning use — of those collections and always available 
staff services. The exhibition itself is an example of another of the Museum's 
services, its program of changing special exhibitions devoted to the presenta- 
tion of diversified themes, of media, of techniques, of chronological devel- 
opment. 

We deal here with the realization of a hope, indeed a creed, and certainly 
an achievement. This Museum has reached the age of sixty. Its usefulness 
to design and designers grows, not only as a copybook or collection of 
formulae, but rather as a source of ideas, an inspiration toward new forms, 
new uses. We may compare the collections to a spring; we know its source, 
flow, strength, and above all, its beauty; but its course and direction must be 
controlled. The spring of inspiration in the Museum's collections, however 
strong, does not wash away the sediment of history, for this is the fertilizer of 
the present in which new plants of the imagination may grow for the future 
to enjoy. There is no final stopping-point; there are a few express stations 
but there are many more local stopovers in this development. 

286 



If I tell you thin«s you already know, and certainly you do know them, I 
need not ask you to forgi\e me. We are together here in a common cause. 
You will agree also, I am sure, that an anniversary is a time to review past 
and present achievements as a basis for forecasting others now taking shape. 
Everyone wants to kno^v what comes next; and it is frequently possible to 
ventiue a shre^vd guess about the coming developments when one knows a 
little of those that have already taken place. 

The situation of this Museum has steadily improved since that day, sixty 
years ago, Avhen it occupied a small portion of the fourth floor above us here. 
Enlarged facilities have permitted it to serve a steadily increasing range of 
designers, students and members of the public. There remain, to be sure, 
large segments of our potential audience that we have not yet discovered, 
or who have not of themselves become aware that museums are as useful and 
as directly usable as libraries. Our recent successes through special exhibi- 
tions, no less than through the good report of the growing number of those 
who find oiu" collections and services valuable in their daily activities, en- 
courages a belief that the panorama of design available in this informal and 
close-knit Museum has yet to find its full measure of usefulness. 

Until a free society is replaced by an aggregation of consumers whose pur- 
chasing po^ver is channelled in obedience to rules of artificial obsolescence, 
initil seasonal Avhim replaces studied design, until mankind is no longer 
sensitive to the essential qualities of form and all the subtle and delightful 
variations of shape and color that are a joy to eye and mind — until this 
happens, we may readily predict that a museum devoted to elucidation of 
these qualities and these values will always find plenty to do, and ^vill con- 
tinue to find such friends as you, in this audience, to lend your help and 
encouragement. 

We come no^v to the real w^eight of our program, and as two foundation 
stones for this I would mention tw^o quotations from old friends of mine: 
Schiller and Emerson. "The artist," says Schiller, "is the son of his time, but 
pity him if he is its pupil or even its favorite." Think that over; it might 
well be lettered on the walls of this Museum. And Emerson says: "We cannot 
overstate our debt to the past, but the moment has the supreme claim. The 
past is for us, but the sole terms on which it can become ours are in subordi- 
nation to the present. Only an inventor knows how to borrow, and every 
man is, or should be, an inventor. The divine gift is ever the instant life 
w^hich receives, and uses, and creates, and can well bury the old in the om- 
nipotency Avith w^hich Nature decomposes all her harvest for recomposition." 
These are potent thoughts for all who love the arts of design. 



287 



THE MUSEUM AND THE COMMUNITY 

An Address by Mr. August Heckscher 

Director, The Tiueyitieth Century Fund 

Mr. Bach, Mr. Hathaway, Mr. Houghton, Friends of The Cooper Union 
and the Cooper Union Museum: May I say first of all what a pleasure it is 
to have been invited to participate in the celebration of this anniversary 
tonight? A sixtieth anniversary is, from every point of view, a delightful one 
to take part in and to mark — a long enough period of time in human exist- 
ence, full of incident and memorable events, and yet not so awe-inspiring, 
you will observe, as to reduce your speakers to silence. 

I was reading the other day in a fine book which has just been published, 
setting forth the conservation activities of John D. Rockefeller, Jr., the de- 
scription of some of the old redwoods; and I was reminded how these great 
trees have carried right down to their death the marks of droughts and tem- 
pests that fell upon the land thousands — yes, actually thousands — of years 
ago, before even the Indians, so far as we know, roamed our western forests. 
It seems that one of these trees, which time and scars brought low at the 
opening of the First World War, had actually been a sapling when Justinian 
II ruled the Roman Empire. It had been a young tree, as such trees grow, 
when the Normans invaded England. It had been at the height of its power 
when Columbus discovered America; and finally sank into its stalwart old 
age as our own Civil War was fought. 

What sombre thoughts on human life and destiny could be stirred by such 
an existence, such a duration, as that! But here, by contrast, we have an 
institution of which people now living can remember the earliest days. There 
are persons in this room who knew the two Miss Hewitts; who knew, I sup- 
pose, Mr. Abram Hewitt, their father. They can look back over the years and 
fill the time between with familiar faces and familiar voices. You can cele- 
brate an event such as this as you would that of a still youthful friend, look- 
ing forward to many hopeful and profitable birthdays to come. 

It is indeed my function, being connected as I am with the Twentieth 
Century Fund, to look somewhat forward, to see this Museum in the light 
of the contemporary world and the world that is soon to develop. Yet I 
think it is worth while to note that from the beginning this Cooper Union 
Museum had been known as a modern museum; it prided itself in being part 
of the contemporaneous time, part of the present and indeed part of the 
unfolding future. Reading the original description which Peter Cooper 
made in that extraordinary letter which accompanied his Deed of Trust, one 

288 



is struck, it is true, by the somewhat old-fashioned air in wliich he laid out 
the plan of the Museum, saying that there should be books here and paint- 
ings there, and that upstairs in the windows there should be cosmoramas for 
those who ^vere not able to travel around the world. Peter Cooper's imme- 
diate aim for the Museum was not, however, fulfilled. It was some years later 
that his granddaughters, the two Hewitt girls, started the work. Much had 
happened by that time; and the granddaughters could claim proudly that 
they were in fact founding a "modern museum." 

By the end of the nineteenth century, there was a wide confusion of taste; 
there Avas an awkwardness about many of the things of daily life. The Crystal 
Palace, the great exhibit which had inspired Abram tiewitt in the beginning, 
had dissipated its influence. A few craftsmen like William Morris had of 
course brought forth things that were supremely beautiful; but for the most 
part the objects of that day, the possessions that aspired to be beautiful, 
succeeded merely in being self-conscious and "arty." The craftsman, one 
might say, was undisciplined, and the machine was uncontrolled. In 1903, 
a few years after the founding of this Museum, the famous critic, Arthur 
Symons, was visiting the seventh exhibition at the New Gallery in London. 
That was an exhibit, I suppose, comparable to the "Good Design" which our 
sister institution, the Museum of Modern Art, puts on from time to time 
uptown. Arthur Symons was shocked by what he saw there. "My eye," he 
said, "was distracted by a mingling of what was tawdry with what was trivial 
. . . Everything was dead, and had a dull glitter, like the scales of a dead fish. 
Human figures, grimacing in an unearthly way, stared at me from the walls 
. . . Spiders' webs, and chains in which finikin stones were meshed, trailed 
across the interior of glass cases among spectral rings and lurid enamels. I 
was in the midst of a tangle of crawling and stunted and desperately self- 
assertive things." 

That was the atmosphere of the period. One thinks, too, of Miss Eleanor 
Hewitt, in that fascinating paper which she delivered in 1919 before the 
Wednesday Afternoon Club here in New York, describing the level of artistry 
which prevailed at the time of their establishment of this Museum. She 
describes "an appalling mechanical exhibit" at the American Institute on 
Third Avenue at 63rd Street where art, she says, was represented by a female 
figure modelled in butter by a woman sculptress. I don't know exactly why 
the fact that it had been modelled by a woman sculptress should have so 
dismayed her. I think a female form modelled in butter by a man sculptor 
would have been almost as bad. 

Well it was, ladies and gentlemen, at such a moment that the tAvo Hewitt 
sisters started their collection of things which were to grow into this Museum: 
objects, as they conceived them, which had attained beauty and use together. 

289 



They were objects, in Arthur Symons's phrase, which give us a sense of satis- 
faction because they have in them "a quiet, undef eatable existence as beau- 
tiful things, made for use and perfectly adapted to their use, but with that 
beauty which is as a sort of soul in the body." 

Later this evening, when we go upstairs, we will find objects in the collec- 
tion which conform to the description — things which have an undefeatable 
existence, that have a beauty as a sort of soul in the body. 

Now why was it that these two Hewitt sisters, who started a museum where 
the collections were supposed to end in the early nineteenth century, why 
was it that they gave to it the name and the description of a "modern mu- 
seum?" Well, first of all, it was modern in the sense that it was a museum 
related to the community and serving the community, not only related to 
this area of the city where we are, but to the wider contemporaneous com- 
munity, composed of all seekers of beauty, all faithful workers in good taste. 
Looking back across the history of museums we realize that they had their 
beginnings in the fifteenth century, an age like our own which saw the im- 
mense expansion of knowledge. Civilization had come suddenly upon two 
great discoveries, one in space and one in time: the discovery of this new 
world, America, on the one hand; the discovery of classical Greece and Rome 
on the other. It was then that the great collections started, that the museums 
as we know them had their birth. 

But it is worth remembering that the museum in its origin was an aristo- 
cratic institution. The collections were made by the great and wealthy men 
of their time; they were the amusements of princes and the delights of peers. 
It was only the slow history of museums — like the slow history, for that 
matter, of every other institution in modern life — which saw them gradually 
democratized and brought into the service of the community as a whole. 
Now it was very definitely the idea of the Hewitt sisters that this Museum, 
in particular, should serve the community. They complained because other 
museums allowed only short hours when people could actually look at the 
collections. They complained because people had very often to go through 
elaborate ceremonies in order to have permission to enter into the museum 
and view its contents; even then they weren't able to handle them and to 
see them at first hand. So they wanted this to be the kind of museum which 
was open to students, which contributed to the enlightenment of a wide pub- 
lic, and lifted the whole level of popular taste. 

The Museum was not only modern in that sense. It was modern also in 
its concept of the relationship between art and industry. Mr. Houghton, 
who is himself a supreme exemplar of the ability in our modern life to relate 
these two forces, art and industry, is going to talk presently and will have 
much more to say than I would possibly aspire to on this subject. Yet it 

290 



seems worth while to recall that Peter Cooper in starting this institution 
prided himself on being known as "a mechanic of New York." His two 
granddaughters, in founding the Museum, said that they hoped to be remem- 
bered as "hereditary workers in the same tradition." They felt from the 
start that mechanics and beauty were not necessarily divorced and incom- 
patible. The machine, as they conceived it, was not hostile to taste and 
excellence. In every age, men had had to make designs conform to the limita- 
tions of material, had to draw inspiration from the processes of workmanship 
and the techniques of manufacturing existing in their time. 

Spending some time amid the collections here, one can see that if they 
were not imaginatively and creatively displayed and handled, they could 
seem merely an assortment of more or less obsolete things. You may remem- 
ber Charles Lamb, when it was complained that his writing wasn't sufficiently 
in the style of the day, saying "Hang the age!" (And one can imagine that 
inimitable stutter.) "Ha-hang the age! I shall write for antiquity." It seems 
that many museimr collectors, too, collect for antiquity; but the things which 
have been gathered here are animated by a different idea. The collections, 
as I understand them, are not to be studied merely as models; they have their 
own beauty yet are not to be slavishly copied. It is rather the way the old 
masters have solved their probleins, the way they drew beauty from need, 
which provides the enduring lesson to those who come today to witness and 
watch. 

Now it seems to me that this second lesson of the Museum, this relation- 
ship between the machine and art, is one that we have basically understood 
and to a very considerable degree mastered in our own time. All around us 
we see superb examples of machine-made beauty, beauty, to go back to 
Arthur Symons, not of artificial decoration, but beauty as a sort of soul in 
the body. We see it in our modern architecture, in our glassware, in the 
simple utensils of everyday living, in our textiles. Yet there are tendencies 
in our modern age which tend to falsify and to betray this promise which the 
machine stands ready to fidfilL We find in the present day that 'we can manu- 
facture simple, inexpensive, well-designed things; and Avhat do we do? We 
make them, too often, falsely different, and sentimentally ornate, and snob- 
bishly elaborate. The machine can create beauty; but the question we need 
to ask ourselves is whether we have created a society which consistently and 
steadily seeks beauty. 

Our society, it seems to me, wants and seeks instead the kind of car that 
will be different from last year's model at any price, and, if possible, longer 
and brighter; it wants household furniture and appliances that will match 
the advertisements, while the advertisements try to persuade us that last 
year's masterpiece has become this year's monstrosity. "Will you love me in 

291 



October as you do in May," the old song went, as I remember it; to which 
the modern consumer, under the compulsion of hidden persuaders, answers, 
"Certainly not." 

There are, ladies and gentlemen, two ways of looking at things, of looking 
at possessions, and each of them has had a tradition and a life in this coun- 
try's history. There have been those, embodying the ideas of the older world, 
who see possessions as ends in themselves, as things of beauty which are exten- 
sions of the inner personality, which reflect and enhance the individual who 
owns them. And then there is that other tradition, represented in America 
by the frontiersman, by those who exploited and settled this great continent. 
They looked upon things almost as enemies — to be subjugated and domi- 
nated and thrown away. It was a tradition which measured a man by the 
magnitude of the objects which he had overcome and laid low. 

Each of these traditions obviously has its dangers and its shortcomings. 
The old-world idea of looking at one's possessions as being somehow a part 
of oneself led too easily to covetousness and to materialism. The western 
frontier tradition tended to encourage the prodigality, the fearful wasteful- 
ness which we find running like a dark streak through the American story; 
and yet it did have at its best, also, it seems to me, a kind of fine unworldly 
disdain, as men pushed forward and let inanimate objects fall in front of them. 

I say there is something in favor of each of these traditions; but what is in 
favor of this new way of dealing with things — valuing them not for their own 
sake, but valuing them because of the place which they give us in society, 
owning them and yet not owning them, acquiring them without joy today 
and disposing of them without love tomorrow? All of us are under the com- 
pulsion to consume and to consume; men buy a new car, for example, less 
because they really need it than because they think that if they don't buy it 
they somehow are going to be left behind. On a somewhat higher level they 
engage in what you might call the yearly ritual of the trade-in, in order to 
keep this whole economic system of ours going and to save it from slowing 
down. 

This built-in obsolescence, this deliberately contrived impermanence, is 
it not, you may ask, a part of fashion — that fashion which Mr. Bach has just 
now described so eloquently and so wittily? Have not men and women always 
sought rapid change, and have they not loved the ephemeral and the mildly 
eccentric? Well, it seems to me that fashion has served a real purpose in 
societies marked by classes and by hierarchies. You can discern a continuous 
process, with the upper classes, in order to set themselves apart from the rest 
of society, reaching out toward some new way of dressing, some new way of 
furnishing their houses. Meanwhile, the lower classes have tried to imitate 
them, rising ever upward. To the extent that they have succeeded, the upper 

292 



classes have had to go and devise something else that was more quixotic and 
more strange. 

Now all of this was a game which was not only harmless, but which actually 
produced the kind ot charming diversity which is illustrated in the collections 
of this Museum. Yet America, I would remind you, is not a society of classes. 
The processes by which a small group sets itself apart have no comparable 
meaning here. Instead of fashions we are more likely to have fads; and these 
do not evolve organically out of a small group, out of an elite which has a 
tradition of taste and an understanding of excellence. These fads tend, 
rather, to be imposed by the so-called taste-makers, by market researchers, by 
the public relations men. 

I spoke just now of "hidden persuaders." Some of you may have read the 
book of that title, which is a description of the research which has been going 
on to find out how the consumer can be influenced without his being aware 
of it, how the message of the public relations man can pass into the subcon- 
scious wathout actually going through the consciotis mind at all -- how the 
housewife, for example, can be put into a kind of trance, so that she will be 
more susceptible in the supermarket to "impulse buying." And all this, I 
might remind you, does not end with the consumer. It extends, inevitably, 
into the field of politics, where a free and sovereign mind has up until now- 
been the basis of every valid philosophy of democracy. 

We are, I think, in an age which can well be called the Age of Leisure. 
Individuals will surely agree with that description, though each may perhaps 
say: "Where is my leisure?" The housewife asks, where is her leisure, and 
the doctor asks where is his? My three boys complain they have to work all 
the time. Yet if you look aroiuid you realize, I think, that free time has been 
offered to our society, not only in the working day but in the whole life span, 
with people entering later into the working force, retiring sooner and living 
longer — that free time has been offered to us in an abundance which no 
advanced society has ever before dreamed of. Now this very leisure, it seems 
to me, is one of the forces which is contributing to the tendency to judge 
things not by their intrinsic beauty, to design them not with an eye to their 
natural fitness, but to see them rather as badges of belonging, as symbols of 
acceptance, which somehow mark our place in society and give us a kind of 
security which otherwise we could not have. 

The values of our society are changing. The job that a man has seems less 
and less to be the thing which gives him his secure place, from which he 
derives his deeper satisfactions. He begins to seek those satisfactions, and that 
sense of being one with the group where he feels at home, through what he 
does in his leisure time — through the clothes he wears, through the kind of 
car that he drives, through all the superficial manifestations of his life. The 

293 



groups to which men and women are seeking somewhat desperately, some- 
what pathetically, to find an entrance are not the settled, traditional guilds 
and classes of older societies. They are groups which might be described as 
deciduous; they are continually losing their members like leaves, and con- 
tinually shifting amid the complexity and the diversity of American life. The 
passion to belong has left a kind of nervousness, a sort of apprehension, which 
reveals itself in people of uneasy spirits, and in products which are as bizarrely 
designed as some of our modern automobiles. 

And so, my friends, I come back to this Museum: small it may seem, but it 
is an affirmation, nevertheless, of the will to see beauty in things for their 
own sake, not bowing down to them as idols, but recognizing that every work 
which makes creative use of its materials, fitting itself imaginatively to the 
living needs of men and women, is in itself an expression of the spirit. It is 
not in conflict with the human quality, but it supplements and fulfills it. 
Here is assembled the evidence of what good workmen have done in their 
time. In that example shall we not, during the years and the decades ahead, 
find the inspiration that can keep us sane, and enable us to attain the promise 
of our civilization — the magnificent promise which we have made before the 
world and which we dare not now betray! 



294 



THE FUNCTION OF MUSEUMS IN 
IMPROVING MAN'S ENVIRONMENT 

An Address by Mr. Arthur A. Houghton, Jr. 

Trustee, The Cooper Union 

President, Steuben Glass, Inc. 

Mr. Bach and Mr. Hecksclier, friends of Cooper Union: In a few minutes 
you will go upstairs to the Museum of The Cooper Union, to see a display 
of its material that has been arranged for this sixtieth anniversary. I shall try 
not to delay you too long. 

The Cooper Union Museum, and the other museums of our country, serve 
two great and yet not entirely unrelated purposes: to uplift, and to educate. 
Their collections can be used both for the purposes of personal, spiritual 
satisfaction, and for research to help inspire better design. It is of this latter 
purpose that I should like to speak. 

The existence of museums could be fully justified were they to serve no 
purpose other than to afford us the joy and happiness and spiritual refresh- 
ment that we get from viewing their collections and their exhibitions. It is 
interesting to note that the increase in the amount of leisure time that has 
come to people through the shortening of the working week is not entirely 
spent in front of television sets, but is reflected in the greater public attend- 
ance at museums and art exhibitions. We can look at the records of such 
institutions as the Metropolitan Museum, the attendance at which has not 
only doubled but tripled and quadrupled in the last ten or fifteen years. And 
behind the scenes is operating an even more important function: the use of 
the museums by students and scholars and designers, by those people who 
design the visual aspects of our environment. 

Since the Industrial Revolution, which began only a little over a century 
and a half ago, we have become a new society. The preponderance of our 
people live in cities, or in the vast suburban developments that surround 
them. In this metropolitan environment almost every object within our vicAv 
was made by man. There are very few objects of nature — the floAvers in 
florists' windoAvs, and the trees and grass in the parks. Everything else that 
we see was made by man himself: buildings and their furnishings, the paving 
of streets, cables and conduits under the streets, automobiles, clothes, ma- 
chines that do our work. Wherever we go we are surrounded by objects of 
our OAvn creation. 

Now in every object made by man there is present one, or both of two 
elements: the element of utility, to fulfill some need that man has; or the 

295 



element of satisfaction, to give him a spiritual happiness; or a combination 
of both these elements. A clear example of the utilitarian element is ma- 
chines and machine parts; we do not care how they look as long as they work. 
For our spiritual satisfaction we have the fine arts; in many ways useless, yet 
they give us much-needed spiritual satisfaction. But most articles that sur- 
round us, and most articles that we come in contact with in our homes and 
our lives, combine the attributes of both utility and satisfaction. 

Now design, in my sense of the word, does not concern itself with the mak- 
ing of objects which contain only the element of utility (that is the job of the 
engineer); nor with objects which contain only the element of satisfaction 
(that is the job of the artist). But design, our industrial design, is concerned 
exclusively with the making of those objects which contain both elements. 
It is neither science nor art, but a combination of the two. It is a new study 
and technique which make it possible for modern industry to supply with 
its products the combined needs and desires of man. 

We must recognize the fact that no longer does the individual man, nor 
the individual household, make the goods and products that it uses. The 
craftsman, with rare exceptions, has completely disappeared. Our fore- 
fathers knew how to use hammers and saws; they could make tables, stools, 
simple furniture; they could build their own houses; they could weave simple 
fabrics. We do not know how to do such things. (I even understand that 
there was a time when ladies made their own dresses and their own hats!) 
Our environment today is a composite of articles that are made by industry; 
and we as individuals play no part in designing those objects. That is en- 
trusted to others. All we can do is to select those, provided that they give us 
the utility we want, that appeal to us most or, in many instances, are the least 
repulsive in appearance. We are dependent upon the maker and on his 
designers. We are surrounded by an environment that is mediocre. That is 
all it is or can be, because by definition the mediocre is the medium or mid- 
dle of the range of taste. It is what the average person appreciates and wants. 
There is no reason however to be discouraged. It is possible to elevate the 
whole ranoe of taste, so that the mediocre of the future will be at least the 
equivalent of the best today. 

I am not trying to be idealistic or impractical, as I sincerely believe that 
the standard of taste is beginning to move upward. It is here that the mu- 
seum is playing the important and vital role. In its collections and traditional 
exhibitions a museum can present examples of the best design of the past. 
In its current exhibitions it can present the best of the present. These ex- 
amples are shown to millions of visitors, and are taken to tens of millions of 
other people through photographic reproductions in the great periodicals. 
By these exhibitions, directly and indirectly, the museum helps establish 

296 



standards of taste of the highest quality. It encourages individuals to select 
goods and articles that are in good taste. It creates a demand for better design 
in our industrial society. As this demand increases, industry finds that good 
design is good business. Independent industrial design is already a flourish- 
ing profession, and with increasing rapidity the larger corporations, and the 
more enlightened ones, are employing trained designers and setting up their 
own design departments. 

And where are these designers trained? At Cooper Union and its great 
sister institutions, such as Pratt Institute, Parsons School of Design, Rhode 
Island School of Design, the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. They are trained 
in the design courses that are being added to the curricula of the leading 
schools and colleges throughout the country. What is their training? Basi- 
cally it has two parts. One is the technique of design: how to use the pencil, 
how to use the brush, how to use color; how to use the tools of the profession 
of designing. The second part is the history of design, ancient and modern. 
For that the great reference material is in the research collections of the 
museums and in the libraries of the museums. The students combine their 
techniques with this knowledge of history until finally they are able to do 
original creative work. In other words, we are not asking them to copy old 
design, but simply to understand it, so that they are based in the history and 
tradition of great design. Then, with the knowledge of technique, and the 
knowledge of history and tradition, they are free to do the best of modern 
creative desion. 

During their work in the design schools, and later when they become asso- 
ciated with industry, the designers are introduced to, and become thoroughly 
acquainted with, the materials in Avhich they will be working and the tools 
and processes which form and produce the products. The education of the 
designer can never stop. He must constantly, as a private individual, refresh 
his soul and re-examine his standards by returning to the museum and to its 
exhibitions. He must constantly, as a professional, do specialized design 
research by resorting to the museum and to its reference collections. The 
full hope for the better physical environment of mankind — because we are 
living in a man-made environment — rests in two related places: in the scien- 
tific laboratories, to develop better materials and processes and products; and 
in the design schools and museums, to educate the public, to educate the 
design student and to serve the professional designer Avith the vast repository 
of visual reference material. 

Why a better designed environment? Man is a combination of the beast 
and the angel, and the whole history of the struggle of civilization is the effort 
of man to lift himself from the beast and bring out his noble nature. It is 
Avithin our own choice, and our power, as to whether we shall be content to 

297 



reside in a visual limbo, or to work toward an environment that is worthy of 
our higher selves. I hope that we shall come to realize that our museums are 
not mere collections of beautiful objects, but are powerful sources for a better 
life. Let us support them, in every sense of the word, to bring about an in- 
crease in our individual personal happiness and a betterment of the visual 
environment which surrounds us. 



298 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE MUSEUM, 1937-1957 



Tlie observance of an anniversary provides a most compelling opportunity 
for addressing thanks to one's forbears and one's fellow workers, without 
whom there would after all be nothing to celebrate. This sixtieth anniversary 
of the formal opening of the Cooper Union Museum is a particularly pleasant 
moment, for it provides an occasion for reviewing successful accomplishment 
and forecasting future measures of productive action. Twenty years ago, 
picking up the thread of the narrative at the point to which it had been car- 
ried in 1919 by Miss Eleanor Garnier Hewitt,^ the Chronicle reported ^ on 
the Museum's history during the years from 1919 to 1937; and now is offered 
another chapter of the unfolding story. 

While collections form the cornerstone of every museum, it is only by the 
use made of the collections that the success of a museum may be gauged. The 
past two decades, which have brought increased resources of staff and funds, 
have provided the Museum with many advantageous openings for the more 
vigorous exploitation of its possessions. The most conspicuous development 
has taken place in the program of temporary exhibitions. 

Aided by the creation, in 1938, of facilities specifically designed for the 
purpose, the Museum has maintained a continuing series of special exhibi- 
tions in which have been analyzed and displayed a rewarding variety of 
techniques and media. These exhibitions have been based in large part on 
material in the Museum's possession, reenforced with loans from generous 
collectors, museums, and the designers and producers of our own day. The 
first of the series. Baked Clay in the Service of Man, stands out in memory 
alike as an effective trail-blazer and as an element in the festivities accom- 
panying the installation, in 1938, of the present President, Dr. Edwin Sharp 
Burdell, the first administrative head to preside over all of the educational 
program of The Cooper Union. 

Wallpaper was next treated, and then malleable metals; and the theme of 
"shells and decoration" was explored. The arrival of war, and consequent 
depletion of staff, required the suspension of large exhibitions, and the pro- 
gram was resumed only in 1947 with a show of embroidery. In the following 
year the major show, of contemporary glass, provided a revelation of beauty 
in subject and in display technique. And then the fitting-out of the 18th- 
century marionette theatre was the occasion for a display of puppets and 
marionettes. This exhibition was especially memorable for the series of per- 
formances on the marionette stage, which attracted and delighted audiences 
to the limit of the Museum's seating capacity. 

299 



Next, in the spring of 1950, was offered one of the most delightful of the 
series. "All That Glisters" presented objects of golden and glittering surface, 
whether woven with metallic threads in the tenth century or with the latest 
shining plastic fibers of the mid-twentieth, gilded by the ancient Egyptian 
metal-worker or by the leather-worker of today. 

In the years immediately following, leather, masks, lacquer, and men's 
waistcoats were presented successively, each accompanied by interpretive 
catalogues that rank among the best of the Museum's publications; and in the 
spring of 1954 was held the most imposing show of this sequence, that of 
enamel from its earliest days to the present. 

A year ago was presented the largest exhibition yet organized by the Mu- 
seum. "Design by the Yard," in which for the first time in this country was 
traced the development of textile printing over eleven centuries. More than 
half of the exhibit was devoted to contemporary textiles printed for furnish- 
ings or apparel; and the high quality of the material shown was gratifying 
evidence of American leadership in this field. 

For each of the larger exhibitions just reviewed the Museum has also 
organized three or four exhibitions of smaller scope; some have been under- 
taken in collaboration with instructors of the Cooper Union Art School, and 
others, of more generalized interest, have been circulated afterward through- 
out the United States. On two or three occasions, travellino: exhibitions 
assembled in Europe for the American circuit have provided further means 
of developing themes related to the Museum's collections; and the last three 
seasons have seen a valuable further enlargement of the exhibitions program 
through displays organized in the Museum by cooperating groups of crafts- 
men: The New York Society of Ceramic Arts, The New York Guild of Hand- 
weavers and the New York Society of Craftsmen. 

In addition to the growing range of subject-matter published in exhibition 
catalogues, the Museum has presented studies and surveys of its various col- 
lections in the Chronicle during these two decades, thus making significant 
data available to professional, industrial and educational consultants, and to 
inquirers from a distance. The Museum has extended its audience by other 
means, through a notable increase in loans of its possessions to exhibitions 
organized by outside agencies and through the preparation of travelling exhi- 
bitions: four of these are currently circulated by the School-Museum Program 
of the New York City Board of Education, while others have toured the 
United States, for varying lengths of time, under the auspices of the American 
Federation of Arts and of the Smithsonian Institution. Participation in trade 
shows — textile trades, home furnishino^s and even the flower show — has 
resulted in an increased awareness of the Museum's services, and has attracted 
an increased use of its facilities. Displays in its own show window, and in 

300 



those of friendly business firms, have further extended the Museum's 
audience. 

With the development of program through special exhibitions, the per- 
manent displays of the Museum have not remained static. The rate of regen- 
eration of installation has been somewhat slower than the seven-year cycle of 
renewal of the human body; but these two decades have witnessed a complete 
reinstallation of the Museum's display space, and a complete revision of light- 
ing. T^vo departmental study rooms, for textiles and for drawings and prints, 
have been created through the acquisition of equipment specifically designed 
to meet Museum needs, and display facilities have likewise been improved 
by the provision of new display units for wallpaper, ceramics and glass, lace, 
and textiles. Cataloguing of the collections, inaugurated shortly before the 
fortieth anniversary of the Museum, has continued steadily, so that seven- 
tenths of the collections have received curatorial study, and more than half 
of the Museum's objects are now recorded on cards in the catalogue that has 
been designed for public consultation. 

For dissemination of information, however, the Museum has not limited 
itself to the written — or typewritten — word. Lectures have been offered 
more frequently than was possible in earlier years; film programs have sup- 
plemented gallery talks; and "live performances" have been introduced 
through the demonstration of a variety of craft techniques. It has occasion- 
ally been possible, also, in recent years, to present Museum material in tele- 
vision broadcasts. 

While these developments in program have been brought about, the col- 
lections that support them have likewise improved. During these past twenty 
years the number of objects in the Museum's collections has more than 
doubled — 80,000, as against 35,000 in 1937 — and their range has been 
strengthened and enriched. The majority of these acquisitions have been 
added through purchase, primarily with funds contributed by the Friends of 
the Museum. In 1938, for example, more than 8,000 drawings formerly part 
of the Piancastelli Collection (from which the Museum had acquired nearly 
4,000 drawings in 1901) were purchased from the late Mrs. Edward D. Bran- 
degee, of Boston, under most favorable terms. Again in 1948 a helpful owner 
permitted the Museum to select, from a much larger and mixed aggregation 
of drawings, several hundred designs, largely by Frederick Crace (1779-1859), 
for interiors of the Prince Regent's Royal Pavilion in Brighton. Earlier in 
the present year another fortunate purchase added to the collection of origi- 
nal designs over two hundred, in color, for textiles printed around 1800 by 
the Genevese firm of Fazy; this was a turning-point in the development of 
textile printing, and the designs are of great value alike for their high quality 
and for their amplification of the Museum's collection of such material. 

301 



Other drawings and designs acquired during these twenty years came in 
1938 from the collection of Sarah Cooper Hewitt by bequest of her brother, 
Erskine Hewitt; and from the same source was received a quantity of prints, 
extending the existing representation of stage design and of decoration and 
ornament. 

In the same year, the publication of a catalogue of wallpapers was a most 
productive reminder of the Museum's service in this field. Several friends 
responded at once with gifts of collections of paper salvaged from old houses, 
and the preeminence of the Museum's reference collection of wallpapers 
continues to be maintained through such support from American and Euro- 
pean sources. Besides gift and purchase, exchanges have helped in obtaining 
from other museums old wallpapers that are not likely to be procurable in 
any other way. 

Collectors in other fields have been equally generous, providing the Mu- 
seum with some of the finest acquisitions of these two decades. The late Mrs. 
Morris Hawkes in 1945 gave a number of pieces of lace from her collections; 
Mrs. George Nichols had already given, several years earlier, a group of 
handsome examples of lace from the collection of her mother, Mrs. John 
Pierpont Morgan; further examples, from the collection of Mrs. Robert B. 
Noyes, were given by Mr. and Mrs. R. Keith Kane; and more recently Richard 
C. Greenleaf has given, in memory of his mother, Adeline Emma Greenleaf, 
a large collection of extraordinarily handsome laces of the great days of 
French lace-making. 

The textile collection has likewise developed during these twenty years. 
One of the larger groups received is the series of samples of silks woven in 
Lyon for the American market at the order, and frequently from the designs, 
of the late Herman A. Elsberg; these provide a fine chart to the currents of 
design just before and just after the First World War. Another movement 
of textile history is represented in the group of printed textiles, largely 
French, of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, given by the firm of W. and 
J. Sloane; and a series of gifts of contemporary printed textiles, mostly 
American, has been greatly appreciated. 

The purchase of individual pieces of textile fabrics has added elements of 
distinction to the existing representation of textile history past and in the 
making. Many of these have appeared in earlier issues of the Chronicle; and 
if one example were to be mentioned again here, as exemplifying the quality 
and importance of objects sought now for the Museum's collections, it would 
be the delightful late classical silk band which depicts men gathering grapes.^ 

Embroidery is now represented in the collections more strongly than it was 
in 1937. The collection of European and American samplers formed by Mrs. 
Henry E. Coe came by bequest in 1941; and a series of purchases has added 

302 



first-rate examples of Chinese, Indian and European eml)roideries, many ot' 
whicli are of types previously lacking. Another category scantily represented, 
that of Greek Island embroideries, was strengthened through the gift by the 
Provident Securities Company of textiles collected by the late Mr. and Mrs. 
William H. Crocker, of Burlingame, California. 

The ceramics collection of the Museum, besides receiving significant en- 
richment through the purchase of early Meissen pieces and contemporary 
American stoneware, has benefited during the past season from the great 
generosity with which Judge Irwin Untermyer gave, from his own collection, 
twelve Chelsea porcelain plates with "Hans Sloane" botanical decoration. 
Judge Untermyer has provided key pieces to other collections: a Queen Anne 
silver kettle on stand, a William and Mary armchair upholstered in needle- 
point, a pair of English crystal glass girandoles; all of these are of highest 
quality, and superior to anything of their kinds previously in the Museum's 
possession. 

The Illustrated Survey of the collections, an anniversary publication, illus- 
trates the silver kettle given by Judge Untermyer, as \^ell as several of the 
objects given in recent years by an exceptionally generous donor who prefers 
to remain unidentified. To this benefactor are due thanks for the Rontgen 
table and the Ballin candelbrum shown in the picture book, and for an 
infinite variety of other objects: furniture, ceramics, glass, metalwork, tex- 
tiles, embroidery, and a fine representation of jewelry of the late 19th and 
early 20th centuries. 

Another generous donor of recent years, though no longer within range of 
the Museum's gratitude, the late Leo Wallerstein, had presented to the 
Museum a collection of engravings and etchings otherwise unattainable. 
Engravings by Diirer and Altdorfer, Hans Sebald Beham and Israhel van 
Meckenem, woodcuts by Diirer, etchings by Rembrandt, all of excellent 
quality and condition, composed the bulk of Mr. Wallerstein's collections. 
The gift of Mr. and Mrs. Wallerstein has greatly increased the strength of the 
Museum's print collection. 

These two decades, then, which have so changed the world around us, have 
also seen striking changes within the Cooper Union Museum: expansion and 
enrichment of collections, improvement of space, enlargement in sphere of 
activities, increase in services, clarification of objectives and strengthening of 
purpose. 

There can be no doubt that the future will bring even greater changes in the 
setting of man's daily life, toward the improvement of which the Museum's 
effort is aimed; and formulation of plans for further development of the 
Museum must obviously take into account these changes — so far as they can 
be foreseen. Besides maintaining collections representative of the good design 

303 



of today, yesterday and the day before that, a teaching and working organism 
such as the Cooper Union Museum should develop displays illustrative of 
the elements of design — form, color, texture, spatial relationships, illumi- 
nation. These concepts, sometimes difficult to convey even experimentally in 
classroom and laboratory, still seem imperfectly understood by designers and 
producers of much that is offered in today's market. They are all aspects of 
that elusive ideal, quality, recognition of which is often described under the 
indefinable term, taste. 

In the exposition and explanation of these fundamentals of design, and 
only in such interpretation, the Museum may hope to draw together the 
various strands of art-historical investigation, sociological lore, craft and 
mechanical techniques, skill in pattern designing; and through the alliance 
of these forces create a needed educational tool unlike any now in existence. 

CALVIN S. HATHAWAY 



NOTES: 

1 Hewitt, Eleanor G. The Making of a Modem Museum, New York, 1919, The Wednesday After- 
noon Club. 

2 Chronicle, Vol. 1, No. 3, April 1937, p. 83-89. 

3 Chronicle, Vol. 2, No. 6, June 1954, p. [183]. 

304 



DONORS OF WORKS OF ART, 1956 



Lewis Gieenleaf Adams 

Anonymous 

Anonymous, in memory of Carolyn Smith 

Schneider 
Mrs. F. Huntington Babcock. 
Mrs. Hedy BackHn 
Harold Bailey 
Mrs. James D. Ball 
Miss Clare L. Beckwith 
Miss Alice Baldwin Beer 
Brunschwig & Fils 
Mrs. Charles Butler 
Cheney, Greeff and Co., Inc. 
Arundell Clarke 
Miss Kathleen Comegys 
Mrs. Alice Lewisohn Crowley 
Mrs. Imogene Cunningham 
Mrs. C. Suydam Cutting 
Elisabeth Draper, Inc. 
J. Forg (Balatum A G) 
Miss Estelle Frankfurter 
Fuller Fabrics Corporation 
Funck and Carlsson Tapetaffiir 
Miss Noma Geist 
Mrs. Benjamin Ginsburg 
Mrs. Alice Glick 
Richard C. Greenleaf 
Mrs. William Greenough 
Mme. Hector Guimard 
Dr. Ernest Harms 
Miss Helen A. Haselton 
Mrs. Edmund Haydock 
Mr. and Mrs. Cedric R. Head 
Walter Hochstadter 
Mrs. John Herre 
Josephine Howell, Inc. 
Mrs. William H. Jackson 
Mrs. Ellen Gustav Jensen 
Kagan-Dreyfuss, Inc. 
Katzenbach and Warren, Inc. 
Charles V. Kenison 
Miss Mary M. Kenway (fi'om the estate 

of Sarah B. Russell) 
Knoll Associates, Inc. 
Konwiser, Inc. 
Mrs. Alexander Kreisel 
Boris Kroll Fabrics, Inc. 
Kunstindustrimuseum 
Miss Minnette Lang 
Gary Laredo 
Jack Lenor Larsen, Inc. 



Mrs. Roger C. Lawrence 

Loomskill, Inc. 

Miss Jean Mailey 

Mrs. Royal D. Mailey 

L. Anton Maix, Inc. 

Mrs. Robert McCann March 

J. J. Mendelsohn 

Louis Messer and Co. 

Monsieur Robert de Micheaux 

Herman Miller 

Grafton Minot 

William F. Mitchell 

Mrs. Edward C. Mocn 

Mrs. Sarah Muschel 

Harry Shaw Newman 

Onondaga Silk Co., Inc. 

Bequest of Cornelie Jeanne Oppenheini 

Pacific Mills Craft Fabrics 

Mrs. Daryl Parshall 

Patterson Fabrics 

Edmund C. Pearson 

Mrs. Harry T. Peters 

Mrs. Florence Harvey Petti t 

Piazza Prints, Inc. 

Mrs. Edward L. Popper 

Mrs. Henry Cole Quinby 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry C. Rohlfing 

Miss C. Savage 

Mrs. Gwendolyn Savage 

Mrs. Hannah Schilling 

Harvey Seltzer and Co. 

Mrs. Adrienne A. Sheridan 

Harvey Smith 

Miss Edith Huntington Snow 

Mrs. Stephen S. Stanton 

Mrs. M. Wolfe Staples 

Morton Sundour Co., Inc. 

C. Kriigers Tapetfabrik 

Wiener Tapetenfabrik A. G. 

The United Piece Dye Works 

Irwin Untermyer 

Frederick P. Victoria 

Washington State Park and Recreation 

Commission 
Mrs. Wilfred White 
William Whitman IV 
F'orsyth Wickes 
Frederick Wilkins 
Alan L. Wolfe 
Wullschleger Co., Inc. 
Richard P. Wunder 



305 



PURCHASES IN MEMORIAM, 1956 



Mrs. H. A. Alexander 
David Wolfe Bishop 
Mrs. William H. Bliss 
Mrs. Lloyd S. Bryce 
The Council 
George A. Glaenzer 
Mrs. E. H. Harriman 
Erskine Hewitt 



The Misses Hewitt 
Walter Leo Hildburgh 
Florence N. Levy 
Georgiana McClellan 
Franz Middelkoop 
Mrs. Ray W. Thompson 
Paul Tuckerman 



Au Panier Fleuri Fund 
Sarah Cooper Hewitt Finid 



PURCHASES FROM FUNDS, 1956 

Pauline Riggs Noyes Fund 



DONORS OF EQUIPMENT AND SERVICES, 1956 



Anonymous (2) 

Mrs. Sidney Bacharach 

Miss Bertha L. Bard 

Miss Lois V. Barrington 

Mrs. Neville J. Booker 

(Boston) Museum of Fine Arts 

Mrs. Edwin S. Burdell 

Miss Elizabeth J. Carbon 

Miss Lois Clarke 

Mrs. Teresa A. Cohen 

Mrs. Robert W. Cumberland 

Miss Irmgard E. Doering 

Elisha Dyer 



Mrs. James N. Eastham 
Johnson L. Fairchild 
Mrs. Benjamin Ginsburg 
Miss Mary M. Kenway 
Miss Jean E. Mailey 
Mrs. Nicholas M. Molnar 
Miss Serbella Moores 
Mrs. Herbert F. Roemmele 
Mrs. Jesse B. Sherman 
Mrs. Norman L. Towle 
Frederick P. Victoria 
Mrs. Thomas Warfield 
Miss Doris J. Waller 



306 



DONORS TO THE MUSEUM LIBRARY, 1956 



Akron Art Institiilc 

Mrs. Lillian Smith Albert 

Albertina 

Anonymous 

Architectural League of New York 

Joseph Earl Arrington 

Art Gallery of Toronto 

Art Institute of Chicago 

Atkins Museimi of Fine Arts 

Miss Alice B. Beer 

Rudolf Berliner 

Birmingham Museum of Art 

Brooklyn Museum 

Dr. Edwin S. Burdell 

California Palace of the Legion of Honor 

Cincinnati Art Museum 

Colonial \Villiamsburg 

Contemporary Arts Association, Houston 

Consulate General of Japan, New York 

Courtauld Institute of Art 

Danish Information Center, New York 

Danske Kunstindustrimuseum 

Delaware Art Center 

Denver Art Museum 

Detroit Institute of Arts 

Rudy M. DeZan 

Miss Dorothy Dignam 

Mrs. Edward Laurence Doheny 

Elisha Dyer 

Mrs. Harold W. Felton 

Finland House, New York 

George W. Fowler 

French Cultural Services, New ^'ork 

Mrs. Karl Freund 

George Walter Vincent Smith Art Museum 

German Information Center, New ^'ork 

Edwin Golik 

Mrs. Hector Guimard 

Miss Marian Hague 

Mrs. Dorothy Harrower 

Calvin S. Hathaway 

Mrs. Ripley Hitchcock 

Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery 

Instituto de Investigaciones Esteticas, Mexico 

Harry Allan Jacobs 

Joslyn Art Museimi 

Ely Jacques Kahn 

Kanegafuchi Spinning Company 

Miss Mary Kenway 

Kunstgewerbemuseum, Ziirich 

Los Angeles County Museum 

M. Lowenstein X: Sons, Inc. 

Miss Jean E. Mailey 

Mai mo Museum 



Marine Historical Associaticju, Mystic, Conn. 

Henri Marceau 

Marlborough Fine Art Ltd., London 

Mrs. \'era Maxwell 

Milwaukee Art Institute 

Mrs. Edwards C. Mocn 

Montreal Museum of Fine Arts 

Estate of Frances Morris 

Miuiicipal Art Center, Long Beach, Calif. 

Munson- Williams-Proctor Institute 

Musee Byzantin d'Athenes 

Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires 

Museum Boynians 

Museum der Stadt Regensburg 

Museum fiir Kimsthandwerk, Frankfurt a. M. 

Museum fiir Volkerkunde, Basel 

Museum of Modern Art 

National Museimi, Stockholm 

New York University, Hall of American Artists 

Newark Museum 

Miss Mary A. Noon 

Irving S. Olds 

Parke-Bernet Galleries, Inc. 

Pasadena Art Museum 

Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam 

Miss Elizabeth M. Roraback 

Royal Ontario Museum of Archaeology 

Frank Schnittjer 

Frederick W. Schimiacher 

Seligmann Galleries, Inc. 

Service de la Propagande Artistique, Brussels 

Miss Dorothea C. Shipley 

Smith College Museum of Art 

Springfield Museum of Fine Arts 

Stadt-und Bergbaimiuseum, Freiberg 

Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts 

Talens &: Sons, Inc. 

Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences, 

Savannah, Ga. 
Miss Marie Trommer 
University of California 
LIniversity of Kansas Library 
University of Nebraska Art Galleries 
Irwin Unterniyer 
Victoria and Albert Museum 
Mrs. A. Stewart Walker 
*Leo Wallerstein 

Washington County Museum of Fine Arts 
Winnipeg Art Gallery 
Woodstock Artists Association 
Worcester Art Museum 
Richard P. Wunder 
Yale University Art Gallery 



* Deceased 



307 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM, 1956-1957 



HONORARY BENEFACTORS 

Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 
Miss Marian Hague 
Mrs. Montgomery Hare 
Miss Edith Wetmore 

BENEFACTORS 

*Mrs. J. Insley Blair 

*Mrs. Elizabeth Cochran Bovven 

Richard C. Greenleaf 
*Archer M. Huntington 

R. Keith Kane 

Irwin Untermyer 
*Leo Wallerstein 

Mrs. Leo Wallerstein 
*Mrs. A. Murray Yoiuig 

LIFE MEMBERS 

Werner Abegg 
Mrs. Barbara L. Armstrong 
Mrs. Robert Woods Bliss 
Miss Adelaide Milton de Groot 
James Hazen Hyde 
Clarence McK. Lewis 
C. McKenzie Lewis, Jr. 
Katzenbach & Warren, Inc. 

SUSTAINING MEMBERS 
Albert M. Baer 
Mrs. Neville J. Booker 
Charles of the Ritz Foundation, Inc. 
Mrs. Max Farrand 
Walter W. Hitesman 
Mrs. Russell C. Leffingwell 
Irving S. Olds 
Mrs. Howard J. Sachs 
Rudolph J. Schaefer 
William C. Segal 

The United States Playing Card Co. 
Mrs. Forsyth Wickes 

SUBSCRIBING MEMBERS 
Henry F. du Pont 
Miss Florence S. Dustin 
H. G. Dwight 
Mr. & Mrs. Elisha Dyer 
Richard C. Greenleaf 
Miss Gertrude M. Oppenheimer 
Mrs. Samuel A. Peck 
J. H. Thorp & Co., Inc. 

CONTRIBUTING MEMBERS 
Mrs. Mary Jean Alexander 
Miss Josephine Atterbury 
Mrs. F. Hiuitington Babcock 

* Deceased 

308 



Louis G. Baldwin 

Arthur Beir & Co. Inc. 

Miss Louisa Bellinger 

Mrs. Henry J. Bernheim 

Newton P. Bevin 

Martin Birnbaum 

Mrs. Albert Blum 

Mrs. Theodore Boettger 

Mrs. Adolphe Borie 

Mrs. C. B. Borland 

Louis W. Bowen 

Dora Brahms, Inc. 

Mrs. Roger E. Brunschwig 

Mr. & Mrs. H. Buba 

Mrs. Ludlow Bull 

Mrs. Charles Burlingham 

Alfred G. Burnham 

Mrs. W. Gibson Carey, Jr. 

Miss Jeanette Chase 

Miss Fannia M. Cohn 

Kenneth M. Collins 

Miss Theresa Coolidge 

Mr. & Mrs. W. G. Corwin 

Mrs. Lincoln Cromwell 

George H. Danforth 

Miss Freda Diamond 

Dorothy Draper, Inc. 

Miss Esther H. Dunn 

Ecole des Beaux Arts de Montreal 

Malcolm G. Field 

John C. Frear 

Mr. & Mrs. August J. Fries 

Eugene L. Garbaty 

Eva Gebhard-Gourgaud Foimdation 

J. Gerber & Co. 

Charles R. Gracie & Sons, Inc. 

Mrs. William Greenough 

Dr. & Mrs. James Gutmann 

Mrs. F. T. Hafendorfer 

Mrs. Pascal R. Harrower 

Hermann Hartman & Son, Inc. 

Miss Katharine B. Hartshorne 

Mrs. James W. Hatch 

Walter Hauser 

Mrs. James Hays 

Miss Bertha Hernstadt 

Miss Rebecca Hernstadt 

Mrs. F. B. Hoffman 

Miss Josephine C. Howell 

Mrs. William A. Hutcheson 

Mrs. Mabel S. Ingalls 

Ernest Iselin 

Miss Louise M. Iselin 

Jones & Erwin, Inc. 

Mrs. Carlyle Jones 

John Judkyn 

Ely Jacques Kahn 



Ladies Neckwear Workers Union 

Mrs. Bella C. Landauer 

Miss Minnette Lang 

Jack Lenor Larsen, Inc. 

Tom Lee, Ltd. 

Mrs. Francis Henry Lenygon 

Julian Clarence Levi 

Mrs. William N. Little 

Adolph Loewi 

Miss Harriet Marple 

Mrs. Joseph M. May 

Francis G. Mayer 

Mrs. Max Mendel 

Dr. William Mathewson Milliken 

Mrs. J. F. B. Mitchell 

Mrs. G. P. Montgomery 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles Moran, Jr. 

J. Moreng Iron Works, Inc. 

Mrs. Matilde K. Muller 

Mrs. Frieda Nalven 

William C. Pahlmann 

Charles P. Parkhurst 

Miss Katharine de B. Parsons 

Parzinger Originals, Inc. 

Mrs. Harry T. Peters 

Gifford B. Pinchot 

Pleaters, Stitchers & Embroiderers Assn. Inc. 

Mrs. A. Kingsley Porter 
*Mrs. Grafton H. Pyne 
*Mrs. Beverley R. Robinson 

James J. Rorimer 

William J. Ryan 

Mrs. Victor Salvatore 

Miss Gertrude Sampson 

Leo Sandler 

Hardinge SchoUe 

F. Schumacher & Co. 

Mrs. Stevenson Scott 

Miss Edith Scoville 

Leonard T. Scully 

James Seeman 

Wesley Simpson 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert G. Smith 

Mrs. J. G. Phelps Stokes 

Miss Helen S. Stone 

Elbridge Stratton 

Stroheim & Romann 

Walter Dorwin Teague 

Mills Ten Eyck, Jr. 

Dr. & Mrs. Edmund Vermes 

Mrs. Ernest G. Victor 

Kenneth R. Volz 

The John B. Watkins Co. 
*Mr. & Mrs. Thomas J. Watson 

Mrs. Thomas D. Webb 

Mrs. Vanderbilt Webb 

Miss Josephine Weinman 

* Deceased 



Herijert Weissberger 

Henry H. Werner 

Paul Wescott 

Dr. & Mrs. Davenport West 

Mrs. Earl Kress Williams 

Mrs. Elizabeth Bayley Willis 

Mrs. Arnold Wilson 

Miss Adeline F. Wing 

Miss Caroline R. Wing 

Alan L. Wolfe 

C. F. Woodcraft Co. 

Albert S. Wright 

ANNUAL MEMBERS 
Miss Amey Aldrich 
Marshall C. Anderson 
Alfred Andrews 
Miss Joanna K. Arfman 
John L. Arnemann 
Miss Mary G. F. Beer 
Miss Ellen Behrens 
Miss Elsie G. Bell 
Countess E. Bismarck 
Miss Lili Blumenau 
Mr. &: Mrs. Peter Borie 
Miss Marion C. Bridgman 
W. S. Budworth & Son, Inc. 
Mrs. Rebecca Caiola 
Miss Eliza Campbell 
Mrs. Alfred B. Garb 
Miss Martha Casamajor 
Miss Phebe Gates 
George Chapman 
Arundel 1 Clarke 
Miss Lois Clarke 
T. M. Cleland 
John Coolidge 
W. Arthur Cole 
Mrs. Adelaide T. Corbett 
Mrs. Jameson Cotting 
I. L. Cracovaner 
Ambrose C. Cramer 
Mrs. Gaston Dalby 
Faith M. Dal try 
Mrs. Walter T. Daub 
H. F. Dawson 
Georges de Batz 
Mrs. William Adams Delano 
Henry Dickson 

Senator & Mrs. John A. K. Donovan 
Miss Janet H. Douglas 
Donald Droll 
Miss Helen C. Ellwanger 
Mr. & Mrs. John A. Ely 
Miss Alice S. Erskine 
Mrs. T. R. Eskesen 
Dr. Royal Bailey Farnum 
Mrs. Max Farrand 
The Fashion Group, Inc. 



309 



Miss Frances B. Fox 
Mrs. William G. Fraser 
Mrs. Robert L. Frey 
Mrs. Samuel Friedman 
Mrs. Angelika W. Frink 
Miss Henriette J. Fuchs 
Thomas L. Gallaway 
Miss Noma Geist 
Mrs. Elsie Glass 
Mrs. Alice Glick 
Dr. Oswald H. Goetz 
Mrs. John Gregory 
Mrs. Marian Powys Grey 
Miss Weir Griffith 
Miss Elizabeth H. L. Gurlitz 
Miss Marian Hague 
*Mrs. Lathrop C. Harper 
Miss Mabel Haynes 
William W. Heer 
George S. Hellman 
Miss Lillian Hirschmann 
Archibald Ray Holderman 
Hubert T. Holland 
H. Maxson Holloway 
Mrs. John Gregory Hope 
Miss Helen Hutchins 
Judge & Mrs. Julius Isaacs 
Mrs. William H. Jackson 
Mrs. Oliver G. Jennings 
Mrs. Charles F. Johnson, Jr. 
Morris Kan tor 
Maxim Rarolik 
Miss Sylvia Keefe 
Mrs. Nell M. Kessler 
Miss Charlotte E. Kizer 
Max Knoecklein 
Mrs. Richard Koch 
Mrs. Agnes Kremer 
Mrs. Anna H. Laessig 
Adrian Lamb 
Mrs. Frances Lamont 
Otto F. Langmann 
Mrs. Sidney Lanier 
Miss Ruth Lieb 
Simon Lissim 
Miss Helen Lyall 
Mrs. Eugene Mabeau 
Roger W. Mac Laughlin 
Dr. Joseph Mann 
Lester Margon 
Hugh W. McDougall 
Millicent McLaughlin 
Mrs. D. H. McLaughlin 
Mrs. William R. Mercer 
Miss Gladys Miller 
John C. Milne 

* Deceased 

310 



H. O. Morgan 

Mrs. Alice Muehsam 

Mrs. J. C. Nicholls 

Mr. & Mrs. Donald M. Oenslager 

The Old Print Shop, Inc. 

Original Textile Co. 

Miss Frances L. Orkin 

Miss Alice Papazian 

Miss Eleanor Pepper 

Mr. & Mrs. Henry L. Pierson 

Miss Ina K. Pitner 

Miss Evelyn A. Pitshke 

Mrs. E. L. Popper 

Miss Priscilla Manning Porter 

Mrs. J. M. Price 

Mrs. Henry S. Redmond, Sr. 

Miss Ruth D. Robinson 

Paul J. Sachs 

Mrs. Frances R. H. Sanford 

H. S. Schaeffer 

Miss Kathryn Scott 

Mrs. J. Sanford Shanley 

Miss Mary J. Shannon 

Miss Dorothea C. Shipley 

Craig Hugh Smyth 

Miss Edith A. Standen 

Edward Steese 

Dr. Otto Steinbrocker 

Miss Susan W. Street 

Miss Harriet Sturtevant 

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph A. Sukaskas 

Dr. Helen H. Tanzer 

Allen Townsend Terrell 

Mrs. George H. Thomas 

Mrs. Dorothy Thornton 

Miss Marguerite B. Tiffany 

Mrs. L. J. Tillman 

Harold Tishler 

Mrs. Willis W. Tompkins 

Reinhard C. B. Trof 

Mrs. Muriel P. Turoff 

Mrs. Andrew M. Underbill 

Mrs. Paul Van Doren 

Miss Frances van Hall 

William B. Van Nortwick 

Edwin Visser 

Mrs. Harry S. Vosburgh 

Mrs. Alden H. Vose 

Miss A. Elizabeth Wadhams 

Mr. & Mrs. Harry E. Warren 

Mrs. Lionel Weil 

Mrs. George Nichols White 

Miss Alice Winchester 

George Wittenborn 

Miss Lelia M. Wittier 

Edward J. Wormley 

Mrs. Harold S. Wright 

Miss Myra R. Young 

Dr. Paul Zucker 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM 

The Advisory Council ot the Museum established in 1937 the following classes 
of membership: 

Benefactors who contribute $1,000 or more 

Life Members who contribute $500 or more 

Sustaining Members who contribute $100 annually 

Subscribing Members who contribute $50 annually 

Contributing Members .... who contribute $10 annually 

Annual Members who contribute $5 annually 

Checks should be dra^vn to The Cooper Union Museum Fund, and sent in care of 
The Business Officer, The Cooper Union, Cooper Square, New York 3, New York. 



311 



THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM 
COOPER SQUARE and SEVENTH STREET 

is served by these lines of transportation 

B.-M. T. SUBWAY Broadway-Seventh Avenue Line — 8th Street Station 

I. R. T. SUBWAY Lexington-Fourth Avenue Line — Astor Place Station 
INDEPENDENT SUBWAY West 4th Street - Washington Square Station 



HUDSON-MANHATTAN TUBES 



9th Street Station 



BROADWAY BUS, Route 6 



THIRD AVENUE BUS 



LEXINGTON AVENUE BUS 



MADISON-FOURTH AVENUE BUS 



Route 4 
Routes 1 and 2 



EIGHTH-NINTH STREET CROSSTOWN BUS 



Route 13 



Printed by The John B. Watkins Company, New York 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 











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INSIDE THE FOLD: 

Figure 1. Silk Bonnet, warp-patterned with geometrical motives in vermilion and honey-color on 
dark brown ground; here shown as it would appear if its main seam were opened and the bonnet 
spread flat. Height, in warp direction, about 22 cm. (8% inches); 104-weft repeat averaging 2.4 cm. 
(^1 inch); 126 to 150 warps per cm. (317 to 381 per inch); 50 wefts average per cm. (127 per inch); 
warp and weft untwistecl. China, Late Eastern Chou period, probably third century B.C. Pur- 
chased, Au Panier Fleuri Fund; 1951-45-1. 



The map on the cover icas drawn by Mrs. Kathryn Dauber, 
Cooper Union Art School, Class of 1959 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 

VOL • 2 • NO . 10 DECEMBER • 1958 

A Bonnet and a Pair of Mitts 
from Ch'ang-Sha 

THE GREAT GOOD FORTUNE o£ the Cooper Uiiion Museum in acquiring 
the precious silk objects described in the following pages would 
scarcely have been conceivable when the Museum's textile collec- 
tions were first begun. In consequence of the Chinese expeditions of Sven 
Hedin and Sir Aurel Stein at the end of the nineteenth century and the 
beginning of the twentieth, the world has begun to know far more about the 
early artistic production of China; further excavations in China, and more 
recent work of Chinese and Swedish scholars, have continued to add to our 
treasure of objects and of assured fact. While the present study represents 
but a minute fraction of the unfolding story of artistic achievement in China, 
and by unhappy necessity has been written without direct access to much 
material offering helpful and relevant comparisons, the importance of these 
acquisitions requires that they now be made known to a wider circle than 
those who have seen them displayed in the Cooper Union Museum. 

Against the ever-increasing variety of fibres produced by man's ingenuity 
in this age of technology, silk still holds its own as the textile material 
supreme in luxury and beauty. Its long romantic history is inextricably 
linked with that of the country of its origin, China, whose civilized past 
extends for many centuries before the Christian era. Most of the early 
Chinese silk remains that have been discovered thus far have been fragments 
^vhich survive from Han dynasty (206 B.C.-220 A.D.) sites outside of China 
proper, along trade routes or at military or colonial outposts. It is therefore 
with particular pride that the Cooper Union Museum regards its unique 
group of Chinese silk costume accessories — fascinating, puzzling, wonder- 
fully woven, and beautiful even in their present diminished state — which, 
despite the existence of no comparable objects, may eventually be proved to 

315 




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antedate the Han finds by one and possibly two centuries and which come 
horn a site -vvithin the borders of China (see outline map on front cover of 
this Chronicle). These are a bonnet (Fig. 1), a pair of mitts (Fig. 2), and the 
larger part of a hemmed silk square of kerchief size,- found in a handsomely 
decorated lacquer toilet-box-^ (Fig. ?>) excavated at Ch'ang-sha, in Hunan 
province. 

Chang-sha, today the capital of the province and one of the most important 
industrial and mining centres of China, was one of the great cities and 
occasionally the capital of the Ch'u Kingdom, which dominated and extended 
over much of south-central China during the latter part of the Late Eastern 
Chou period, known also as the period of the Warring States (481-221 B.C.). 
In the mingling of myth and occasionally verifiable facts in Chinese writings, 
the Ch'u Kingdom is pictured as a sophisticated and cultivated civilization, 
no less than as a strong political unit in feudal China. T^ventieth-century 
excavations in this area by engineers and archaeologists, ^vhich have yielded 
a rich hoard of painted lacquers, bronzes, and ^vood sculptures as well as a 
small group of textiles, have established the authenticity of the picture of 
Ch'u civilization suggested by the traditional recorded accounts of the 
Chinese. Not all of the inaterial recovered from the territory of the Ch'u 
Kingdom, ho^vever, comes from sites that can be attributed to the period of 
the Warring States; and, further, the uncontrolled conditions under which 
many of the excavations were carried out often preclude the positive identi- 
fication of the places where many pieces now in ^vestern museums and 
collections w^ere uncovered. This lack of precise information is particularly 
troublesome in dealing^ with Ch'anQ;-sha finds, where the tombs date from 
the Late Eastern Chou epoch through the Han period and up to early Ming 
times, in the 14th century of our epoch. ^ And since it is probable that the 
brilliant artistic traditions of the Ch'u culture in the Ch'ang-sha area in the 
Warring States period continued to influence art forms produced in this 
region long after the Ch'u Kingdom became part of the Chinese Empire, in 
about 221 B.C., it is extremely difficult to attempt to establish a hard and 
fast line of demarcation between the Ch'u stylistic repertory of the Late 
Eastern Chou period and that of the Han period. Yet, despite this difficidty, 
the dating of the Cooper LInion silks can rest only on a study of stylistic 
evidence, for their weaving techniques w^ere used in China over several 
centuries and some of their motives had an even longer life-span. The follow- 
ing pages offer tentative explorations of the possibility that in these remark- 
able pieces from Ch'ang-sha ^ve possess creations of the Late Eastern Chou 
period. 

In many of its expressions, the brilliant inventiveness of Ch'u craftsmen, 
which is affirmed by recent discoveries in the old Ch'u kingdom area, w^as 

317 




Figure 3. Lacquer box (lien) in which the bonnet and mitts are said to have been found at Ch'ang- 
sha. Shades of vermilion with faint touches of dark green on black ground. Diameter, about 28 cm. 
(11 inches). Collection of Dr. Paul Singer, Summit, New Jersey. 



deeply rooted in traditions that were already centuries old. In the 14th 
century, B.C., the Shang people, of northern neolithic stock, had their capital 
at Anyang in Honan province. The highly developed Bronze Age civilization 
o£ these people is evidenced by magnificent cast bronze ritual vessels, exquis- 
itely carved jade, alabaster, and marble pieces, and numerous bones with 
incised inscriptions that consult the gods about the various crises of human 
life. The character for silk is believed to be present in the extensive vocabu- 

318 



lary that has been compiled from these inscriptions, and bits of tabby and 
twill silk weaves have actually been found embedded in the patina of several 
bronzes excavated at Anyang.'"' 

About 1122 B.C., by traditional dating," the Chou tribes, probably 
originating from the same northern stock as did the Shang, infiltrated and 
finally dominated this much more developed civilization. The Chou people, 
who had no system of writing until they adopted Shang culture, were never- 
theless a vigorous and intelligent race who quickly established an agricultural 
civilization organized on feudal lines and based on the assimilation of Shang 
tradition and ritual. Powerful feudal lords defeated the Early Western Chou 
emperor in 771 B.C., and the royal domain became weaker and smaller than 
the holdings of the increasingly aggressive lords. Among these feudal states 
was the Kingdom of Ch'u, long regarded by its contemporaries as a tribe of 
southern barbarians, of a different racial group and outside the fold of 
Chinese culture, and of constantly growing political power. When the ruler 
of the Ch'in state in northwest China finally succeeded in welding all of the 
Late Eastern Chou feudal kingdoms into a single unified empire nearly five 
hundred years later, toward the end of the third century B.C., the Ch'u 
kingdom had grown tremendously, its territory then embracing the present- 
day province of Hupei, parts of Hunan and Honan, and most of Anhui, in 
south-central China. 

The cultivated civilization which had developed under the Ch'u rulers 
had produced famous philosophers and poets as well as the talented artists 
and craftsmen who created the brilliant array of artifacts that have lately 
been excavated in the area.' The semi-lengendary Lao-tzu, one of China's 
great philosophers, whose strange and appealing quietist form of mysticism 
is said to have taken root first in the Yangtze River valley, is traditionally 
associated with the Ch'u kingdom, and it was in this same valley that a 
famous school of nature poets grew up, whose surviving works were compiled 
by Han scholars under the title. Elegies of Ch'u. We read in these of a great 
Ch'u poet, the author of the 'Heavenly Questionings," who, wandering in 
exile, saw in a Ch'u family shrine wall-paintings of "the gods and spirits of 
Heaven and Earth, and of the Mountains and Streams" so arresting that he 
asked about them in order to "dissipate his sorrowful thoughts."^ Except 
for literary references of this sort, and for intimations furnished by the 
exquisite and accomplished brushwork of the lacquer decoration, little is 
known about the kind and quality of painting in Late Eastern Chou times, 
but the recent discovery at Ch'ang-sha of a lively and accomplished painting 
on silk of a woman with a feng-huang (a phoenix-like bird) and dragon^ 
suggests that the paintings which the Ch'u poet saw may well have been 
worthy of his excitement. 

319 



Sericulture and silk-weaving, which had become important adjuncts of 
Chinese civilization centuries before the Ch'u kingdom was established, have 
always figured importantly in Chinese literature. Ancient Chinese legends 
tell of Huang-ti, the third of the Five Legendary Emperors of China, and of 
his empress Lei Tsu, also known as Hsi-ling-shih, who, having observed the 
marvelous strength and silken splendor of the product spun by the silkworms 
in the palace gardens, devised a way of reeling the silk and taught her people 
how to use it. Weaving, dyeing, and the embroidering of birds and flowers 
all came, according to these legends, from her teaching. 

Another legendary account stressing the importance of silk is to be found 
in the Book of History (Shu Ching), a history of varying authenticity com- 
piled sometime after the Chou dynasty. In the well-known story of the feats 
of the hero-emperor Yii, the first Emperor of the Hsia dynasty (the traditional 
dates of which are 2205 B.C. to about 1766 B.C.), who reclaimed China after 
a great flood and in the process divided the country into nine provinces, are 
listed the characteristic products to be levied from each. From Yen-chow, 
for instance, came varnish and silk and "baskets . . . filled with woven orna- 
mental fabrics"; from Ts'ing-chow, "the wild tribes of Lae . . . brought in 
their baskets the silk from the mountain mulberry"; from Ts'en-chow came 
"deep azure silks and other silken fabrics, chequered and pure white"; from 
King-chow "baskets were filled with deep azure and purple silken fabrics"; 
and from Yu-chow, "baskets filled with fine silken fabrics and floss silk."^*^ 
The Book of Rites [Li Chi), an actual record of courtly tradition and 
etiquette kept through many centuries and compiled sometime after 600 
A.D., contains an account of an empress of the third century, B.C. who, in the 
last month of each spring, after fasting and vigil, went into the eastern fields 
to tend the mulberry trees, accompanied by the wives and younger women 
of the palace. Her office was to apportion the cocoons and weigh out the 
silk which her ladies then wove and fashioned into robes for the great 
religious services. Toward the end of the Chou period, these services included 
sacrifices not only to ancient emperors and tutelary genii of the land, but 
also to the spirits of the ancient silkworms, the ancestors of those of the 
present. 

The famous historian and astrologist of the second century, B.C., Ssii-ma 
Ch'ien, who, in his long history of earlier days, frequently used figures of 
speech from weaving and mulberry cultivation to illuminate even military 
matters, also set down many brief direct references to silk: as prepared by 
the women, as the garb of ritual and of nobility, as distributed by the Em- 
peror at certain festivals to "orphans and abandoned ones," as forbidden to 
merchants in certain periods of reform, and so forth. ^^ i 

320 



But the voices that speak most warmly and authentically from these early 
times are those of the poets. In the Book of Poetry {Shih Ching), a Chou 
dynasty compilation of contemporary and earlier odes and lyrics, an unknown 
poet sings: 

With the spring days the warmth begins 

And the oriole utters its song. 

The young women take their deep baskets, 

And go along the small paths, 

Looking for the tender (leaves of the) mulberry trees. 

In the silk-worm month they strip the mulberry branches of their leaves, 

And take their axes and hatchets. 

To lop off those that are distant and high; 

Only stripping the (young) trees of their leaves. 

In the seventh month the shrike is heard; 

In the eighth month they begin their spinning. 

They make dark fabrics and yellow . . .1- 
Also from the Book of Poetry, though subject to the vagaries of Chinese 
commentaries and western translations, can be gathered many allusive and 
interesting details about the important roles which sericulture and weaving 
played in the daily lives of the Chou people. Each household had a planta- 
tion of mulberry and jujube trees and a field of long-fibred plants (probably 
hemp or ramie), as well as plantings which supplied deep blue, yellow, and 
red dyes. The women, whose special province it was to feed and tend the 
silkworms and cultivate the hemp, ramie, and plants used for dyeing, also 
reeled and wove the silk and spun and wove wool as well as the vegetable 
fibres. The household weaving was done on looms which had cylinders on 
which the warp was wound, the weft being carried in a shuttle. Each house was 
surrounded by a moat in which the hemp and ramie were steeped, this 
moat serving also at other times as a dyeing vat for all of the yarns used in 
weaving. The dyeing operation was a ceremonial affair that was carried out 
in the eighth moon (probably our September), after which the long evenings 
of autumn and winter were devoted to spinning and weaving the bright- 
colored fibres.^^ 

These varied sources which provide ample evidence of the prominent roles 
of sericulture and silk-weaving in the life of ancient China also furnish a few 
sketchy details about early Chinese costume. We learn from Shang oracle- 
bone inscriptions, for instance, that clothing, long before the Chou period, 
was tailored of fabric and fur. Later, according to the Book of Poetry, Chou 
women of the ordinary class wore undyed garments with head-coverings of 
grey or pale blue. Although not specifically stated, it may be assumed that 
ladies of rank were permitted greater latitude in matters of dress, because 

321 



one of the odes sharply criticizes the lavish gold and precious stones worn as 
hair and ear ornaments by one of these favored ladies, as well as her robe 
embroidered in varicolored silks. 

Late Eastern Chou costume is visually recorded in a variety of dated or 
datable materials, though in a somewhat impressionistic fashion, in pottery 




Figure 4. Detail from bronze 
hu showing women picking 
mulberry leaves; Late Eastern 
Chou period. Palace Collec- 
tion, Peking. — Reproduced 
from The Art Bulletin, Vol. 
36, no. I, March 1954, Fig. 4a, 
between p. 12 and 13. 



tomb figures and small figural bronzes, in the decoration of bronze vessels, 
and in the lacquered wood figures excavated at Ch'ang-sha which are believed 
to be characteristic of this site in particular.^^ In these slender, charmingly 
stylized figures of men and women one can discern geometric and floral 
patterning on the long robes which have trailing sleeves and deep bands of 
contrasting fabric overlapping high at the neck. The women's headdresses 
and hair are so stylized that it is hard to make out distinguishing features 
beyond flat-topped heads with sleek painted hair or closely fitted head cover- 
ings with chin-straps or ties.^^ It is possible that the spirited figures repre- 
sented on a lacquer lieri^^ riding horseback are wearing bonnets with chin 
ties and a long streamer of undetermined nature flying backward from the 
crown. A similar head covering appears to be worn by the mulberry-leaf 
pickers in the decoration on a Late Chou bronze ritual hu (see Fig. 4). 

322 




Figures 5, 6. Right side and back of a model of the bonnet composed of assembled photographs, 
showing the placing of the two upright strips, no^v detached, and the three slits, finished in button- 
holing, of imdetermined purpose. Because of the limitations of photographic paper, the top slit is 
here inacciuately recomposed; its lower edge was originally no longer than its upper edge. The 
bonnet ties are not sho^vn. 



These glimpses at women's fashions in the Late Eastern Chou period, 
derived and deduced from a variety of sources, provide a background to the 
study of the bonnet in tlie Museum's collection (Figs. 1, 5 and 6). Although 
a bonnet somewhat similar in style (but made of unpatterned silk tabby) 
and hemmed tabby squares Avere found in an early Han site at Edsen-gol by 
Folke Bergman,^' none of the finds from this or any other Han, still less any 
pre-Han, site has, so far as we know, included handcoverings of any sort. The 
mitts (Fig. 2) in the Cooper Union Museum textile group which, happily, 
are intact and self-explanatory, are believed to be unique, since we have 
found no published reference to such objects. Accessories like these, and 
like the silk kerchief of which the Museum has six fragmentary squares, 
would have been utilitarian adjuncts of Chinese costume from earliest 
times, though we find no dating evidence for them as such in any of the early 
representations of Chinese dress.^^ 

Preceding the detailed discussion of the patterns of the bonnet and mitt 
silks, the reader will wish to learn something of the structural features of 
these costume accessories. The body of the bonnet ^vas formed of a single 
piece of warp-patterned silk that had been cut in a shallo^v V along its top 

323 



edge, with a flaring notched opening cut further below the point of the V; 
the two sides of this shallow V have been brought together, leaving this notch 
as an open slit, and joined in a seam running from front to back at the top 
of the head — if one accepts the most likely position in which the bonnet 
would have been worn, in the manner of a hood, with the seam on the top of 
the head, and not of a sunbonnet, with the seam running down the back of 
the head. Deep turn-backs of this centre seam (open on the inside and cov- 
ered by the lining) give a somewhat padded effect to the top of the bonnet. 
Slightly curved "cheekpieces" are joined to either side of the bonnet-front, 
their warp-direction (with the one exception noted below) at right angles 
to that of vertically-running warp in the body of the bonnet. The edges of 
the bonnet silk and of the unpatterned tabby ("plain weave") lining are 
turned under, toward each other, and the silk and the lining are whipped 
together with a form of buttonhole stitch in plied silk thread which now 
looks undyed. At the crown of the bonnet, that is to say, at the inner end of 
the centre seam is — or rather, was — a horizontal slit, 4.6 cm. (1^%6 inches) 
long, its top edge formed by the right and left sides of the notched opening 
as they rise to meet at the seam, and its lower edge formed by the top of the 
back of the bonnet. The buttonhole stitching with which this slit was fin- 
ished is still to be seen along the two sides of the notched opening, running 
in warp direction, and in weft direction along the top edge of the back 
portion of the bonnet, now unfortunately separated from the body of the 
bonnet. About 7.7 cm. (3 inches) below this slit, to the right and left of the 
centre of the back of the bonnet, are horizontal slits, 3.2 cm. (I14 inches) 
long, similarly finished. Two upright strips of the bonnet silk had become 
detached before the Museum acquired the bonnet; the shorter, with its upper 
edge finished ofl: in buttonhole stitching, supplies the lower edge of the left- 
hand slash; a second, longer strip fits in at the right of the first strip; its 
finished upper end, as already noted, constitutes the bottom edge of the slit 
at the crown of the bonnet. The mid-portion of this longer strip is lightly 
wadded, for 5.7 cm. (2 1/4 inches), with matted undyed silk filaments. This 
wadded portion may have been designed to receive pins supporting orna- 
ments, or even pinning the bonnet to the head; while the purpose of the slits 
is open to conjecture. They may have fitted around ornaments or combs 
set into the coiffure, or they may even have served to pass tresses or loops of 
hair, such as those found with the bonnet in the lacquer box, and in a num- 
ber of other Ch'ang-sha burials. The bonnet ties, about 7.5 cm. (3 inches) 
wide, each double-twined or twined-plaited of slightly Z-twisted silk threads^^ 
to form self-edged and expandable strips (see Fig. 7), are, in their present 
state, about 24 cm. (9 inches) long. They are bunched at one end and tacked 
to the inside of the bonnet at the lower ends of the cheek-pieces. 

324 




Figure 7. Reconstruction in string, by Miss Irene Emery, of the "double twining" or "twined 
plaiting" of the bonnet ties. Enlarged about 30 times the size of the ties. 



The mitts were fashioned out of strips and irregularly-shaped pieces of 
two different warp-patterned silks, the cuffs and thumb-sections being made 
of tuipatterned tabby, the open ends of the thumbs of dark brown tabby. 
They are lined Avith the same fine tabby, though no trace of the thin, dark 
brown buttonholing which joins a similar lining to the body of the bonnet 
can be discerned in these. The seams appear variously to be blind-stitched, 
lapped, or joined ^vith running-stitch and opened on the inside. 

The six small unpatterned squares of fine tabby, now a light fawn-color 
(Munsell color notation, 10 YR 8/3), which were acquired with the bonnet 
and mitts, are remains of a larger square that had lain folded for centinies 
on top of the other contents of the lacquer box.-*^ When the box was found 
and opened, it was discovered that part of the kerchief had firmly adhered to 
the lacquer on the inside of the lid.-^ The position which each of these frag- 
ments occupied in the original square is to be seen from a study of their raw 
and finished edges, the latter being rolled and whipped with the same kind 
of long buttonhole stitch as Avas used on the bonnet. Although now worn 

325 



and stained, these fragments in their slieerness remind us of the similarly 
diaphanous silks, first imported from China into Rome in the late years of 
the Republic, ^vhich offended the sense of propriety of Roman matrons 
accustomed to garments of heavier stuffs.-- 

The bonnet and mitts have a touchingiy home-made aspect. All of the 
hidden seams appear to have been done in fine running stitches. Much neat 
but casual piecing is seen in both mitts and bonnet. The mitts were made of 
bands of two different warp-patterned silks — one around the fingers, and 
one around the palm and back of the hand — and a wristband of unpatterned 
tabby extending about one inch over the lozenge-patterned silk of the palm. 
All these parts show piecing, but especially noticeable is the horizontal 
piecing of several narrow strips to form the bands around the palm and back 
of each mitt, with no effort made to maintain the lozenge framework of the 
pattern of this silk. The actual pattern as originally woven may be seen in 
the drawing here reproduced as Fig. 9. Similar casual piecing exists in 
other parts of the mitts as well as in the bonnet. The bonnet piecing is to 
be noted especially to the left of the top seam and in one of the cheek-pieces, 
where a small section has been inserted in complete opposition to the warp- 
direction of the cheek-piece silk itself. The bonnet seams vary in width quite 
casually, too, and where the patterned silks and linings are turned under 
against each other to form finished edges, the turn-unders may vary from a 
quarter of an inch to well over an inch along the same edge; though neither 
here nor in the mitts are any selvages visible. These not-too-skillfully exe- 
cuted details add greatly to the intimacy and charm of the garments, which, 
in their entirety, seem to exemplify the kind of thrifty improvisation which 
from time immemorial has been practised by women everywhere.^^ Granting 
that the pattern motives possessed symbolic connotations, it is worth remark- 
ing that the maker of these costume pieces showed no restraint in her cut- 
ting and pieced with no apparent regard for the nature of the pattern; or 
possibly these silks had survived as fragments from generations before that 
of the maker. 

Although our theory of a pre-Han date for these textiles must, in the final 
analysis, be justified from a study of the patterns of the silks themselves, we 
cannot leave out of account the evidence supplied by the lacquer box (Fig. 3) 
in which they were preserved. The establishment of a pre-Han date for 
the box would not, of course, prove that the textiles were contemporaneous, 
but it may certainly be regarded as valid supporting evidence; and there are 
reasons for believing the box itself to be of the Late Eastern Chou period. 

At the time of its discovery the box was an extremely handsome example 
of painted lacquer which, though not now provably from the Ch'ang-sha 
site, was comparable in style and quality to the best of the Ch'ang-sha 

326 



lacquers.-^ Since its removal from the damp tomb-chamber at Ch'ang-sha, 
where it is believed to have lain for centuries, the box lias been gradually 
shrivelling as the Ch'ang-sha lacquers are likely to do if they are not kept 
under controlled humidification during the drying-out process. Fortunately, 
it was photographed before this deterioration had become serious enough 
to mar its beauty, thus providing us with a visual record of its style of 
decoration. 

Very little confirmatory archaeological evidence has as yet been found in 
any of the early sites excavated at Ch'ang-sha, but a pre-Han date for most 
of the material discovered in the deep vertical tomb-chambers in this area 
is, in the opinion of many Far Eastern scholars, strongly supported by stylis- 
tic evidence. An invaluable source of reference for a study of the painted 
lacquer patterns is Professor Karlgren's detailed analysis of Huai and Han 
mirror pattern styles.-^ Karlgren's "C" and "D" mirror categories, in par- 
ticular, which he attributes to the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C., show the same 
fluid grace and dynamic vitality of the animal forms, the same marvelously 
controlled arabesques as do many of the Ch'ang-sha lacquers.-'' If we accept 
Karlgren's dating chronology for the mirrors, and no one has seriously 
challenged it, a pre-Han date for lacquer patterns such as we see on this box 
seems highly probable.-^ Except in minor details, the pattern of the box does 
not provide any direct stylistic evidence for a contemporaneous date for the 
textiles found in it, but the presumable dating of the box itself lends weight 
to the theory of a pre-Han date for the textiles, a theory which a study of 
their patterns supports. 

The pattern in the bonnet silk (Fig. 13, inside the back cover) and that in 
the end section of the mitts encircling the fingers (Fig. 8) are closely similar. 
Asymmetrically composed, with closely-set motives almost entirely geometri- 
cal, they give the all-over effect of a cascade of small, delicate shapes. The 
vertical repeats are short (average lengths, 2.4 cm. on the bonnet, 2.5 cm. on 
the mitt); the horizontal repeat too wide to be determined even in the bon- 
net width, of 33 cm. (12^%6 inches), which, like the mitt silk, possesses no 
visible selvages.-* The bonnet silk is woven with warps of three colors: a 
dark brown (Munsell lOR 2.5/8) for the ground, and vermilion (Munsell 
9R 4.6/9) and honey-color (Munsell 2.5YR 6.25/10) warps for the patterning. 
A still darker brown bordering on black supplies the ground color of the mitt 
silk about the fingers, patterning here being executed in the same vermilion 
and a clearer, almost canary, yellow (Munsell 3Y 6.5/6.5). 

The largest and most striking motives on the two silks — though no longer 
fully visible, in consequence of discoloration, on the mitt silk — are iree- 
standing paired chevrons, one, complete, inside the other, incomplete, 
arranged in equidistant vertical registers and flanked on either side by pairs 

327 






YM 



\ // 







Figure 8. Design of warp-patterned silk in the portion of the mitts that encircles the fingers, giving 
the full sequence of pattern motives combined from two sections of the silk, to a total breadth of 
8.1 cm. (3i^6 inches). Certain portions of the patterning are no longer active, because of discolora- 
tion of the warps that form them; these inert elements, recoverable through microscopic analysis 
of the patterning action of the now-blackened warps, are here shown in broken lines. The warp 
direction is vertical, in the direction of the pattern repeat. — Drawn by Miss Alice S. Erskine and 
Mrs. Kathryn Dauber. 



of simple diagonals that lie parallel to the sides of the chevrons, additional 
registers of these paired diagonals being carried independently up through 
the geometric motives set in the spaces between the chevrons. The arms of 
the chevrons, as well as the simple diagonals, though rendered in Fig. 13 as 
pairs of parallel lines, are actually interrupted in their run, being composed 
of small parallelograms, sometimes of contrasted color, as is indicated in 
the lower right corner of the Figure. In the mitt silk, only the vermilion 
parallelograms are now active, the warps of those in another color having 
turned black. Each of the chevrons in two registers of the bonnet silk en- 
closes an angular S-motive; the chevrons in the alternate registers, and that 
in the only register present in the silk at the finger end of the mitts, enclose 
a smaller chevron woven in outline in vermilion, the upper portion of the 
left arm of each of these enclosed chevrons being bent to run parallel with 
the right arm, and having a small lozenge applied to the outside angle of the 

328 



bend. The chevron of the mitt silk has a further development of its bent 
arm, which is noticeably extended toward tiie straight arm. 

To either side of the registers of chevrons on both silks is found a variety 
of geometric motives likewise repeating in the warp direction: zigzag loz- 
enges, complete and open-ended; lightning zigzags, angular S-motives. These 
are all rendered in outline, mostly in vermilion but some in honey-colored 
warps; while still other motives are drawn in solid vermilion, such as the 
apex-to-apex triangles on the mitt, the grouped formations of tiny triangles 
(though in these, solid vermilion alternates with solid yellow), and the 
hooked Z-forms sometimes suggestive of written characters and even, on the 
mitt silk, showing a resemblance to conventionalized renderings of well- 
toothed dragon heads. Another minor difference to be observed between 
bonnet and mitt patterning lies in the formations of small triangles: on the 
former, their rows of 3, 3, 2, 1 compose incomplete triangles; and on the 
latter, rows of 1, 3, 3, 2, 1 are more suggestive of an irregular lozenge. In 
both silks, almost as if to remind us that these angular motives were woven 
from preference, appear gracefully-curved reverse 5's that prove the weavers' 
ability to render curvilinear forms when they were desired.-^ 

The patterning of both of these silks is characterized by a delicacy of con- 
trasting coloring that cannot be conveyed in a black-and-white reproduction.^*' 
The motives in solid vermilion provide strong, clear accents, supported by 
the diminishing intensity of figures that are only outlined in vermilion, and 
the still paler figures formed in honey-colored outlines, while the chevrons 
and certain of their flanking diagonals give a blurred, somewhat softer effect 
in which vermilion and honey-color interplay. Even the clustered formations 
of small triangles join in this play, offering diagonal rows of vermilion and 
of honey-colored triangles in alternation. In his counterpoint of color, no 
less than in the tension and poise of his design, the weaver here shows full 
mastery of the art, as of the techniques, of weaving. 

In contrast to the patterns of the bonnet silk and the mitt silk encircling 
the fingers, in which geometric motives are composed in balanced asymmetri- 
cal arrangements, that of the other patterned mitt silk (Fig. 9) is a symmetrical 
composition throughout (somewhat obscured in the mitts themselves, to be 
sure, by the piecing already noted), in which groups of geometric motives are 
shown in symmetrically opposed formations contained within a lozenge 
framework. The basic structure of this design, which is woven in vermilion, 
honey-color, reddish-brown (Munsell 3YR 3.5/2.5) and darker brown (Mun- 
sell SYR 2.5/3) warps, is a lozenge framework formed of stepped diagonal 
bands; the smaller lozenge-shaped interspaces formed by these stepped diag- 
onals are bisected horizontally by slim shafts. Patterned triple bands (run- 
ning in the warp direction), of grounds contrasting with the main ground, 

329 



xwjymx^-stisa'yff i -jiWWss^sfSiKwsrwsmiSOTBSSaswytsKSfce^!^^ 



-•ajt^.:.- tiia, ,',■>< 




Figure 9. Design of warp-patterned silk with lozenge framework in the portion of the mitts about 
palm and back; the portion of the pattern here shown would be 13 cm. (5% inches) long. The warp 
direction is vertical. — Drawn by Miss Alice S. Erskine and Mrs. Kathryn Dauber. 



cut across this lozenge framework at the ends and centres of the lozenges; 
as the slender horizontal shafts cross the outer bands they broaden into small 
hexagonal bosses. The finely-stepped frames of the lozenges do not intersect 
but terminate in hexagonal bosses, each of which encloses four smaller 
hexagons. Although alike in their main features, these bosses differ in the 
way they are framed: the bosses at the narrow angles of the main lozenges 
have plain unadorned frames and tablets projecting horizontally at either 
side, to end at "pearled" points; those at the wide angles have "pearl" 
borders on two opposing pairs of sides, and bar borders on the remaining 
two sides (at right angles to the warp direction). 

This intricate pattern seems to represent a scheme in which all of the 
design units are repeated both vertically and horizontally in symmetrically 
opposed formations, but it is actually a true design-turnover only in the 
warp direction (which, as we have noted, runs at right angles to the longi- 
tudinal axis of the large lozenges). The only features of the design which 
indicate that it is not a complete design-turnover in the weft direction (that 

330 



is to say, in weaving terminology, a point repeat) are the lightning zigzags 
which appear in the centre registers of the triple bands. These motives, 
which would of necessity be on the axis of a design-turnover in the weft 
direction, are not symmetrical, and hence could not themselves be completed 
by this method. 

The symmetrically opposed pattern units which were reproduced in weav- 
ing by some form of point repeat in the threading of the loom and a reversed 
order of shedding in the weaving, and which compose all the rest of the pat- 
tern, include pairs of triangles (two pairs of large ones, and one small pair) 
in the end fields of the main lozenges, one pair of the larger triangles being 
joined by a shallow V-shaped stem that is actually a continuation of the 
side walls of the triangles; zigzag lozenges in the outer registers of the triple 
crossbands and, above and below these lozenges, small hexagons with open 
centres, and paired parallel lines terminating at one end with an upward, at 
the other end with a downward, point. Further pattern motives symmetri- 
cally opposed are the paired parallel lines with angular terminals exactly 
like the ones noted above, but larger. Nearby, in the adjacent outer band of 
the triple banding, are paired small triangles apex-to-apex. 

Before examining these stylistic elements more closely, it may be well to 
give some attention here to the method by which the patterning of the silks 
was achieved. The term "warp-patterned" is used in the present article to 
indicate a warp-surfaced weave with tabby binding, in which patterning is 
developed in the warp, and an alternate weft extends each warp float on 
either side of each main weft.^^ All of the figured silks in the bonnet and 
mitts were woven in this technique, as were most of the polychrome figured 
silks found at Han sites. No universally satisfactory designation^- has as yet 
been devised for this weave which, because it was first noted in Han finds, 
is still often referred to by some scholars and textile specialists as the "Han 
weave," or the "armure Han." We now realize that it was developed at a 
much earlier date; and some of the silks in the Shoso-in treasury at Nara 
witness to its continued existence long afterward in the T'ang period (618- 
906 A.D.). Its smooth, finely ribbed face (the ribbing is much more notice- 
able in those pieces with more widely-spaced wefts, such as the Noin-ula 
silk with cocks in the Philadelphia Museum of Art and in the Hermitage 
Museum in Leningrad) is formed by closely set columns of warp-floats, each 
column containing a warp of each color in the fabric — in the bonnet silk, 
for example, vermilion, honey-color, and brown. The wefts are all the same 
shade of dark brown. The warp-float of the desired color is brought to the 
face of its column over three wefts and under one ^veft; the other two colors 
or warps in the same column are tied, in similar floats over three wefts on 
the reverse of the fabric, by the weft which is centered under each ^varp- 

331 




Figure 10. Diagram on squared paper of a weft treatment observed, apparently for the first time, in 
the warp-patterned palm silk of the Cooper Union Museum mitts. In this detail of one of the zig- 
zag lozenges set at the edge of the triple banding, the black strokes indicate warp floats, those wider 
being in the patterning color, those narrower being in the color of the ground; each blank square 
indicates the crossing of a weft over a warp column. The conspicuous vertical rows of three blank 
squares indicate the crossing of three wefts in succession over a single pair of warps, and illustrate 
the deliberate raising of alternate "inner" wefts at given intervals so as to accent one edge, always 
on the same side, of pattern motives. This intentional variation in the basic structure is a refine- 
ment of technique, used with great artfulness in the palm silk, that has not been reported in 
previous studies of the more numerous warp-patterned silk fabrics of the subsequent Han period. 
— Drawn by Mrs. Kathryn Dauber. 



float on the pattern face. The same weft appears in the same binding position 
on akernate warp-cohuiins. Alternate wefts do not, with exceptions to fje 
noted below, appear on either surface, but they support the long warp floats 
on both surfaces and make it possible to change a warp from one surface 
to the other when a color-change is required by the pattern. The resulting 
double-faced fabric with a tabby binding is truly reversible, in botii structure 
and pattern, only Avhen there are two colors in the fabric thus woven, and 
therefore only two warps (one of each color) in each warp-column. When 
three colors are used, the warp-floats on the reverse are always composed of 
the two warp colors in each column not in use on the face of the fabric, 
while the warp-floats on the face are each made up of one warp (though 
instances of the pairing of warp-floats on the face do occur, as ivill later l)e 
noted). 

In the silks in the Cooper Union Museum bonnet and mitts, this charac- 
teristic weave-structure is employed with the utmost freedom and skill to 
form small, intricate and varied patterns. When required by the outlines of 
certain motives, a Avarp-float, in passing from the face to the reverse of the 
fabric, may be shortened from three to two wefts, while the warp-float of 
contrasting color rising to the face will also cross two wefts (the one that its 
predecessor crossed and the next one) before falling into the regular order of 
over three under one. (These echelonned two-float warps have happily pro- 
vided the means of establishing, through microscopic examination of the silk 
at the finger end of the mitts, the patterning otherwise lost to view through 
blackening of the warps of one of the colors used in the silk.) Besides the 
echelonning of two-float warps along the lines of color change, one sees 
frequent instances of the paired floats of warps of two different colors — a 
procedure so often found as to suggest that it was a deliberate means of 
color-shading. In contrast to such artful variations are occasional shedding 
errors revealed in random horizontal rows of warp-floats over five, or even 
seven or eleven, wefts. 

In the mitt silk Avith lozenge framework a similar w^eave construction is 
developed in terms of warp bands, each of two colors. The bands bearing 
large hexagonal bosses are patterned in vermilion warps with a ground of 
honey-color warps; the flanking bands are patterned in honey-color Avarps 
against a ground of reddish-brown warps that must have changed from a dif- 
ferent original color. The broader areas between the triple bands are pat- 
terned in honey-color warps against a ground of darker brown warps.^^ 

In the weft treatment of the Cooper Union silks are seen a skill and free- 
dom similar to those of the warp-handling. The alternate wefts, whose func- 
tion is to maintain the warp-float surface and to permit flexibility in passing 
a warp from one surface to another, and which as a rule do not appear on 

333 



either surface of the fabric, are at times purposely raised to the face in pairs, 
in these silks, apparently as another means of effecting a change of color by 
suppressing a warp-float of one color before the succeeding warp-float of a 
different color can be brought to the face in that column. To some extent in 
the bonnet silk and the silk about the mitt finger ends, but most noticeably 
in the mitt silk with lozenge framework, alternate wefts are thus deliberately 
raised along one side, and always the same side, of patterning motives, as 
though for the purpose of emphasizing, by change of texture, the edge of 
the motives. 

This ingenious procedure, which seems to have been noticed in no other 
published Chinese warp-patterned silks, is shown in Fig. 10, a diagram of the 
patterning warps forming a detail of the triple lozenge in alternating pairs 
of outer bands in the triple bandings of the palm silk. The diagram shows a 
portion of the larger, central lozenge, with its lozenge-shaped "eye"; the left 
inner edge of the lozenge, the left inner edge of the "eye," and the right 
outer edge of the eye, are all marked by the raising of the alternate wefts 
along with the main wefts (in the places shown on the diagram by vertically 
continuous blank spaces three squares in height). As the diagram clearly 
shows, this use of the alternate wefts could only have been deliberate. Were 
such use required by the nature of the weaving procedure, it would of neces- 
sity appear along both edges of the "eye," for this is in the main symmetri- 
cally patterned and is composed of an odd number of warps; and as it has 
been possible for the weaver to avoid the use of these secondary wefts for 
binding along the left outer edge of the "eye," it would have been equally 
possible — as far as weaving requirements are concerned — to avoid the simi- 
lar use of these wefts along the right edge. 

Elaborately patterned silks like these make inevitable the conclusion that 
the drawloom principle used centuries later in other types of weaves in the 
Near East and Europe was used far earlier in China. Looms for patterned 
fabrics of this weave in this period may well have been constructed with four 
harnesses for the ground shedding and a separate series of controls for the 
warps brought to the surface of the fabric to form the pattern; or, as for 
practical reasons seems more unlikely, the looms may have operated with 
individual controls for each warp in both ground and pattern. As in the 
drawlooms known from later times, these controls may have consisted of a 
series of threads, each looped to a warp to be raised for patterning, the 
threads for a given shed being tied together at their opposite ends by a cord; 
each of these cords when pulled or drawn would thus raise the pattern warps 
for one shed, and the cords would be pulled in accordance with the shedding 
sequence required by the pattern. In the wide and complicated pattern units 
that presumably repeat only vertically in our silks and in many of the most 

334 



beautiful of the Han cIoud-l)and-and-animal silks, the demanding process of 
threading and tying up the fine and numerous silk warps (which in the aver- 
age known widths of 50 cm. would, in our bonnet silk, run to 7,500 warps) 
may well have been the reason for the shortness of the same repeats vertically 
(in the bonnet silk, for example, 2.4 cm., the repeat being composed of only 
104 wefts); a short repeat would require a smaller number of these elab- 
orately prepared sheds than would a long repeat. Certain other character- 
istics of drawloom threading and tying up are seen in the Cooper Union 
silks. A consistent error in the same motive from repeat to repeat reflects an 
error in the original mounting of the loom; while wide warp skips and small 
inconsistent deviations in the same motive in different repeats may well be 
the result of imperfect or incomplete shedding, which may occasionally 
occur ^vith the numerous, closely threaded warps required by these patterned 
silks. In one repeat of the bonnet silk, a sequence of four sheds has been 
repeated, apparently through momentary forgetfulness on the part of the 
weaver or his helper. 

These conjectural looms have never been found and do not seem to be 
pictured in any of the Late Eastern Chou or Han paintings or reliefs.^* The 
reliefs do show a two-treadle (and thus a two-harness) loom which could 
only be for tabby, and may well have been used in the homes to weave house- 
hold linens, blankets, and so forth. ^-^ The patterned silks were perhaps a 
workshop product whose tools are yet to be discovered. These tools must 
surely have included some form of drawloom and some version of the mise- 
en-carte or weaver's diagram. 

We come now to a consideration of the stylistic features of these silk pat- 
terns as they relate to the problem of dating. Here, as we shall see, we are 
concerned not only with individual motives but, to an even greater degree, 
with the kind of arrangements in which they appear. 

Many of the individual motives that ornament all three of our patterned 
silks — triangles, zigzag and open-end lozenges, angular 5 and Z forms, curvi- 
linear reversed 5's — belong equally to the design vocabularies of both Late 
Eastern Chou and Han objects; they are found endlessly in the decoration of 
bronzes, painted pottery and lacquers, as well as in many of the Han textile 
designs. The kind of trifid ornamentation seen at the lateral points of the 
zigzag lozenges in the bonnet silk, to mention one element of more limited 
time-range, does not appear in any of the bronze, pottery or lacquer patterns, 
but it does occur in some of the gauzes of the Han period found at Noin-ula.^*^ 
The formations of small triangles, while likewise limited, as far as we now 
know, to textile patterning,^^ are found over a longer time span. Their 
earliest known occurrence is in the pattern of a small pre-Han fragment 
found at Pazyrik;^^ and similar groups of triangles ornament some of the 

335 




Figure 11. Warp-patterned silk with cocks 
and zigzag-lozenge fragments; from graves 
of horse-riding nomads of the Han peri- 
od, Noin-ula Mountains, Mongolia. Faint 
brick-red and light yellow-brown on 
blackish-brown ground. Warp repeat 
about 15.2 cm. (6 inches); aljout 114 
warps, 26 wefts, per cm., untwisted. The 
Hermitage Museum, Leningrad; the 
Philadelphia Museiun of Art. 



textile fragments, also believed to be pre- 
Han in date, that have recently been re- 
covered from Ch'u Kingdom sites in and 
near Ch'ang-sha.^^ Their continued use 
into the Han period is attested by one of 
the Noin-ula silks (Fig. II), of the begin- 
ning of the first century B. C. 

The most striking motives in the two 
asymmetrical silks — in the bonnet, that is 
to say, and the band at the finger end of 
the mitts — are the chevrons and their 
flanking diagonals. These contitute the 
basic structural elements of a design unlike 
any known Han textile pattern, and sug- 
gest the angled parallel-line backgrounds 
and fillings in Late Eastern Chou mirrors 
and bronzes^*^ far more clearly than they 
do any known Han motives. 

While the time-range of the individual 
motives in our three patterned silks in the 
Cooper Union Museum is too great to per- 
mit the close delimitation of the dates of 
production of the silks, the manner of 
their arranging may be profitably exam- 
ined for more specific clues. The patterns 
of the bonnet silk, and of the mitt silk that 
encircles the fingers, are distinguished by 
the skill with which they are composed 
asymmetrically through the balancing of 
individual motives that vary considerably 
in size as well as shape. It is a remarkable 
fact that even in the bonnet silk, where we 
possess two-thirds of the presumed original 
width, none of the horizontal sequences of 
the motives is repeated, and thus it is rea- 
sonable to suppose that there was no repeat 
in the remaining portion, less than half a 
width, that was not made up into the bon- 
net. This balancing of elements in an 
asymmetrical arrangement, organized as it 
is by the forceful thrusts of chevrons and 



336 



tlieir flanking diagonal bands, presents an inescapable comparison with the 
balanced asymmetry of the Late Eastern Chou design, as characteristically 
embodied in the style of the Huai River style bronzes. 

It is quite true that the use of geometric forms for patterning carried over 
into Han times, but an examination of a few representative examples reveals 
significant differences from the two Cooper Union silks under consideration. 
The Noin-ula silk^^ to which reference has already been made (Fig. 11) is 
a typical demonstration of the manner in which many of the geometric 
textile patterns were organized in the Han period. Here we find the design 
turnover,-*- which is perfectly logical for completely symmetrical patterns, 
and which was probably used in China for this purpose long before Han 
times, but which could be employed with only limited success for producing 
asymmetrical repeat patterns. Although the Han geometric textiles man- 
aged to approximate the effect of balanced asymmetry in certain arrange- 
ments by a judicious selection of symmetrical motives that could be plausibly 
rendered in reverse or completed by a turnover, the total effect of the pattern 
was inevitably crowded and distorted. The confusion was compounded when 
non-symmetrical motives, such as the cocks we see here, were included, for 
these had to be rendered in their entirety before the turnover, after which 
they were repeated in reverse, that is, upside-down. Although it is true that 
many of the individual elements in the patterns of these Han geometric 
silks are strongly asserted, we find virtually no trace of the felicitous bal- 
anced asymmetry of all-over aspect that is so marked a characteristic of the 
Cooper Union bonnet-silk and finger-end patterns. One forms the impres- 
sion that this turnover version of asymmetrical geometrical patterning in 
Han textiles is a reworking of an older idiom in more economical, and less 
successful, terms. In their geometrical silks, at least, the Han weavers seem 
to have preferred and understood compact, controlled treatments, as in the 
small lozenge-repeat patterns seen in so many Han silks and gauzes. 

Another example of geometric patterning noted among Han textiles which 
seems to bear out this theory is supplied by a second silk from Noin-ula. The 
pattern of this textile, in the Hermitage Museum in Leningrad,^^ is com- 
posed of several forms of zigzag lozenges, Z's, S's, triangles and other motives, 
not readily identifiable, which are grouped in lozenge-shaped formations. 
These groups, which are approximately but not truly symmetrical, are in 
turn arranged in diagonals, to give the effect of a symmetrical all-over 
lozenge framework; but because the groupings are not truly symmetrical, 
this pattern, like that of Cooper Union bonnet silk, could not have been 
completed in weaving by a reversal in the shedding order. It is interesting 
to note, how^ever, that despite the fact that many of the motives in this 
Noin-ula silk are the same as those in the Cooper Union silks, and that in 

837 




Figure 12. Warp-patterned silk with birds and dragons in lozenge framework; found with material 
of the Han period at the north-western Chinese Limes, near Tun-Huang, eastern Turkestan. Indigo 
on greenish-gold ground. Dimensions of each lozenge, about 3% inches square; about 130 warps, 
65 wefts per cm. (330 warps, 165 wefts, per inch). British Museum, London. — After drawing by 
Fred H. Andrews in: Stein, Serindia, Vol. IV, PI. CXVIII. 



all three silks these motives are arranged in unsymmetrical groupings in a 
short repeat which do not complete themselves by reversal on a horizontal 
axis, there is actually very little basis for comparison between the two. In 
the Cooper Union bonnet silk pattern, and in that of the finger end of the 
mitts, we have a composition in which the powerful thrust of the chevron- 
arms and diagonals and the subtle spacing of all of the motives clearly indi- 
cate a desire to emphasize the dynamic principle of balanced asymmetry, 
whereas in the Noin-ula silk, every effort seems to have been made to pull 
the pattern units together into a semblance of a completely symmetrical 
arrangement. 

338 



In stressing tlie a^vkvvard handling of asymmetrical arrangements ol geo- 
metric motives in Han textile patterns, we do not mean to imply that the 
principle of balanced asymmetry was never observed by Han weavers. It was, 
in fact, beautifully applied in the famous polychrome animal and cloud- 
scroll silks, ^^ the designs of which, though completely unrelated in subject- 
matter to the Cooper Union bonnet silk, quite obviously exemplify the same 
accomplished use of balanced asymmetry. The direct stylistic relationship 
between these animal-and-cloud-scroU silks and the animal-and-arabesque 
patterns that had previously received their most spirited and appealing 
development in Late Eastern Chou bronzes, of the Huai River valley, 
and lacquers, has already been observed; despite their realistic representation 
of figures and animals in a manner that clearly indicates a Han date, their 
basic style is anterior to Han times, and is one that must have originated with 
Late Eastern Chou artists. The patterns of the two Cooper Union silks that 
we have been discussing, however, are not only successful examples of the 
asymmetry of Late Eastern Chou design, but they are composed of motives 
that can all be accounted for in the repertory of this period, and possess none 
of those naturalistic elements of textile patterning that apparently came into 
use first in Han silks. 

In sum, the bonnet silk and the silk at the finder end of the mitts are 
sufficiently distinguished from Han silks by arrangement of patterning and 
by range of pattern motives, and are sufficiently related to the ornament and 
composition of Late Eastern Chou material, to justify their assignment to a 
pre-Han, Late Eastern Chou, date, presumably in the third century B.C. 

The other patterned silk in the mitts (Fig. 9) is quite as difficidt to account 
for as a product of the Han period. Although most of the motives in this 
pattern are familiar elements in the Han vocabulary as well as in that of 
Late Eastern Chou, the way in which the motives are treated in this silk 
about the palm and the back of the mitts is quite unlike any of the Han 
arrangements seen in the textiles of that period. The symmetrical all-over 
geometrical patterns that have been noted among Han textile finds are 
repeats of squares, rectangles, hexagons, octagons, lozenges, and angular 
undidating lines (carried horizontally across the fabric in parallel forma- 
tions), which were used singly or in uncomplicated combinations.^' In con- 
trast to such simple treatments of simple forms, which appear to have no 
profound symbolic significance, we have in this silk a complex of esoteric 
motives arranged in groupings -which seem to emphasize their symbolic 
import. A few textiles of established Han date have lozenge framework 
patterns comparable to that of the mitt silk,"*^ but these enclose animal forms 
of one kind or another: some, fantastic and distorted, as for example, in the 
silk from the Limes at Tun-huang illustrated in Fig. 12; some, semi-con- 

339 



ventionalized realistic forms; "'^ and some, debased rendering of realistic 
animals.^^ A pre-Han date for the Cooper Union Museum lozenge silk can- 
not, obviously, be established on negative evidence of this sort; nor can we 
assume that the pointed tablet motives and slender horizontal shafts pro- 
vide any positive evidence of a pre-Han date, because these motives have not 
been noted in either the I.ate Eastern Chou or Han design vocabulary. It 
is difficult not to believe, however, that the architectonic arrangement of 
delicate and varied geometric forms which appear here was directly inspired 
by what Laufer^^ has described as the "geometric culture of the Chou period 
established on the interrelations of celestial and terrestrial phenomena, for- 
mulated by numerical categories and holding sway over the entire life and 
thought of the nation in all matters pertaining to government, administra- 
tion, religion, and art."^'^ 

Here, for the time being, must rest the presentation of elements on which 
may stand a pre-Han dating of these silks. Of the actual significance of the 
enigmatic and elusive motives composing their patterns, and the concepts 
governing their use in these unexplained conjunctions, endless speculation 
might be possible, limited only by the imagination of the viewer. At a later 
date, aided perhaps by the recovery of a still larger body of material from 
the vanished cultures of China, present-day conjecture may be replaced by 
more clearly-comprehended fact. In terms of their symbolic import, there 
can be no doubt that the patterns of these silks are charged with connota- 
tions that relate to the cosmological and ancestral cults of ancient China, 
whose all-permeating importance is reflected in a rhetorical question from 
the memoirs^^ of the famous historian and astrologer of the early Han 
period, Ssu-ma Ch'ien: 

"Since the race first existed was there ever a moment luhen, from 
generation to generation, the sovereigns did not observe the sun and 
the moon, the planets and the stars?" 
In the meantime, pending the resolution of the questions that we have 
here discussed, the silks may be relied upon to arouse admiration for their 
beauty and subtlety, at once so complicated and so simple. Delicate in their 
balance of design and their play of color, they are almost miraculous ex- 
amples of the art of silk weaving in one of its earliest surviving manifesta- 
tions. The Cooper Union Museum is justly proud to be among the seven 
or eight museums in the world where such treasures as these silks may be seen, 
studied and enjoyed, beautiful in themselves and landmarks in the long, 
continuous story of the creative spirit of mankind, 

JEAN E. MAILEY 

CALVIN S. HATHAWAY 

340 



NOTES 



1 In the course of piepaialion of this article 
we have consulted many specialists in the vari- 
ous fields of art history and techniques that 
concern the silks, and have met with enthusi- 
astic and generous help. We should like to 
acknowledge most gratefully the information 
and judgment on various aspects of the study 
that have been shared with us by the following: 
Miss Louisa Bellinger, Mr. and Mrs. Gerard 
Brett, Mr. and Mrs. Harold B. Burnham, Mr. 
Frank Caro, Miss Irene Emery, Miss Claire 
Freeman, Monsieur Felix Guicherd, Mr. John 
F. Haskins, Miss Jean Gordon Lee, Mr. Sherman 
E. Lee, Mr. Fritz Low-Beer, Mr. John Lowry, 
Dr. E. Lubo-Lesnichenko, Dr. Yuri Miller, Miss 
Carol Racklin, the late Dr. Alfred Salmony, 
Mr. Laurence Sickman, Miss Pauline Simmons, 
Dr. Paul Singer, Miss Vivi Sylwan. 

2 1951-45-1. Bonnet, 22 cm. x 14 cm.; ties, 24.2 
cm. X 7.5 cm. 

1951-45-4-5. Mitts, 21 cm. x 9 cm. 

195I-45-3a to f. Six pieces of hemmed square, 

each approximately 11 cm. x 12 cm. 

^ Now in the collection of Dr. Paul Singer, Sum- 
mit, New Jersey 

''John Hadley Cox, An Exhibition of Chinese 
A?itiquities from Ch'ang-sha lent by John Had- 
ley Cox, March 26 to May 7, 1939, Gallery of 
Fine Arts, Yale University, New Haven, Con- 
necticut, p. 4 

^ Vivi Sylwan, Silk from the Yin Dytiasty, in the 
Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern An- 
tiquities, No. 9, Stockholm, 1937, pp. 119-126 
^ C. W. Bishop, The Chronology of Ancient 
China, in the Journal of the American Oriental 
Society, Yale University Press, 1932, p. 232-247. 
There are two systems of dating early Chinese 
history: one, the so-called official dating system, 
based on the Ch'ien han shu (History of the 
Former Han Dynasty) by Pan Ku; the other, 
based on the Chu shu chi men (Annals of the 
Bamboo Books), an earlier record with more 
documentary and archaeological supporting evi- 
dence. Official dating for the Hsia Dynasty is 
2205-1766 B.C.; dating by the Bamboo Annals 
is 1989-1558 B.C. 



"^ Chang Ch'eng-tsu, Ch'ang-sha ch'u-t'u Ch'u 
ch'i ch'i t'u-lu (An Album of selected Designs 
of the Lacquer Wares excavated at Ch'ang-sha), 
Literary Digest Society, Peking, 1954 
Chang Ch'eng-tsu, Ch'ang-sha ch'u-t'u Ch'u ch'i 
ch'i t'u lu (Illustrated Catalogue of Lacquer 
Wares of the Ch'u Period from Ch'ang-sha), 
Shanghai, 1955 

Cheng Chen-To, Building the New, Uncovering 
the Old, in China Reconstructs, Nov.-Dec. 1954, 
p. 18-22 

Chiang Hsiian-yi, Ch'u min tsu chi ch'i i-shu 
(The Ch'u people and their arts), in Ch'ang-sha, 
Vol. I, ch'i ch'i (Lacquer), Shanghai, 1949; Vol. 
II, t'u t'eng i chi, chiian hua t'iao-k'o (silk 
paintings, wooden figures, including human 
figures), Shanghai, 1950 

Chinese Art Society of America, Ch'ang-sha, 
The Art of the Peoples of Ch'u. 5th-3rd cen- 
turies B.C. (A Loan Exhibition, New York, 
1957) 

John F. Haskins, Recent Excavations in China, 
in the Archives of the Chinese Art Society of 
America, X, 1956, p. 42-58 

Hsia Nai, Arts and Crafts of 2300 Years Ago, in 
China Pictorial, Jan.-Feb., 1954, p. 31-35 
Hsia Nai, New Archaeological Discoveries, in 
China Reconstructs, July-August, 1952, p. 13-18 
Pei-ching li-shih po-wu-kuan (Academia Sinica) 
(ed.), Ch'u wen-wu chan-lan t'u-lu (Illustrations 
from the Exhibition of Cultural Objects from 
the Kingdom of Ch'u), Peking, People's Mu- 
seum, 1954 

People's Museum, Peking (ed.), Ch'u wen-wu 
chou-lan T'u-lu Hsu (A Pictorial Record of His- 
torical Objects from Ch'u), Peking, Oct. 1954 
Wang Yu-Chuan, Relics of the State of Ch'u, in 
China Pictorial, August 1953, p. 31-32 
Yang Tsung-jung, Chan-Kuo Hui-Hua Tiu-liao 
(An Exhibition of Art from the Warring States), 
special reprint from Weii-wu Ts'an Kao-tzu 
Liao (Museum Bulletin), Peking, 1957 

8 Michael Sullivan, Pictorial Art and the Atti- 
tude Tou'ard Nature in Ancient China, in The 
Art Bulletin, Vol. XXXVI, No. 1, March, 1954, 
p. 7-8 



341 



^ John F. Haskins, Recent Excavations in China, 

in the Archives of the Chinese Art Society, X, 

1956, Fig. 10 and p. 51 

*° James Legge, The Tribute of Yu, in The 

Chinese Classics, The Shoo King Part III, The 

Books of Hea, Book I (Hongkong and London, 

1865, 7 vols.). Vol. I, p. 99-119 

^* Se-ma Ts'ien, Les Memoires historiques de 

Se-ma Ts'ien, traduits et annotes par Edouard 

Chavannes (Paris, Ernest Leroux, 1895-1905, 5 

vols.), Vol. I, p. 312; Vol. Ill, p. 409, 503, 541, 

559, 598 

■2 James Legge, op. cit., Vol. IV, The Shih Ching, 

p. 228-229 

13 For an excellent presentation of sericulture, 

degumming, dyeing and dyes, see: William Wil- 

letts, Chinese Art, Penguin Books, 1958, Vol. I, 

p. 207-212, 219-229, 241-242, 243 

A scientific analysis of fibres and dyes in the 
silks recovered by the Russian expedition, under 
Colonel Petr Kuz'mich Kozlov, at Noin-ula in 
1924-25, is presented in: Artemii Alekseyevich 
Voskresensky and Nikolai Petrovich Tikhonov, 
eds., Tekhnologicheskoe Iziichenie Materialov 
Kurgannikh progredenni Noin-ula (Technical 
Study of Textiles from the Burial Mounds of 
Noin-ula) , in Izvestiya, Rossiskoi Akademi 
Material'noi Kul'tury, Vol. XI, parts 7-9, 1932. 
A partial translation, by Eugenia TolmachofE, 
of this study is available in the Bulletin of the 
Needle and Bobbin Club, Vol. 20, 1936, Nos. 
1 & 2, p. 3-37. 

^* As observed above. Note 7 
^^ Chiang Hsiian-yi, The Ch'u people and their 
arts, in Ch'ang-sha, Vol. II, 1950 (unpaged) 
Chiang Hsiian-yi, Ch'u min tsu chi ch'i i shu, 
The Ch'u tribe and its art in Ch'ang-sha, Vol. I, 
Lacquer (Kunstarchaologie Society Publications, 
Series A, 1946; no pagination) 
1® This lien from Ch'ang-sha appears in many 
recent catalogues of Ch'u material, including 
Ch'u wen-wu chou-lan T'u-lu Hsu (A Pictorial 
Record of Historical Objects from Ch'u, Peking, 
October, 1954; catalogue of exhibition, June- 
November, 1953); and Chiang Hsiian-yi, Ch'u 
min tsu chi ch'i i shu (The Ch'u tribe and its 
art). 

i'' Vivi Sylwan, Investigation of Silk from Edsen- 
gol and Lop-nor, Stockholm, 1949 (Reports from 
the scientific expedition to the northwestern 
provinces of China under the leadership of Dr. 
Sven Hedin, The Sino-Swedish expedition. Pub- 
lication 32; VII, Archaeology, Pt. 6), p. 84 and 
fig. 49-a 

'* Many of the lacquered wood figures from 
Ch'ang-sha are found with their hands missing 



or are represented in poses with hands con- 
cealed. 

1^ Miss Irene Emery of the Textile Museum, 
Washington, has suggested the term "double 
twining" for this technique. Mr. Harold Burn- 
ham of Jordan, Ontario, has suggested the term 
"twined plaiting." A late Eastern Chou mirror 
in the collections of the Royal Ontario Museum 
in Toronto has a piece preserved in its patina. 

^° Found in the toilet-box with the bonnet, 
mitts, and hemmed square, were three small flat 
combs with semi-circular tops, one bearing faint 
traces of lacquer; two rolls of black hair with a 
loosely plied cord of hair wound around each, 
lengthwise and crosswise. A small brush of some 
hard kinky fibre bound at the top by a hand- 
sewn casing of silk fabric of the characteristic 
warp-patterned silk, here of indistinguishable 
pattern; three narrow groups of long flat needles 
perhaps from some kind of pine-tree, delicately 
joined at the top by a knotted silk thread that 
passes transversely through the group three 
times and with traces of lacquer decoration — 
variously thought to be hair-ornaments or eye- 
brow brushes; and a long object — also a hair 
ornament, one may suspect — now disjoined into 
three parts: a bunch of woody fibres about 12 
inches long with traces of silk textiles around the 
middle and one end, a small square plait of silk 
tabby strips, now dark brown (originally white?), 
and a little cage-like object of narrow rushes or 
reeds wound with a narrow silk tabby ribbon, 
complete the assortment. These also are now in 
the collection of Dr. Paul Singer. 

21 Three squares are still to be seen affixed to the 
inner face of the box-cover. Collection of Dr. 
Paul Singer 

22 A piece of the tabby lining of the bonnet with 
a plain selvage definitely indicating the warp 
direction has a count of 94 warps per cm. and 40 
wefts, both untwisted. Thread count in the 
kerchief squares, as in the bonnet lining, varies 
considerably, and averages 68 warps, 52 wefts, 
per cm. 

23 Miss Sylwan has noted this practice in the 
garments foimd at Edsen-gol and Lop-nor, in 
Investigation of Silk from Edsen-gol and Lop- 
nor, Stockholm, 1949, p. 80, etc. 

24 Outstanding examples of these are in the 
William Rockhill Nelson Gallery, Kansas City, 
Missouri; in the possession of Mr. Fritz Low- 
Beer of Rome and New York; and in the Seattle 
Art Museum. 

25 Bernhard Karlgren, Huai and Han, in the 
Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern An- 
tiquities, Stockholm, No. 13, 1941, p. 1-125 



342 



2° Fritz Low-Beer, in Tiro Lac quercd Boxes 
from Ch'ang-sha, in Aitibus Asiae, Vol. X/1, 
1947, p. 302-31 1, and Vol. XI/1, 1948, p. 266-273, 
has traced the relationship between lacquer de- 
signs and Karlgren's mirror chronology. 
^■^ Some of the Ch'ang-sha lacquers have pat- 
terns in which the animal forms, though still 
d\namically rendered, are more or less sub- 
merged in drier, more consciously decorative de- 
tail. These may, as Mr. Low-Beer pointed out, 
represent a later carry-o\er of the Late Eastern 
Choii Ch'u style into Han times. Naturalistic 
representation occius in both periods (see the 
exquisite pheasants on the Seattle lacquer box 
dated in the 5th century B.C.), but this too is a 
little more heavy-handed and literal by Han 
times. 

^^ The repeat probably fills one breadth of the 
original fabric, as do the repeats in certain Lou- 
Ian silks in the same weave. See Stein, Innermost 
Asia, Vol. Ill, pi. XXXIV (L.C. 07, a), pi. XXXV 
(L.C. vii. 02), with respective breadths of 45.7 
cm. and 48.3 cm. 

-^ In the course of studying the silks, the writers 
have found it necessary to prepare diagrams on 
squared paper of most of the motives of the pat- 
terned silks in the bonnet and mitts. The dia- 
grams are on file at the Cooper Union Museum. 
30 The visual effect of these silks is more fully 
enjoyed now than was possible when they en- 
tered the collections of the Cooper Union Mu- 
seum. Thanks to the generous collaboration of 
the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, which offered 
to clean the pieces, to the recommendations of 
its research laboratory directed by Mr. William 
J. Young, and to the skilled work of Mrs. Jean 
Lopardo, at that time Assistant Curator of Tex- 
tiles, the rich glow of colors in the silks is no^v 
well seen. 

Mrs. Lopardo has written an accoimt of the 
method used for the safe cleaning of the silks in 
their exceedingly tender and brittle condition; 
it will appear in the Bulletin de Liaison of the 
Centre International d'Etude des Textiles An- 
ciens, in the forthcoming no. 9 (Jan. 1959). 

Mr. Young has examined minute portions of 
the silks, and has most obligingly reported on 
his findings: 

Bonnet Silk. Cultivated silk (long straight fila- 
ments with circular dimension) with average di- 
ameter of 13 microns, not completely degummed. 
LIpon extraction, the brown dye of the ground 
appeared yellow, perhaps as result of prelimi- 
nary dyeing with safflower very common in 
China; the silk dyed only with this may have 
been used for the pale brown patterning; the 
broun ground may be formed of silk thus dyed 
uhich then recei\ed a second dve-bath to darken 



it. The moidant was iron. l)\c-cur\e not itlen- 
tiliable. The vermilion is powdered ciiniabar 
used with a binder of some sort, but no mordant. 
BoNNior Lining. Cultivated silk with average 
diameter of 14.5 microns, not completely de- 
gummed. On extraction, dye appeared yellow, 
l)ul dye curve not idcnliliable. 
Bo\NET-TiES. Cultivated silk with average di- 
ameter of 11.5 microns, not completely de- 
gummed. Iron and aluminimi present, probablv 
mordants, but dye-curve not identifiable. 
Mm- Thumbs. Cultivated silk of average di- 
ameter of 16.5 microns. Silk well degummed. 
Dye curve not identifiable. 

Silk Around Lalm and Back of Mitt. Culti- 
vated silk. Vermilion (not tested by Mr. ^oung) 
is probably pou'dered cinnabar used with binder 
of some sort but no mordant. Dye of other 
warps not identifiable. 

Mitt Wristband. Cultivated silk of average di- 
ameter of 16.5 microns, well degummed. 
Kerchief. Cultivated silk of average diameter 
of 10 microns, well degummed. Dye-curve not 
identifiable. 

Dye-curves for all of these are on file at the 
Boston Museum of Fine Arts for future compari- 
son with identifiable dye-curves. 

3^ Vivi Syiwan, in Investigation of Silk from 
Edsen-gol and Lop-nor, gives (p. 112-114) an ex- 
cellent diagram and description of this weave- 
structure, and (p. 103-106) of the early Chinese 
^s'eave with warp floats on a tabby ground first 
seen in the Chinese silks found at Palmyra and 
Lou-Ian, though the names she has chosen to 
give these two warp-patterned weaves are con- 
fusing, as pointed out by Dorothy G. Shepherd 
in her review of the book in Ars Orientalis, \'ol. 
II, 1957, p. 610-611. 

In this same review. Miss Shepherd gives her 
analysis of the warp-patterned double-faced 
weave seen in the Lou-Ian and Noin-ida pat- 
terned silks, as produced by a single set of warps 
used in various color series and a single set of 
wefts. Miss Shepherd states her belief that this 
is a primitive technique known in primitive and 
folk textiles {e.g., in Pre-Columbian Peru) and 
carried to a high degree of perfection and fine- 
ness by the Chinese silk weavers. 

It is true that Peruvian textiles show infinite 
variety in warp treatment, and among the earli- 
est now known, from 2,000 to 1,500 B.C., are 
cotton tabbies with designs or stripes of warp- 
float structure on a tabby ground similar to that 
of the Chinese silks found at Palmyra and Lou- 
lan. Later Peruvian textiles from about 800 to 
1,500 A.D., in both wool and cotton, show stripes 
and sometimes all-over patterns executed in the 
double-faced warp-patterned weave of the earlv 



343 



Chinese silks. But as to the sequence of devel- 
opment in Peru, in spite of the temptation to 
consider the warp float-patterned tabby a fore- 
runner, we must await the study of more of the 
early material. Certainly, we can say that the 
Chinese usage of both these weaves in silk shows 
much more refinement and consistency in that 
each weave is used alone to create complete, 
finely-grained fabrics with exquisitely arranged 
and developed designs, sometimes of very small 
scale and great variety as in the Cooper Union 
silks. The Peruvians, on the other hand, work- 
ing in coarser wool or cotton, often combined 
these two warp treatments with many other 
weaves in a single fabric, with emphasis on color, 
texture, and bold design. 

William Willetts, in Chinese Art, Penguin 
Books, 1958, Vol. I, p. 250-253, also gives a clear 
technical discussion of this weave, with dia- 
grams, summarizing and evaluating the opinions 
of other writers on the subject (Pfister, Reath 
and Sachs, and Sylwan) and supporting Miss 
Sylwan's belief that this more highly evolved 
weave of the polychrome silks developed from 
the weave with a regular tabby-tied warp-float 
decoration on one surface of a tabby ground as 
seen in the Chinese silks found at Palmyra and 
Lou-Ian. Thus he dismisses the theory of Miss 
Reath and Mrs. Sachs that the alternate "inner" 
wefts characterizing the polychrome warp-sur- 
faced structure were deliberately introduced to 
lengthen the warp-floats and strengthen the 
fabric generally, since according to his view, 
these wefts are survivors of the tabby ground. 

It might be possible, in any case, to consider 
the weave with warp floats on tabby ground as 
a simplified approximation, through the use of 
only two ground harnesses and a series of pat- 
tern controls, of the effect of warp patterning 
accomplished rather more elaborately by the 
weavers of the polychrome warp-patterned silks. 
The seeming survival of tabby technique in the 
warp-patterned silks, as seen in the studied use 
of secondary wefts to bind warps in our silks 
along the edges of pattern motives, seems to lend 
strength to the theory of Miss Sylwan and Mr. 
Willetts, although neither appears to know of 
this artful device. 

For further technical discussions of the warp- 
patteined weave of the Cooper Union silks, see: 
J. F. Flanagan, review of Pfister's Textiles de 
Palmyre in the Burlington Magazine, August, 
1935, p. 92-93. 

Lila M. O'Neale and Dorothy F. Durrell, An 
Analysis of the Central Asian Silks Excavated by 
Sir Aurel Stein, in the Southwestern Journal of 
Anthropology, Vol. I, 1945, p. 410-414 and PI. 5. 
R. Pfister, in Textiles de Palmyre, Paris, Editions 
d'Art et d'Histoire, 1934, p. 39-60. 



R. Pfister, Textiles de Palmyre III, Paris, Edi- 
tions d'Art et d'Histoire, 1940, p. 41-42, 54-62. 
R. Pfister, Les Premieres Soies Sassanides, in, 
Musee Guimet: Etudes d'Orientalisme publiees 
a la memoire de Raymonde Linossier, Paris, 
1932, p. 466-468. This contains diagrams show- 
ing what Pfister understood as two variants of 
this weave — one based on Andrews's diagram of 
the surface of the Lou-Ian polychrome silks, 
"I'armure Andrews"; one showing the structure 
of the warp-patterned weaves found at Noin-ula, 
"I'armure Kozlov." As noted in O'Neale and 
Durrell, the arrangement of threads shown in 
Andrews's diagram would not function as a wo- 
ven fabric. The Lou-Ian and Limes patterned 
silks, however, are probably all of the same 
weave structure as those from Noin-ula; further 
technical examinations of Sir Aurel Stein's finds 
are now in progress at the Victoria and Albert 
Museum and should ultimately yield even fuller 
information about the weaves of these fabrics 
than that available in Stein's numerous publi- 
cations. 

C. Rodon y Font, "Le metier Chinois," in 
L'Historique du Metier pour la Fabrication des 
£toffes Fagonnees, traduit de I'Espagnol par 
Adolphe Hullebroeck, Paris and Lifege, 1934, 
Librairie Polytechnique Ch. Beranger, p. 14-18. 
Eleanor B. Sachs (from notes compiled by Nancy 
Andrews Reath), Notes 07i the Weaves of a group 
of Silk Fabrics from the Burial Mounds of Noin- 
ula now in the Pennsylva7iia Museum of Art, 
Philadelphia, in The Bulletin of the Needle and 
Bobbin Club, Vol. 20, 1936, Nos. 1 and 2, p. 
74-78. 

32 Some writers, such as Miss Sylwan, describe 
the weaves as a rep, but we are unwilling to use 
the term because of the confusion that it creates 
in the current effort, among members of the 
Centre International d'Etude des Textiles An- 
ciens, to develop an agreed international vocabu- 
lary of textile fabrics woven before the develop- 
ment of the power loom. In French terminology, 
reps is a weave characterized by longitudinal 
ribs formed by weft floats that cover, on the face 
of the fabric, a tabby crossing visible only on the 
reverse; it may be constructed with a one- or a 
two-warp system. In English, "rep" refers to 
woven fabrics with a corded surface, but the 
ribbing may be either horizontal or longitudinal 
and may be formed by either wefts or warps, in 
a tabby crossing. Were all these Chinese fabrics 
woven with warps of only two colors, as is the 
silk about the palm and back of our mitt, they 
would fall easily into the category of reversible 
tabby; but the introduction of a third warp 
color, while affecting very slightly the actual 



344 



weaving process, produces a non-reversible 
fabric. 

^^ It is interesting to observe, in this connection, 
that the silk in one of the mitt lozenge bands 
betrays an error in threading the loom; the ver- 
milion warps were here set o\er by some twenty 
warps, so that they formed the pattern of a por- 
tion of the pointed tablet, rather than the mid- 
portion of the large hexagonal boss. This lateral 
displacement of the bands of warp coloring con- 
tinues to the edge of the strip used in piecing 
the mitt. 

34 See Willetts, op. cit., I, p. 229-241, for more 
complete discussion of Chinese looms and weav- 
ing. 

3^ Such reliefs are illustrated by Edouard Cha- 
vannes, Mission Archeologique dans la Chine 
Septentrionale (Paris, Ernest Leroux), 1909, 
Planches; PI. XXX: Chambrette de Hiao T'ang 
Chan; PI. XLIV: Wou Leang Ts'eiu. 
=5" R. Pfister, Textiles de Palmyre, Paris, 1934, 
Fig. 14, p. 49. Otto Kiimmel (ed.), Chinesische 
Kunsl; 200 Hauptwerke der Ausstellung der 
Gesellschaft filr Ostasiatische Kunst in der Preus- 
sischen Akadeniie der Kiiyiste, Berlin, 1930, 
Cassirer, PI. XLVII. The illustration of one of 
these gauzes in the latter shows the foliation as 
far more angular than it appears in Pfister's 
sketch of the same gauze, or than it actually is in 
the Cooper Union silks. 

^'^ AVe are referring here to groups of triangles. 
The ancient apex-to-apex triangle motive is 
seen in Late Eastern Chou pottery decoration, in 
both painted and cut-out treatment, and we 
have noted it in a crossing band in one Lou-Ian 
figured silk (see Stein, Innermost Asia, Vol. IH, 
PI. XXXV, L.C. 03.) of Han date. 
3^ S. I. Rudenko, Kid'tura Naseleniya Gornogo 
Altaya V Skifskoe Vremya {The Culture of the 
Populations of the Altai Mountains in the Scyth- 
ian Period), Leningrad, 1953, PI. LXXVI, 1. 
A manuscript translation of part of the text by 
Gerard Brett of Toronto furnishes the informa- 
tion that this is a green and brown weft twill 
with 24 warps and 18 wefts per cm. Rudenko 
dates this entire find to about the fifth century, 
B.C., as does John F. Haskins, in Pazyrik, the 
Valley of the Frozen Tombs, in the Bulletin of 
the Needle and Bobbin Club, Vol. 40, Nos. 1 & 2, 
1956, p. 3-47. Walter Endrei, Observations sur le 
probleme des fragments de tissus de Pazyryk, in 
the Bulletin de Liaison du Centre International 
d'Etude des Textiles Anciens, No. 7, January, 
1958, p. 36-43, agrees with Russian archeologists 
who question Rudenko's dating and suggests a 
third-century B.C. or even a Han date for this 
material. 



We note that the chain-stitch embroidery il- 
lustrated in Figs. 129-132 and PI. CXVIII in 
Rudenko also shows a close relation to Ch'u 
decoration as seen in laccjuer. 
3'-' Ch'u xven-wu Chou-lan T'u-lu Hsu (A Pic- 
torial Record of Historical Objects from Ch'u), 
catalogue of exhibition, June-November, 1953, 
Peking, October 1954 

4" Bernhard Karlgren, Huai and Han, in the 
Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern An- 
tiquities, No. 13, Stockholm, 1941, p. 71 
■*! Nos. 14514 and 14310 in the tables in Izvestiya 
Rossiskoi Akademi Materiainoi Kiil'tury (Bul- 
letin of the Russian Academy for Material Cul- 
ture), Vol. XI, parts 7-9, 1932; translated by 
Eugenia Tolmachoff and republished in part in 
the Bulletin of the Needle and Bobbin Club, 
Vol. 20, 1936, Nos. 1 & 2, p. 25-37 
4^ The design is planned and the warp threaded 
and tied up in the loom before weaving in such 
a way that vertical repeats are produced in the 
actual weaving by using a given order of shed- 
ding for the first half of the repeat and an exact 
reversal for the second. When woven by this 
method, vertically symmetrical motives, such as 
the complete lozenges and half-lozenges with 
central axes in the horizontal or weft direction 
which we see in the Noin-ula silk, may be com- 
pleted by a reversal of the order of shedding. 
Unsymmetrical forms like the volute-and-triangle 
and the cock must be completed before the order 
of shedding is reversed; after it is reversed, they 
are repeated upside-down. This method of 
weaving repeat patterns in which geometric and 
naturalistic motives were combined, which is 
represented in a large number of textiles surviv- 
ing from Han times, was apparently an expedi- 
ent adopted to produce quantity with a mini- 
mum of design effort, rather than quality in de- 
sign and weaving. It may, as Andrews has sug- 
gested, have been the result of the heavy demand 
for export silks at this time. 

43 Warp-patterned silk preserved in the Hermi- 
tage Museum in Leningrad; illustrated in: Aus- 
stellung Chinesischer Kunst, Berlin, Gesellschaft 
fiir ostasiatische Kunst, 1929, Fig. 1231 

44 Stein, Innermost Asia, Oxford, 1928; Vol. 3, 
PI. XXXIV, L.C. 08, L.C. 07-a, L.C. iii. Oil 

45 Stein, op. cit.; PI. XXXV, L.C. 031.b; PI. 
XXVI, L.C. 04.b 

46 The zigzag edging of the lozenge framework 
in one of the Cooper Union Museum silks, 
while seen in some Han silks (Stein, Innermost 
Asia, III, PI. XLII, L.C. i. 06, 7, 7a; PI. XXXIV, 
L.C. 07.a; PI. XXXVI, L.C. iii. 04.b) and pos- 
sibly suggesting the saw-tooth borders of Karl- 
gren's "L" mirror group of Han date, relates to 



345 



a good deal of other material of Late Eastern 
Chou date. As Karlgren says, "The absence of 
the sawteeth pattern on Huai mirrors does not, 
however, mean that the motif was unknown in 
pre-Han time. On the contrary, though not be- 
longing to the grammar of the mirrors, it is 
exceedingly common in Huai art ... a bell in 
the Sumitomo collection . . . the flat Hu in the 
Pilster collection ... a Ting tripod froin Sin- 
Cheng . . . the famous Sin-Cheng gold sheet. The 
saw-teeth pattern is such a simple and common- 
place motive in all decorative art that it is al- 
most ubiquitous." (Karlgren, The Date of the 
Early Dong-s'on Culture, in the Bulletin of the 
Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, No. 14, 
Stockholm, 1942, p. 10). 

^■^ Fred Henry Andrews, Ancient Chinese Fig- 
ured Silks excavated by Sir Aurel Stein, in the 
Burlington Magazine, Vol. 37, no. 210, Sept., 
1920, Fig. 11, p. 149 



*^ Vivi Sylwan, Investigation of Silk from Edsen- 
gol and Lop-nor, Stockholm, 1949, p. 123-125. 
and PL 18-A 

*^ Quoted in Bernhard Karlgren, So7ne Fecun- 
dity Symbols in Ancient China, in the Bulletin 
for the Museimi for Far Eastern Antiquities, No. 
2, Stockholm, 1930, p. 23 

^° Can it be purely accidental that the lozenge- 
patterned silk presents a haunting similarity to 
the geometrical organization of patterning found 
in the carpets still woven, the garments still em- 
broidered, in Turkestan and the Caucausus? In 
its design, and even in individual motives, are to 
be found a persistence of memory that might 
conceivably refer back to a remote common an- 
cestry not yet traced by today's historians. 

^^ Se-ma Ts'ien, op. cit., Ill, p. 401; here trans- 
lated from the French of Chavannes 



346 



DONORS OF WORKS OF AR F, 1957 



Gordon Abbott 

Raymond Adams 

Mrs. Robert I. Aitken 

Anonymous 

Anonymous (in memory of 

Monica Loretta Smith) 
Arnold Print Worlvs 
Mrs. Hedy Backlin 
Mrs. George L. Batchelder 
Miss Alice Baldwin Beer 
Miss C. Frances Bieber 
Mr. and Mrs. H. Ray Black 
Miss Edith P. Blase 
Milton J. Blume 
Miss Helen E. Boleschka 
Busch-Reisinger Museum of 

Germanic Culture 
Harry M. Buten 
Dr. Harold Dean Cater 
Successori Giuseppe Cataneo S. A. 
Miss Emily H. Chauncey 
Mrs. William H. Clarke 
Mrs. Wallace G. Corwin 
Mrs. Alice Lewisohn Crowley 
Josef Cusumano 
Mrs. Charles Suydam Cutting 
Salisbury Day (from the Estate of 

Katharine Day) 
Mrs. William Denby 
Miss F. Elizabeth De Voy 
Raymond B. Dowden 
Paul Drechsler 
Miss Alice S. Erskine 
Samuel M. Finkelstein 
Donald L. Finlayson 
Mrs. Harold H. Fisher 
Miss Estelle S. Frankfurter 
Miss Claire Freeman 
Miss Berta Frey 
Mrs. Angelika W. Frink 
Miss Charlotte Gailor 
Mrs. Benjamin Ginsburg 
Ginsburg and Levy, Inc. 
Mrs. Alice Glick 
Sir Ernest Goodale 
Miss Annie L. Green 
Richard C. Greenleaf 
Michael Greer 
Felix Guicherd 
Miss Marian Hague 
Estate of Mrs. Lathrop Colgate Harper 
John Davis Hatch, Jr. 
Miss Cornelia J. Henry 
Miss Wilfred Howe 
J. A. Lloyd Hyde 
James Hazen Hyde 



C. Albert Jacob, Jr. 

James W. Jasper 

Franklin L. Judson 

Mr. and Mrs. R. Keith Kane 

William E. Katzenbach 

Katzenbach and Warren, Inc. 

Mrs. David Keppel 

Mrs. Rufus King 

John Kenneth Krug 

Mrs. James D. Land 

Mrs. Bella C. Landauer 

Lawrence Lane 

Mr. and Mrs. Bruno Lasker 

F. G. Leon 

Mrs. Francis B. Lothrop 

Mrs. Clark Mcllwaine 

Mahadeen Brothers 

Miss Jean E. Mailey 

Manchester Historical Association 

Marburger Tapetenfabrik 

Mrs. Walter Miller 

Grafton Minot 

Estate of Frances Morris 

Dr. Hooshang Motamed 

C. Gustave Mourraille (from the Estate of 

Mathilde Mourraille) 
Miss Eleanor H. Moyer 
Mrs. Maria Mundal 

William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art 
New York Society of Ceramic Arts 
Cornelius F. O'Connor 
Mrs. Harold Ostby 
The Package Designers Council 
Miss Urakorn Panditkul 
Mrs. Florence Peto 
Benjamin Piazza 
Miss Amy Pleadwell 
Mrs. Irving A. Pontell (in memory of 

Aurelia Josephsohn) 
Joseph Provata 
Dr. Alfred Rado 
Dr. Henry R. Rado 
Miss Margaret H. Rado 
Mrs. Ruth Raemisch 
Renverne Corporation 
Mrs. Elizabeth Riefstahl 
Christian Rohlfing 
Mrs. Leon Roos 
Mrs. L. Earle Rowe 
Mott B. Schmidt 
Harvey Smith 
Mrs. Edith L. Spencer 
Dr. Max Sporri 
Edward Steese 
Mrs. Emily Talmage 
Miss Marie Trommer 



347 



United States Rubber Company 

Irwin Untermyer 

Mrs. A. Stewart Walker 

Mrs. Leo Wallerstein 

Josiah Wedgwood and Sons, Inc. 



Mrs. George Williams 
Miss Erica Wilson 
Mrs. Ezra Winter 
Mrs. Roxa Wright 
Richard P. Wunder 



Coiirtland Field Bishop 
David Wolfe Bishop 



PURCHASES IN MEMORIAM, 1957 

Miss Alice Lusk 
Georgiana L. McClellan 



All Panier Fleuri Fund 



PURCHASES FROM FUNDS, 1957 



Friends of the Museum Fund 



DONORS OF EQUIPMENT AND SERVICES, 1957 



Miss Marian Aldridge 

Anonymous 

Sidney Beller 

Mrs. H. R. Berry 

Mrs. Wallace Corwin 

Robert Crowningshield 

Mrs. T. J. R. Davis 

Salisbury Day 

Oreste J. Falciglia 

Miss Berta Frey 

Mrs. Benjamin Ginsburg 

Messrs. Nathan and Charles Harris 



Mrs. Arvid Hult 

Miss Serbella Moores 

Package Designers Council of New York 

Mrs. L. Earle Rowe 

Mrs. John Sloan 

Mrs. Mildred Spaeth 

Miss Dorothy Sutton 

Mrs. N. A. Talmage 

Frederick P. Victoria 

Mrs. G. G. Weaver 

Mrs. Roxa Wright 

Mrs. Coulter D. Young 



DONORS TO THE MUSEUM LIBRARY, 1957 



Addison Gallery of American Art 

Akron Art Institute 

Mrs. Lillian Smith Albert 

Albertina 

Albright Art Gallery 

All India Handicrafts Board 

Allied Artists of America 

American Library Editions 

Anonymous (2) 

Architectural Forum 

Art Association of New Orleans 

Art Gallery of Toronto 

Art Institute of Chicago 

Mrs. Hedy Backlin 

Miss Alice B. Beer 

Bibliothek der Akademie der bildenden 

Kiinste, Vienna 
Bollingen Foundation 
Theodore Bowie 
Miss Agnes P. R. Boyd 
William T. Brewster 
Brooklyn Museum 
Dr. Edwin S. Burdell 
California Palace of the Legion of Honor 
Carnegie Institute 
Centraal Museum der Gemeente Utrecht 



Cincinnati Art Museum 

Cleveland Museum of Art 

Miss Elisabeth Coit 

Colby College 

Colonial Williamsburg 

Colour Council of Toronto 

Columbus Gallery of Fine Arts 

Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston 

Mrs. Eustis Corcoran 

Corning Glass Center 

Cranbrook Academy of Art 

Cultural Department, Embassy of the Federal 

Republic of Germany 
Joseph Cusumano 
Dallas Museum of Fine Arts 
Danske Kunstindustrimuseum 
Detroit Institute of Arts 
Raymond B. Dowden 
*Miss Valerie Dreyfus 
Elisha Dyer 
Este Gallery, New York 
Everhart Museum 
Fine Arts Associates, New York 
French Cultural Services, New York 
Miss Berta Frey 
George Walter Vincent Smith Museum 



348 



German Tourist Inloimalioii OHuc, New ^olk 

Miss Mary F.. Gould 

Miss Annie 1,. Ciiccn 

Miss Marian Hague 

Mrs. Montgomery Hare 

Estate of Mrs. Lathrop Colgate Harper 

Mrs. Dorothy Harrower 

Calvin S. Hathaway 

Horace Ha%emeyer, Jr. 

Henry Francis du Pont WiiUerthiir Museinn 

Mrs. Paul Hirsch 

Hispanic Society of America 

Karl Hoblitzelle 

Honolulu Academy of Arts 

Information Service of India, New York 

Institute of Contemporary Art 

Institute do Investigaciones Esteticas, Mexico 

Kanegafuchi Spinning Company 

Miss Mary S. Kenway 

Miss Marian King 

Kimstgewerbemusemn, Zurich 

Lawrence Lane 

Bruno Lasker 

Clarence McKenzie Lewis 

Walter Littwitz 

Frederik Lunning, Inc. 

Miss Jean E. Mailey 

Mainfriinkisches Museum, Wiirzburg 

Malmo Museum 

Mills College Art Gallery 

Milwaukee Art Institute 

Ministry of International Trade & 

Industry, Tokyo 
Missouri Historical Society 
Shoji Miyata 

Montreal Museimi of Fine Arts 
Estate of Frances Morris 
Richard E. Morse 
Morse Gallery of Art 
Saeed Mo tamed 
Miss Gerd Muehsam 
Municipal Art Society of New York 
Munson- Williams-Proctor Institute 
Musee d'Ethnographie, Neuchatel 
Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon 
Museimi Boymans 

Museum fiir Kunst und Gewerbe. Hamburg 
Museimi fiir Kunsthandwerk, Frankfurt a. M. 
Musemn fiir \'61kerkunde, Basel 
Museum of Contemporary Crafts 
Museimi of Fine Arts, Boston 
Museinn of Fine Arts of Houston 
Muzej za Umjetnost i Obrt, Zagreb 
John Walden Myer 
Mrs. Benjamin H. Namm 
National Gallery of Canada 
National museum, Stockholm 
Nebraska Art Association 
Newark Museum 



Niedersiichsische Landesgalerie, Hannover 
Senorila Felipa Nino y Mas 
Oakland Art Museum 
Parke-Bernet Galleries, Inc. 
Pasadena Art Museum 
Frank and Janina Petschek Foimdation 
Philadelphia Art Alliance 
Pierpont Morgan Library 
Mrs. John Alexander Pope 
*Mrs. Grafton H. Pyne 
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam 
Rohsska Konstslojdmuseet, Goteborg 
Lawrence B. Romaine 
Roosevelt Field Art Center, Inc. 
Rutgers University Press 
Mrs. Howard J. Sachs 
St. Joseph Museum 
Santa Barbara Museum of Art 
Charles Scribner's Sons 
William C. Segal 
Jack Silberman 

Springfield (Mass.) Museum of Fine Arts 
Springfield (Mo.) Art Museum 
Staatliche Kunsthalle, Karlsruhe 
Stadt- und Bergbaumuseum, Freiberg 
Stadtische Museen, Karl-Marx-Stadt 
Miss Edith Standen 
Alvin P. Stauffer 

Stichting Textielgeschiedenis, Hengelo 
Taft Museum 

Technische Hochschule, Hannover 
Textil-Werke Blumenegg A. G. 
Toledo Museum of Art 
Miss Marie Trommer 

UNESCO International Council of Museums 
University of Kansas Library 
University of Kansas Museum of Art 
University of Minnesota Art Gallery 
University of Southern California 
Irwin Untermyer 
Edwin C. Vogel 
Walker Art Center 
Mrs. Leo Wallerstein 
Walters Art Gallery 

Washington County Museum of Fine Arts 
Francis Watson 
Franklin Watts, Inc. 
Mr. & Mrs. Hensleigh C. Wedgwood 
Wilmington Society of the Fine Arts 
Winnipeg Art Gallery 
Miss Carol H. Woodward 
Worcester Art Museum 
W.D.Wright 
Richard P. Wunder 
James Wynborough 
Yale Universitv Art Galler\ 



* Deceased 



349 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM, 1957 



HONORARY BENEFACTORS 

Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 
Miss Marian Hague 
Mrs. Montgomery Hare 
Miss Edith Wetmore 

BENEFACTORS 

*Mrs. J. Insley Blair 

*Mrs. Elizabeth Cochran Bowen 

Richard C. Greenleaf 
*Archer M. Huntington 

R. Keith Kane 

Irwin Untermyer 
*Leo Wallerstein 

Mrs. Leo Wallerstein 

Mrs. Thomas J. Watson 
*Mrs. A. Murray Young 

LIFE MEMBERS 

Werner Abegg 

Mrs. Robert Woods Bliss 

Miss Adelaide Milton de Groot 

Michael Greer 

James Hazen Hyde 

Katzenbach & Warren, Inc. 

Clarence McK. Lewis 

C. McKenzie Lewis, Jr. 

Mrs. Wilmarth S. Lewis 

Mrs. Howard J. Sachs 

Mrs. Hans H. Zinsser 

SUSTAINING MEMBERS 
Mrs. Neville J. Booker 
Deering Milliken Foundation 
Richard C. Greenleaf 
S. M. Hexter Company 
Eugene Messner 
Irving S. Olds 
The Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company 

SUBSCRIBING MEMBERS 
Miss Florence S. Dustin 
Elisha Dyer 
Greeff Fabrics, Inc. 
Ernest Iselin 
Miss Eleanor Le Maire 
Miss Gertrude M. Oppenheimer 
Mr. &: Mrs. Samuel A. Peck 
Thaibok Fabrics, Ltd. 
J. H. Thorp & Co., Inc. 
Time, Inc. 
Miss Mary C. Wing 



* Deceased 

350 



CONTRIBUTING MEMBERS 

John Ahrens 

Mrs. Mary Jean Alexander 

Allen Art Museum 

Mr. & Mrs. Arnold A. Arbeit 
*J. L. Arnemann 
*Anton Bailer 

Louis G. Baldwin 

Baxter Corporation 

Mrs. Henry J. Bernheim 

Mrs. Theodore Boettger 

Mrs. Adolphe Borie 

Einar A. Buhl 

Mrs. Ludlow S. Bull 

Mrs. Charles Burlingham 

Miss May Callas 

Mrs. W. Gibson Carey, Jr. 

Frank Caro 

Miss Bonnie Cashin 

Miss Lois Clarke 

G. Martin Coffyn 

Miss Fannia M. Cohn 

Kenneth M. Collins 

Mr. & Mrs. W. G. Corwin 

George H. Danforth 

Mrs. W. A. Delano 

Miss Irmgard E. Doering 

Miss Esther H. Dunn 

H. G. Dwight 

Ecole des Beaux Arts de Montreal 

Mr. & Mrs. Harold G. Egan 

Mrs. Jackson Ellis 

Oreste J. Falciglia 

Mr. & Mrs. Oliver D. Filley 

Eugene L. Garbaty 

Eva Gebhard-Gourgaud Foundation 

J. Gerber & Co., Inc. 

Mrs. Adelaide Giese 
*Mrs. William Greenough 

Dr. & Mrs. James Gutmann 

Mrs. Pascal R. Harrower 

Whitney Hartshorne 

Walter Hauser 

Miss Bertha Hernstadt 

Miss Rebecca Hernstadt 

Miss Elizabeth Holahan 

Mrs. John G. Hope 

Mrs. Remsen E. Hunnewell 

Miss Helen Hutchins 

Miss Louise M. Iselin 

Mrs. John C. Jessup 

Jones & Erwin, Inc. 

Ely Jacques Kahn 

Mrs. George King 

Fannie Klebanow 

Mrs. Bella C. Landauer 



Miss Miiinette Lang 

Jack Lenor Larseii, Inc. 

Julian Clarence Levi 

Just Lunning 

Miss Helen Lyall 

Henry Miller Madden 

Miss Harriet Marple 

Mrs. Joseph M. May 

Miss Nancy McColl 

Joseph Meltzer 

William M. Milliken 

Mrs. John F. B. Mitchell 

Mrs. G. P. Montgomery 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles Moran, Jr. 

Joseph Moreng 

Mrs. John Williams Morgan 

Rowland Burdon-Muller 

Mrs. Matilde K. Muller 

Guido Pantaleoni 

Mrs. Joseph Parsons, Jr. 

Miss Katharine de B. Parsons 

Mr. & Mrs. Henry Pierson 

Gifford B. Pinchot 

Pleaters, Stitchers & Embroiderers Assn., Inc. 

Mrs. Henry S. Redmond, Sr. 

Mrs. Beverley R. Robinson 

James G. Rogers 

Mrs. Adolph G. Rosengarten, Jr. 

Mrs. Victor Salvatore 

Miss Gertrude Sampson 

Hardinge Scholle 

Mrs. Stevenson Scott 

Miss Edith Scoville 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert G. Smith 

Mrs. J. G. Phelps Stokes 

Elbridge Stratton 

Stroheim & Romann 

Mills Ten Eyck, Jr. 

Lucien Therrien 

Mrs. Azalea Stuart Thorpe 

L. Raymond Toucher 

Reinhard C. B. Trof 

Harry S. Vosbiugh 

Wallpaper Coimcil, Incorporated 

Miss Helen Watkins 

The John B. Watkins Co. 

Henry H. Werner 

Paul Wescott 

David G. Whitcomb 

Mrs. Florence Wilkes 

Mrs. Arnold Wilson 

Alberts. Wright 

Roxa Wright 

ANNUAL MEMBERS 
Miss Amey Aldrich 
Mrs. Edward C. Anderson 
Marshall C. Anderson 
Miss Joanna K. Arfman 



Miss Elsie G. Bell 

Dr. Junius B. Bird 

Countess Mona Bismarck 

Samuel T. Blaisdell 

Mrs. Edmond C;. Bonaventure 

Mr. & Mrs. Peter Borie 

Mrs. Judson S. Bradley 

Miss Marion C. Bridgman 

Mrs. Thomas E. Bullard 

Harry M. Buten 

Miss Martha Casamajor 

Miss Phebe Gates 

Robert Chafitz 

T. M. Cleland 

Mrs. Wendell P. Colton 

John Coolidge 

Mrs. Adelaide T. Corbett 

Mrs. Erastus Corning II 

Ambrose C. Cramer 

Mrs. Alice L. Crowley 

Mrs. Gaston Dalby 

Mrs. Walter T. Daub 

Mr. & Mrs. Carl C. Dauterman 

Georges de Batz 

George E. Dix 

Miss Gertrude Brooks Dixson 

W. J. Donald 

Miss Janet H. Douglas 

Miss Jane Douglass 

Tom Durkin 

Dr. Sidney M. Edelstein 

Mrs. Walter L. Ehrich 

Miss Helen C. Ellwanger 

Miss Alice S. Erskine 

Royal B. Farnimi 

The Fashion Group, Inc. 

Carl F. Ficken 

Mr. & Mrs. George Fischer 

James Fisher-Northrop 

Henry Fleischman 

Miss Frances B. Fox 

Mrs. William G. Eraser 

Mrs. Angelika W. Frink 

Thomas L. Gallaway 

Miss Edith Gecker 

Mrs. Alice Click 

Price Glover 

Dr. Oswald H. Goetz 

Mrs. John Gregory 

Mrs. Marian Powys Grey 

Miss Weir Griffith 

Miss E. H. L. Gurlitz 

Mrs. Luther V. Haggerty 

Miss Virginia Hamill 

Mr. John Harney 

Miss Katharine B. Hartshorne 

Miss Mabel Haynes 

William W. Heer 

Miss Lillian Hirschmann 



351 



Mrs. Clayton Hoagland 
A. R. Holderman 
Hubert T. Holland 
Mrs. William H. Jackson 
C. Albert Jacob, Jr. 
H. W. Janson 
Mrs. Robert I. Jenks 
Morris Kan tor 
Philip Kaplan 
Miss Charlotte E. Kizer 
Max Knoecklein 
Mrs. Richard Koch 
Mrs. Rose Kreisel 
Mrs. Agnes Kremer 
Mrs. E. B. Lang 
Otto Frederick Langmann 
Miss Ruth Lieb 
Simon Lissim 
Mrs. Eugene Mabeau 
Roger W. MacLaughlin 
Miss Jean E. Mailey 
*Dr. Joseph Mann 
Lester M argon 
Mrs. Philip A. Means 
Mrs. William R. Mercer 
Miss Gladys Miller 
Dr. Alice Muehsam 
Miss Maria D. Murray 
Miss Frances L. Orkin 
Count Alexandre Orlowski 



*Deceased 



Miss Josephine Paddock 
James Patrick 
Mrs. Robert M. Pettit 
Miss Amy Pleadwell 
Mrs. E. L. Popper 
Mrs. Charles Rieger 
Herbert F. Roemmele 
Mr. & Mrs. Jerome S. Rubin 
Mrs. Louise Sanders 
Walter Schatzki 
Miss Dorothy Schiffer 
Miss Kathryn Scott 
Mrs. J. Sanford Shanley 
Mrs. Mary Jeffrey Shannon 
Miss Louise Shiffer 
Miss Dorothea C. Shipley 
Mrs. John E. Sly 
Miss Edith A. Standen 
Edward Steese 
Miss Ruth L. Strauss 
Allen Tovvnsend Terrell 
John Kent Tilton 
Mrs. R. E. Tomlinson 
Mrs. Muriel P. Turoff 
Mrs. N. P. Van Buskirk 
William B. Van Nortwick 
Miss A. Elizabeth Wadhams 
Harry E. Warren 
Mrs. Lionel Weil 
Mrs. Nelson C. White 
Mrs. Earl Kress Williams 
Miss Alice Winchester 
Mrs. Harold S. Wright 
Paul Zucker 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM 



The Advisory Council ot the Museum established in 1937 the following classes 
of membership: 

Benefactors who contribute .$1,000 or more 

Life Members who contribute $500 or more 

Sustaining Members who contribute $100 annually 

Subscribing Members who contribute $50 annually 

Contributing Members .... who contribute $10 annually 

Annual Members who contribute $5 annually 

Checks should be drawn to The Cooper Union Museum Fund, and sent in care of 
The Business Officer, The Cooper Union, Cooper Square, New York 3, New York. 

352 



THE COOPER UNION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE AND ART 



T R US TEES 

Irving S. Olds Arthur A. Houghton, Jr. 

Harrison Tweed Frank W. Abrams 

Cleo F. Craig 



OFFICERS 

Irving S. Olds, Chairman of Trustees Elizabeth J. Carbon, 

Edwin S. Burdell, President Secretary and Business Officer 

John W. Graham, Jr., Vice-President - 

Sheridan A. Logan, Treasurer Albert S. Wright, Counsel 



MUSEUM FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

ADVISORY COUNCIL 

Richard F. Bach, Chairman Richard C. Greenleaf 

Mrs. Neville J. Booker, Secretary Miss Marian Hague 

Henry F. du Pont Mrs. Howard J. Sachs 

William C. Segal 



S TAFF 

Calvin S. Hathaway, Director 

Richard P. Wunder, Curator of Drawings and Prints 

Alice Baldwin Beer, Curator of Textiles 

Mrs. Sarah F. Goldsborough, Acting Assistant Curator of Textiles 

Mrs. Hedy Backlin, Curator of Decorative Arts 

David Johnson, Assistant Curator of Decorative Arts 

Christian Rohlfing, Curator, Department of Exhibitions 

Edward L. Kallop, Associate Curator, Department of Exhibitions 

Mary A. Noon, Recorder 



Mary S. M. Gibson, Curator Emeritus 



INSIDE THE FOLD 



Figure 13. Design of warp-patterned silk of bonnet, giving the full sequence of pattern motives in 
the available width of 33 cm. (12i| inches). The weaver's "broken line" rendering of some of the 
chevrons and diagonals is represented in detail. The warp direction is vertical, in the direction of 
the pattern repeat. — Dra^vn by Miss Alice S. Erskine and Mrs. Kathrvn Dauber. 



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THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM 
COOPER SQUARE and SEVENTH STREET 

is served by these lines of transportation 

B.-M. T. SUBWAY Broadway-Seventh Avenue Line — 8th Street Station 
I. R. T. SUBWAY Lexington-Fourth Avenue Line — Astor Place Station 
INDEPENDENT SUBWAY West 4th Street & Washington Square Station 



HUDSON-MANHATTAN TUBES 



9th Street Station 



BROADWAY BUS, Route 6 



THIRD AVENUE BUS 



LEXINGTON AVENUE BUS 



Route 4 



MADISON-FOURTH AVENUE BUS 



Routes 1 and 2 



EIGHTH-NINTH STREET CROSSTOWN BUS 



Route 13 



Vi^ 



Printed by The John B. Watkins Company, New York 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES 




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